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COMPLETELY PARSED GESAR 

GALLIC WAR. BOOK I. 

WITH LNTERLLNLAR AND MARGINAL TRANSLATIONS 




1 


LIBRARY OF THE 
UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA 



PRESENTED BY 

Charlotte Thomas 




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CAESAR’S GALLIC WAR 

BOOK I. 


Being the Latin Text in the Original Order ; 
with a Literal Interlinear Translation; and with an Elegant 
Translation in the Margin; 


AND 

FOOTNOTES IN WHICH EVERY WORD IS COMPLETELY PARSED, THE CON 
STRUCTIONS AND CONTEXT EXPLAINED, WITH REFERENCES TO 
THE REVISED GRAMMARS OF ALLEN & GREENOUGH, 
BINGHAM, GILDERSLEEVE, AND HARKNESS 

BY 


Rev. JAMES B. FINCH, M.A., D.D. 


COPYRIGHT, 1898, BY HINDS & NOBLE 


HINDS & NOBLE, Publishers 

4-5-6-12-13-14 Cooper Institute, New York City 

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PREFACE. 


\17ITH this book anyone can learn not only about the Latin 
v v language, but can learn the language itself, 

I have designed it as an aid to three classes of learners, and it 
is my confident belief that they will find it in practice to be of 
really invaluable service — first, teachers , both those rusty in Latin 
who nevertheless find themselves called upon to teach Caesar 
without much time for preparation; and also those who are “up” 
in Caesar but still may benefit greatly, at the first, by having at 
their elbow a model for teaching and drilling which, like this, sets 
forth to the most minute detail each step in the parsing and the 
translation of every word in the text — then clergymen whose 
opportunities may not have permitted the acquisition of the Latin, 
but who yet desire to possess themselves rapidly of so much of this 
language as a minister really needs for etymological and philolog- 
ical and literary purposes, as well as for the simple satisfaction of 
emerging from a state of ignorance regarding a language so familiar 
to the educated — then students y both those who are not so situated 
as to have an instructor, but are still ambitious enough to study 
Latin without a teacher, and also students who, though members 
of a class, yet need the help of a complete model for translation 
and analysis, to be used, of course, under wise guidance. Again 
it is not wholly unlikely that the perfectly competent teacher of 
Latin will prize this book — not because of any need for assist- 
ance, but because of the advantage of comparing one's own ways 

iii 


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IV 


preface. 


and opinions with the methods and views of another competent 
teacher, particularly if that other’s ideas are not always in accord 
with one’s own. 

The following suggestions are made to aid any learner who 
may wish to use this book as A beginner’s latin book: Take 
any one of the Latin grammars referred to in the preface; learn 
from it to distinguish and to decline the five Latin declensions of 
nouns; the first, the second, and the third declension of adjectives; 
learn also how to distinguish the four conjugations of the verbs, 
and how to inflect the verbs; read attentively Latin Syntax, 
especially the coarse print portion of it. With this equipment, 
turn to any nude text of the First Book of Caesar’s Gallic War — 
Harper’s for instance, or the Tutorial, or any other. Read a line, 
or sentence or paragraph, noting carefully the cases and numbers 
of the nouns and adjectives, and the persons and numbers of the 
verbs. If without knowledge of the meaning of the words, turn 
to the interlined translation in this volume, using it now as a 
vocabulary; and then turning from this back to the nude text, 
translate the line, sentence, or paragraph — always in the Latin 
order of the words. Compare your version with the interlinear 
translation. After this transpose your line, sentence or paragraph 
into the English order of the words, making as good English as 
possible, and then, not till then, compare your perfected whole 
with the English translation in the margin . Finally, look up the 
grammatical references as given in the footnotes, and examine the 
synonyms carefully and thus develop a critical scholarship. Not 
only will rapid progress be made in the facility to translate Latin, 
but a certain degree of culture will be attained as the outcome of 
the process. 

As to the Latin text, this first book of caesar’s gallic 
war is substantially that of Kraner; yet Kraner’s Grecisms and 
other peculiarities in orthography, especially in that of proper 


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PREFACE. 


V 


names, have not been adopted; in these respects, the common 
lection is retained. 

The text is accompanied by a rigidly literal interlinear transla- 
tion according to the Latin order of the words, and a passably literal 
translation in the English order of the words in the margin. These 
translations are entirely new, having been made by me from the 
Latin text word by word, line by line, paragraph by paragraph. 

The footnotes are both explanatory and critical. Every word 
of the text is parsed; and when the construction seems to require 
it, references are made to the Latin grammars of Allen and 
Greenough’s Revised Edition, Bingham revised by McCabe, 
Gildersleeve revised by Lodge, and Harkness’s Standard Edition. 
Caesar’s formal indirect speeches throughout this first book of 
the gallic war have been put, at stated intervals in the notes, 
into the direct form by way of illustration and contrast; and for 
the same reason his informal indirect discourses may generally 
be found there, put into the direct form. 

Latin synonyms have been noted and sharply discriminated 
wherever they occur; and thus hints as to critical word study are 
given on almost every page. Grammatical references, and occa- 
sionally the synonyms, are repeated, especially in the first part of 
the book, in order that principles grammatical and philological 
may be kept continually before the reader’s eye. 

As to pronunciation, the Roman method may be used from the 
start if desired, as the long vowels are marked (thus ") and all 
vowels not so marked are to be considered short vowels. If some 
other than the Roman pronunciation is preferred, Allen and Green- 
ough’s grammar explains the English method as well as the 
Roman; Harkness’s, both these methods, and also the Continental; 
Bingham’s and Gildersleeve’ s confining themselves to the Roman. 

James B. Finch. 


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ABBREVIATIONS, 


abl. 

abs. or absol. 

acc. 
act. 
adj. 
adv. 

A. 6* G. 


B. 


cf. ( confer ) 

comp. 

conj. 

dat. 

decl. 

dem. 

dep. 

disc. 

distrib. 


e. g. {exempli 

gratia) 

etc. (et caetera) 

f. or fern. 

ff- 

fr. 

fut. 

G. 


gen. 

H. 


i.e. (id est) 
imperf. 


ablative. 

absolute. 

accusative. 

active. 

adjective. 

adverb. 

Allen & Green- 
ough’s Latin 
Grammar, Re- 
vised Edition. 
Bingham’s Latin 
Grammar,Rev. 
by McCabe, 
compare, 
compound, 
conjunction, 
dative, 
declension, 
demonstrative, 
deponent, 
discourse, 
distributive. 
equals , equivalent 
tOy or denotes. 

for example. 

and so forth. 

feminine. 

following. 

from. 

future. 

Gildersleeve’s 
Latin Gram., 
Revised Ed. 
genitive. 
Harkness’s Latin 
Grammar, Rev. 
Stand. Edit, 
that is. 
imperfect. 


impers. = 

ind. = 

indecl. = 

indef. — 

infin. — 

interrog. = 

intrans. = 

/. = 

ll. = 

m. = 

n. or neut. — 

neg. = 

nom . ~ 

num . * = 

obj. — 

A 

pp. 

part. — 

pass . = 

perf. = 

pers. — 

poss. = 

pred. — 

prep. — 

pres. — 

pron. = 

rel. = 

sc. ( scilicet) = 


sing. = 

subj. — 

subst. — 

superl. — 

trans. — 

viz. ( videlicet ) = 
2 , 3j 4 

with verbs = 


impersonal. 

indicative. 

indeclinable. 

indefinite. 

infinitive. 

interrogative. 

intransitive. 

line. 

lines. 

masculine. 

neuter. 

negative. 

nominative. 

numeral. 

object. 

page. 

pages. 

participle. 

passive. 

perfect. 

personal. 

possessive. 

predicate. 

preposition. 

present. 

pronoun. 

relative. 

that is to say; 
sometimes = 
supply, 
singular, 
subject, 
substantive, 
superlative, 
transitive, 
namely. 

i st, 2d, 3d, 4th 
conjugation. 


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LINES 1 - 3 .] 


BOOK L 


1 


1 I. 


Gallia 

est 

omnis divisa 

in 

partes 

Gaul 

is 

all divided 

into 

parts 


2 tres, quarum unam incolunt 

three , of which one inhabit 

3 aliam Aquitani, tertiam qua 

the other the Aquitani, the third (those) who 


Belgae, 
the Belgae , 

ipsorum 
of themselves 


I. Gaul, as a 
whole, is divided 
into three parts : 
the'Belgae inhab- 
it one of these; 
the Aquitani an- 
other ; and those 
who in their own 
language are call- 


Line i. Gallia, -ae, nom. sing, f., subj. of est dtvtsa (dtvtsa est ) ; the generic term 
for the three divisions — Belgica, Celtica and Aquitania — conceived as a totality. 

The Greek equivalent is TaXarla . est, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. of the irr. 

verb sum , esse,fui, futurus, no supine; compare A.s. is, ger. ist, GK. i<rrl; est in 
the text may be taken as the copula, or as a part of the compound dtvtsa est , perf. 
pass., 3d pers. sing, of divido , -ere, - vtst , -visum, 3. Thus the Greek paraphrast 
regarded it, and translated est dtvtsa by SijprjTcu. omnis, -e, an adj. of two end- 

ings, an f-stem ; agrees with Gallia , but seems to have here the force of an adv., and 

= as a whole. Consult A. & G. 191 ; B. 128, REM. 10; G. 325, 6; H. 443. dlvisa, 

see est, above. in, prep, with acc. or abl. : with acc. after verbs of motion = into; 

with abl. after verbs of rest = in, or on, or among. partes, acc. plur. of pars, 

partis, f.; acc. after in. See In, A. & G. 153, 1, 2; B. 120, I, 2, 3; G. 418, I, 2; 
H. 435. i- 

Line 2. tres, acc. plur. of numeral adj. tres, tria, an f-stem, declined regularly 
like the plur. of levis; agrees with partes. Of the cardinals up to centum , only unus, 

duo and tres are declinable. quarum, gen. plur. f. of gut, quae , quod, rel. pron. in 

use both as subst. and adj. ; in the text it refers to paries as antecedent ; it might 
also be taken as modifying partium, to be supplied; it is a partitive gen. after unam. 

A. & G. 216, a, 2; B. 134; G. 370; H. 397, 2. unam, acc. sing, f.; supply partem, 

which is the direct obj. of incolunt . Note that unus , -a, -um is one of the adjectives 
that have the gen. in -tus, and dat. in -I. For list of these, see A. & G. 83 ; B. 56, 3, 4; 

G. 76, 1, 2; H. 1 51. incolunt, 3d pers. plur. pres. ind. act. of incold, -ere, •us, 

1 cultum , 3. Belgae, -arum, nom. plur. m., subj. of incolunt. Note the gender 

from the signification rather than the declension. The Belgae were a mixed race, 
partly Germanic and partly Celtic in origin ; they inhabited northern Gaul, or the 
region bounded by the Marne, the Seine, the Rhine and the ocean. 

Line 3. aliam, supply partem; acc. sing. f. of adj. alius , -ia, - iud ; lit. = other, 
another , but in the text = alteram, i.e. the second (partem if supplied would be 
direct obj. of incolunt ). For decl., see A. & G. 83; B. 56 and rem. 1 ; G. 76 and 4 ; 

H. 1 51. Aquitani, nom. plur. m. of the adj. Aquitdnus, -a, •um, used sub- 

stantively; as subj. of incolunt understood. They were the inhabitants of south- 
western Gaul. tertiam, supply partem; acc. sing. f. of the ordinal adj. iertius, 

-a, -um (partem if supplied would be direct obj. of incolunt). qui, nom. plur. m. 

of rel. pron. qut, quae , quod ; subj. of appellantur; its antecedent is ei understood, 
which latter is subj. of incolunt, to be supplied. The antecedent of a rel. pron. is 

often omitted if indefinite, or if naturally implied from the context, ipsorum, gen. 

plur. m. of the pron. ipse , -sa -sum, gen. -tus, dat. -I; lit. of themselves ; more emphatic 
than sud, and sometimes used in connection with the latter. A. & G. 197, e; B. 85, 
rem. 2, and 128, rem. 8 ; G. 31 1, 321, 2 ; H. 398, 3, and 452. With ellipses supplied, 
the text would read here: qudrum partium unam partem incolunt Belgae, aliam 
partem Aquitdm incolunt, tertiam partem el incolunt qut, etc. 


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2 


caesar’s gallic war 


[CHAP. i. 


ed Celtae, in ours 
Galii, inhabit the 
third. All these 
peopledifferfrom 
oneanotherinlam 
guage, customs 
and laws. The Ga- 
rumna river sep- 
arates the Galli 
from the Aquita- 
ni; the Matrona 
and the Sequana 


lingua Celtae, nostra Galli appellantur. 4 

in the language Celts , in ours Gauls are called. 

Hi omnes lingua, Institutes, legibus inter 5 

These ail in language , in customs , in laws among 

se differunt. Gall5s ab Aquitanls 6 

themselves differ. The Gauls from the Aquitani 

Garumna flumen, a Belgls Matrona et r 

the Garonne river , from the Belgae the Marne and 


Line 4. lingua, sing., abl. of manner of lingua , -ae , f. A. & G. 248; B. 168; 

G. 399; H. 419, III. Celtae, -arum, nom. plur. m., the people of central Gaul; 

GK. K^Xtoi; appellantur Celtae — are called Celts. See appellantur , just below. 

nostra, abl. sing, of poss. pron. nosier, - tra , -trum ; supply lingud. Galli, nom. 

plur. m. of adj. Callus , -a , - urn , used as a subst. See appellantur , just below. 

ap(ad)pellantur, 3d pers. plur. pres. ind. pass, of appello , -dre, -dvi , -dtum, 1. 

Observe that in this clause ending with the passive verb, Celtae and Galli are 
predicate-nominatives; the subject-nom. is gut. A. & G. 176, a; B. 130, 3; G. 206; 

H. 362, 2, 2). 

Line 5. HI, nom. plur. m. of dem. pron. hie, haec , hoc = those just mentioned ; 
expressed for emphasis; used here substantively. A. & G. 195, 1 ; B. 84, 1 ; G. 305, 5 ; 

H. 450, 1. omnes, nom. plur. m. of the adj. omnis , -<?, an adj. of two endings; 

an f-stem as shown by the gen. plur. omnium; omnes modifies hi. As omnes includes 
the whole, it takes a case in agreement, and does not admit of the partitive con- 
struction. Hence, as in the text, hi omnes , and not horum omnes. A. & G. 216, e; 

B. 134, rem. 4 ; G. 370, 2 ; H. 397, note. lingua, sing., abl. of specification of 

lingua, -ae , f. A. & G. 253 ; B. 162 ; G. 397 ; H. 424. institutls, plur., abl. of spec- 
ification of institiitum , -f, n. legibus, plur., abl. of specification of lex , legis , f. 

Observe that in a series of words either no conjunction is used, or it is repeated 
between the words. The enclitic -que , however, may be appended to the last word 
of a series. A. & G. 208, 3, and 346, c ; B. 123, rem. 6; G. 474, note; H. 554, 6. 
inter, prep, with acc. ; lit. = between. 

Line 6. se, acc. plur. of sui \ reflexive pron. of the 3d pers., obj. of inter. Observe 
that the phrase inter se indicates a reciprocal relation, and see A. & G. 196,/; B. 78, 

rem. 4 ; G. 221 ; H. 448, note. differunt, 3d pers. plur. pres. ind. act. of differd , 

: ferre , distuli , dildtum (dis + ferre) = lit. to bear apart; hence, to differ . Gall 5 s, 

acc. plur., direct obj. of drvidit. For decl., see Galli , 1 . 4, above. ab, compare d , 

I. 7, below ; d is used before consonants only ; ab , before vowels or consonants ; 

prep, with the abl. A. & G. 1 52, ^ ; B. 120, 2; G. 417; H. 434. Aquitanls, plur., 

abl. after ab. For decl., etc., see Aquitdni \ 1 . 3, above. 

Line 7. Garumna, nom. sing., appositive ; Garumna , -ae , m. ; rivers, winds and 
months are masculine; this river forms the boundary between Aquitania and Celtica. 

flumen, -inis, nom. sing. n. (Jluere , to flow ; hence lit. flumen = the flozving ) ; 

subj. of dividit ', to be supplied from the following clause of this, in fact, compound 

sentence. a, see ab , 1 . 6. above. Belgls, plur., abl. after prep. d. For decl., 

etc., see 1 . 2, above.' Matrona, -ae, nom. sing, m., appositive = the Marne; flumen 

to be supplied. et, cop. conj., joins words of equal importance. 


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LINES 8-11.] 


BOOK T. 


3 


« Sequana dividit. < Horam omnium fortissimi 

the Seine divides. Of these all the bravest 

* sunt Belgae, propterea quod a 

are the Belgae , on this account because from 

cultu atque liumanitate provinciae 

the civilization and refinement of the province 

a longissime absunt, minimeque ad eos 

very far are they distant , least and , to them 


rivers separate 
them from the 
Belgae. The brav- 
est of all these 
people are the 
Belgae, because 
they are very re 
mote from the 
civilization and 
refinement of our 
province, and the 
traders do not 


Line 8 . Sequana, -ae, nom. sing. m. = the Seine ; in apposition with fliimen 

understood, which latter is the subj. of dividit. dividit, 3d pers. sing. pres. 

ind. act. For principal parts, see 1. 1, above. The verb agrees with its subj .fliimen 
understood. The clauses fully constructed are: Gallos ab Aquitdnis Garumna fliimen 
diridity et Gallos a Belgis Maprona et Sequana dividunt. The sing, verb, however, 
may be explained by A. & G. 205, b\ B. 126, rem. 2 ; G. 285, exc. i, end; H. 463, 

II. 3 ; the two rivers being conceived as forming a single boundary. Hdrum, 

gen. plur. m. of dem. pron. htCy haeCy hoc ; partitive gen. after fortissimi ; hdrum is 
Here used substantively, and is modified by omnium. A. & G. 216, a, 2 ; B. 134, and 

for omniumy rem. 4 ; G. 372 ; H, 397, 3. Omnium, gen. plur. m. of omnis y - e . For 

decl., etc., see note on hi omnes , 1. 5, above. Note carefully that omnium here is not 

a partitive gen., but simply an attributive of hdrum. fortissimi, adj. plur. m., 

superl. degree of fortisy -iory -issimus, -a , -um; predicate-adj. with sunt. 

Line 9 . sunt, 3 d pers. plur. of sum , esse, fuiy futiirus; sunt is here the copula; 

the subj. is Belgae. Belgae, for decl., see 1. 2, above. propterea (propter 

4" ea), adv. ; lit. on account of. proptered here is simply the herald, so to speak, of 
the quod- clause following, and, in such use, it may, usually, be omitted in the trans- 
lation. quod, conj., but originally an adv. of specification ; acc. n. of gut, quae 9 

quod. a, see note on ab t 1. 6, above. 

Line 10. cultu, abl. of cultus y -us % m. ; abl. after prep. d. A. & G. 1 52, b ; B. 120, 2 ; 
G. 41 7 ; H. 434. (Derived from colerey lit. to cultivatey orig. pertaining to the culture of the 

fields; compare stem ko\ as seen in Povko\4<o.) atque (ad + que), abridged = dc; 

it adds sometimes a more important notion = and also; atque is used before vowels 
and consonants, especially before vowels ; dc is used before consonants only, in classic 

Latin. humanitate, abl. of humdnitdsy -dtis t m., connected by atque to cultii, and 

governed by d. Note that humdnitds is derived from adj. humdnusy and this from 
homo ; hence = lit. humanly , humanity. To explain cultu atque humdnitdte as an 
hendiadys (l*> 81 & Svoiv), see A. & G. 385, I; B. 310, 2, (b)\ G. 698; H. 636, III. 2. 

As thus explained, the words = a refi?ied mode of life. provinciae, gen. of pro- 

vinciay -ae t f . ; as a gen. it limits the two immediately preceding substantives. 
Here provinciae = the Roman Province in the south-east part of Gallia omnis. 

Line ii. longissime, adv., modifies absunty superl. degree; positive longe or 
longiter; comparative longius. As to the formation of adverbs from adjectives, see 
A. & G. 148, ay by Cy d; B. 1 17, 5, 6; G. 91, 2, b y c t d , e; H. 304. As to the significa- 
tion, see A. & G. 93, b ; B. 68, rem. 4 ; G. 302, 303 ; H. 444, 1. absunt, 3d pers. 

plur. pres. ind. of absum y abesse , ab{d)fui y ab(d)futurus t -a f -um; irr. intrans. verb; 
its subj. is the pron. ei understood, referring to Belgaey 1. 9, above. minimeque 


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4 


CAESAli’S GALLIC WAR 


[CHAP. I. 


very often visit 
them and import 
such things as 
tend to enervate 
the mind ; and 
besides, they are 
next to the Ger- 
mans who dwell 
across the Rhine, 


mercatores saepe commeant atque ea, quae 12 

the merchants often go to and fro and those things which 

ad effeminandos animos pertinent, important, 13 

to enervate minds tend , do they bring in, 

proximlque sunt Germanls, qul trims Rhenum 14 
nearest and, are they to the Germans , who across the Rhine 


(minime -f- que). The enclitic is always appended to some word, and it joins a word 
or sentence closely to another. The adv. minime is compared thus : positive parum 
or parve (rare), comparative minus , superl. minime. This superl. = lit. least; often 
it = not at all. See A. & G. 92, end, 209, e; B. 119, rem. 2; G. 93; H. 552, 3. 

minime modifies saepe , and the two words taken together = very rarely . ad, 

prep, with the acc., lit. = tcnvard, with verbs of motion = io. e5s, acc. plur. m. 

of dem. pron. is, ea , id, here used substantively as a personal pron. of the 3d person. 
A. & G. 98, a, 102, d , middle; B. 83, 1; G. 102; II. 451; eds is the acc. after ad. 
A. & G. 258; B. 1 41, rem. 1 ; G. 345, rem. 2, end; H. 380, I, and 384, 3, 1). 

Line 12. mercatores, nora. plur. of mercdtor , - oris , m., subj. of commeant. 

saepe, adv., comparative saepius (compare ger. ofter), superl. saepissime. See observa- 
tion on minime , 1. 1 1, above, saepe modifies commeant. commeant, 3d pers, plur. 

pres. ind. act. of commed,-are, -avt, dtum , 1 (con + meare — to go together with a view 
to return ; hence = to go to and fro). The subj. of commeant is the pron. el under- 
stood, referring to Belgae , 1 . 9, above. atque, see note on this particle, 1 . 10, 

above. ea, acc. plur. n. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id; direct obj. of important. 

quae, nom. plur. n. of the pron. qul, quae , quod; refers to ea; is subj. of pertinent. 

Line 13. ad, see note on ad, 1 . 11, above ; it is followed here by the acc. of the 

gerundive construction. effeminandds, limits atiimds and is acc. plur. gerundive 

of the verb effemind, -dre, -din, -dtum, 1 (ex -f- femina) = to change one's nature , to 

make a woman out of it. animds is acc. plur. of animus, -l, m., after ad. The 

better translation of this so-called gerundive construction is to translate it as if it 
were a gerund with a direct object. See A. & G. 296, 300; B. 184 ; G. 430, 432 ; H. 543. 

The gerundive is merely the fut. pass, participle. pertinent, 3d pers. plur. pres. 

ind. act. of pertineo, -ere, -ui, no supine, 2, intrans. (per-f- tenere); it agrees with the 

subj. quae. important, 3d pers. plur. of importo , -are, -avt, -dtum, 1 ; its subj. is 

mercdtores, i.e. important is connected by atque with commeant, and has the same 
subj. as the latter, importare is compounded of in + portare. n becomes m 
before p by assimilation. A. & G. 11 ,/, 3, note; B. 122 ; G. 9, 4, middle; H. 33, 3. 

Line 14. proximlque (proximl + que). As to the enclitic, see note on -que, 1 . 11, 
above, proximl is nom. plur. m. of proximus, -a, -um, superl. of the comparative 
propior , no positive, though the comparative is formed from the stem of the ad v.prope.. 
There are some every-day adjectives that lack the positive. See A. & G. 91, a ; B. 74, 1 ; 

G. 87, 8; H. 166. proximl is predicate-adj. after sunt. sunt, for principal 

parts, see 1 . 9, above ; its subj. is Belgae, to be supplied. Germanls, dat. plur. m. 

of Germdnl, -drum, the eastern neighbors of the Gauls. Occasionally the sing. Ger - 
manus, -l, m., occurs. The word is probably of Celtic origin. Some derive it from 
Wehr-Mann, war-man. Germdnls is dat. after proximl, a word of nearness. See 

A. & G. 234, a ; B. 144, rem. 4; G. 359; H. 391, I. qui, nom. plur. m. of qul, 

quae % quod, refers to Germdnls , and is the subject-nom. of incolunU For grammatical 


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LINES 16-17.] 


BOOK I. 


5 


is incolunt, quilmscum continenter bellum gerunt. 
dwell, whom with , continually war they wage, 

16 Qua de causa Helvetii quoque reliquos 

Which for , cause the Uelvetii also the remaining 

17 Gallos virtu te praecedunt, quod fere cotidianls 

Gauls in valor surpass , because almost in daily 


with whom they 
are incessantly 
waging war: for 
which reason the 
Helvetii also ex- 
cel the res': of the 
Gauls in valor, be- 
cause they fight 
with the Germans 


usage of the rel. pron., see note on qudrum , 1. 2, above. trails, prep, with the 

acc. Rhenum, acc. of Rhenus , -/, and follows the prep, trdns . This prep, is used 

after verbs of motion and verbs of rest. See Trdns , A. & G. 1 53, a , b ; B. 1 20, 1 ; 
G. 416, 26; H. 433. The Rhine is a general boundary between Gaul and Germany. 

Line 15. incolunt, 3d pers. plur. of incold , -ere , - ui , - cultum , 3; its subject-nom. 
is qut. quibuscum (quibus + cum) z=zwith whom, quibus is the abl. plur. of the 

rel. qut, quae , quod; it refers to Germdnis, and is governed by the prep, cum that is 
appended to it. The prep. cum, as an enclitic, is appended to all forms of the abl. 

of qut. See A. & G. 104, e; B. 87, 4, Rem. 2; G. 413, REM. i ; H. 187, 2. 

continenter, adv. (continens from con + tenere = to hang together , hence =) connect- 
edly , continuously. bellum, acc. sing, of bellum , -T, n. ; direct obj. of gerunt. The 

original form was duellum (duo), denoting a conflict in which two parties were striv- 
ing for the mastery. Compare English duel. gerunt, 3d pers. plur. pres. ind. of 

gerd , -ere, gesst, gestum, 3 ; its subj. is the pron. ei , referring to Belgae, 1 . 9, above. 

Line 16. Qua de causa. In this phrase qud is used adjectively, and agrees with 
the noun causd; it refers both to what is stated in the last clause of the preceding 
sentence and to what follows. The phrase as such is the herald of the following 
quod-c\anse. When a relative thus begins a sentence, it is best translated by a 
demonstrative with the conjunction and or but. Consult A. & G. 180,/; B. 129, 

rem. 9; G. 610, rem. 1 ; II. 453. de. A monosyllabic prep, is often thus placed 

between a noun and its modifier. See A. & G. 345, a; B. 58. 2 ; G. 413, rem. i ; 

II. 569, II. 1. causa, abl. of causa, -ae, f . ; it is in the abl. after the prep. de. 

Observe its idiomatic use in the phrase, and consult A. & G. 153 under de, c; 
B. 120, 2 ; G. 408, note 4, and 417, 5 ; II. 434, and 434 under de, end. de, lit. in the 
phrase =.from; but the best English for this phrase, standing at the head of the 

sentence, is: and for this reason. Helvetii, nom. plur. m. of the adj. Helvetius, 

-a, -urn, used substantively, subj. of praecedunt. The Helvetii were a Celtic people 
whose territory was bounded by Mount Jura, Lake Geneva, the Rhone and the 

Rhine. quoque, adv. ; some regard it as a conj. ; its position is after one 

or more words. See A. & (}. 345, B. 123, rem. 5; G. 479; II. 569, III. 

reliquos, acc. plur. m. of adj. reliquus , -a, -urn ; it limits Gallos. 

Line 17. Gallos, acc. plur. of Gallt, - drum , m. ; see 1. 4, above; it is the 

direct obj. of praecedunt. virtute, abl. of virtus, -intis, f. ; abl. of specification. 

See note on lingua, 1. 5, above, virtus is derived from vir; hence = manliness. 

praecedunt, 3d pers. plur. pres. ind. act. of praecedo, -ere, -cesst, - cessum , 31 

here transitive, but sometimes intransitive (prae + caedere = lit. to go before). 

quod, conj., but see note on quod, 1. 9, above. fere, adv., modifies cofididnis 

(derived from fero , and denotes that which is brought near a thing; hence = within 
a little, almost). cotidianls, abl. plur. n. of cotididnus, -a, -urn ; another orthog- 

raphy is quotididnus, from quotidie (quot + dies) ; cottdidnis modifies proelv.s. 


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6 


caesar’s g all ic war 


[CHAP. 1 . 


in almost daily 
battles, while they 
are keeping them 
from their own 
borders, or them- 
selves are waging 
war in their con- 
fines. One part 


proelils cum Germanis eontendunt, cum is 

battles with the Germans they contend , when 

aut suis finibus eos prohibent, aut w 

either (from ) their own territory them they keep off , or 

ipsi in e 5 rum finibus bellum gerunt. 21 

themselves in their territory war they wage . 


Line 18. proelils, abl. plur. of proelium , -i; abl. of manner. For grammatical 
references, see lingud , 1. 4, above, (prae + ire = to go forward in a hostile manner .) 
Synonyms: proelium is the occasional action or skirmish between two forces; 
it sometimes, however, denotes a general contest. But piigna is the usual word 
to designate, in a general sense, any sort of contest, from fisticuffs to a pitched 

battle. cum, prep, with the abl. This word in its present position is to be 

carefully discriminated from cum, a conjunction meaning when, or as, or since . 
The discrimination can only be made by sharply noting the construction, cum 
meaning with , and cum meaning when or since are in form precisely alike; but as 
cum, in the text, is in a clatfse which has its own connective quod , the inference, 

quick as thought, is that the cum of the text is a preposition. Germanis, abl. 

plur. of manner of Germdni , -drum. A. & G. 248; B. 168; G. 392, rem. i ; H. 419, III. 
Note that Germdnis is not from the adj., used as a noun, germanus, -a,-um, but from 
Germdni , gk. Tepfiavol, the Germans, a people occupying the territory between the 

Rhine, the Danube and the Vistula, the modern Weicnsel. eontendunt, 3d pers. 

plur. pres. ind. act. of contendd, -ere, contendt , contentum , 3 ; its subject-nom. is ei, 
i.e. Helvetii '. (con + tendere = (<z) to stretch eagerly , (b) to go hastily , (c) to strive, i.e. 

with weapons, (d) tofght.) cum, conj.; in narration denoting time when, it takes 

the imperf. and pluperf. subj. ; in the other tenses, the ind. A. & G. 325 ; B. 220 ; 

G. 580; H. 521, 1 . cum here is a conjunction, because it introduces a clause (consist- 
ing of a verb, a direct object and a remote object) which requires a connective. 

Line 19. aut . . . aut, correlative conjunctions = either ... or. These par- 
ticles, thus used, generally denote that the difference is exclusive ; if the difference 

is neither important nor exclusive, vel . . . vel are used. suis, abl. plur. of the 

reflexive pron. suus, -a, - urn ; it agrees with finibus ; it refers to the Helvetii, the 
subject of the principal clause. Consult A. & G. 196; B. 80, rem. 2 and 3; G. 309; 

H. 449. — — finibus, abl. plur. of finis , -is, m. ; abl. after prohibent, a verb of separa- 
tion. A. & G. 243; B. 160; G. 390, note 3; H. 414. eos, acc. plur. of dem. 

pron. is, ea, id, used as a pron. of the 3d pers. ; it refers to the Germans, and is 

the direct obj. of prohibent. prohibent, 3d pers. plur. pres. ind. act. of prohibed , 

-ere, -ui, -itum, 2 (pro + habere, lit. to hold before or off). 

Line 20. ipsi, i.e. Helvetii; nom. plur. of ipse, -a, -um, subj. of gerunt; it is 
here an emphatic pron. of the 3d pers. Consult A. & G. 195, g; B. 85, rem. i ; 
G. 31 1, 2 ; H. 452. As to the declension of this pron., see grammatical references to 

ipsorum , 1 . 3, above. in, here takes the abl. plur .finibus. See A. & G. 1 53, on prep. 

In, 2 ; B. 1 20, 2 ; G. 41 8, b ; H. 435, 1 , end. eQrum, gen. plur. of dem. pron. is, ea, id, 

used as a pers. pron. of the 3d person. Note that, in this use, it corresponds to 
their, the possessive case, plur. of the pron. he. As to the position of eorum between 

the prep, and its case, see A. & G. 344,^; B. 43, 2 ; G. 678, 4 ; H. 569, II. 3. finibus, 

abl. plur. after in; for decl., see 1. 19, above. bellum, acc. of bellum , -i, n.; direct 

obj. oi gerunt. See note on this word, 1 . 1 5, above. gerunt, 3d pers. plur. pres. ind. 

act. of gero; its subj. is ipsi, i.e. Helvetii. For principal parts of gero, see 1. 15, above. 


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LINES 21 - 26 .] 


BOOK I* 


7 


21 Eorum una pars, quam Gall 5 s obtinere 

Of these one party which the Gauls to occupy , 

22 dictum est, initium capit a flumine 

it was said , the beginning takes from the river 

23Rhodano; continetur Garumna flumine, Oceano, 

Rhone; it is bounded by the Garonne river , by the ocean, 

24 finibus Belgarum; attingit etiam ab 

by the territory of the Bely ae; it touches also on the side 

26 Sequanls et Helvetiis flumen Rhenum ; vergit 

oftheSequani and Helvetii the river Rhine; it slopes 


of this country, 
which we have 
said the Gauls oc- 
cupy, begins at 
the Rhone river ; 
it is bounded 
by the Garonne 
river, the ocean 
and the territory 
of the Belgae ; 
on the side of 
the Sequani and 
the Helvetii it 
also reaches to 
the Rhine river; 


Line 21. Eorum, see note, 1. 20, above; partitive gen. after pars. Consult 
A. & G. 216, a, 1 ; B. 134 ; G. 368 ; H. 396, IV. Observe that the people are put by 

metonymy for the country. una, nom. sing. f. of the adj. unus , -a } - um ; it 

agrees with pars . For decl., see note, 1. 2, above. pars, partis , f., subject-nom. of 

capit , 1. 22, below. quam, rel. pron., acc. sing. f. of qui, quae , quod ; it refers to 

pars , and is the direct obj. of obtinere. Gallos, for the decl. of the word, and a 

description of the GallT, see note, 1. 4, above ; Gallos is subject-acc. of obtinere . 

Obtinere, pres. inf. act. of obtined , - ere , -ui, -ten turn, 2 (ob + tenere, lit. to hold to something ). 

Line 22. dictum est, 3d pers. sing. perf. ind. pass, of died , -ere, dixi, dictum , 3; 
it is here used impersonally; or, strictly, the object-clause quam Gallos obtinere is 
the subject. Consult A. & G. 330, a, 2 ; B. 180, rem. i ; G. 535 ; H. 538. Supply d me 
as the abl. of the agent. For what Caesar said in regard to the matter, see the first 

few lines, at the beginning of the chapter. initium, acc. sing, of initium , -i, n. 

(in + ire) ; direct obj. of capit. capit, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. of capid , 

-ere, cepi , captum , 3 ; its subj. is pars , above. a, see note on ab , 1. 6, above. 

flumine, n., abl. after the prep. d. For decl., see 1. 7, above. 

Line 23. Rhodano, abl. of Rhodanus , m. ; in apposition with flumine. See 

A. & G. 183, 184 ; B. 36, 127 ; G. 321 ; H. 359, note 2. continetur, 3d pers. sing. 

pres. ind. pass, of contineo , ere , -ui, -ten turn, 2 (con + tenere, lit. to hold together; 
hence, passive, to be held together , to be bounded ); its subj. is pars , to be supplied. 

Garumna, abl. of Garumna , -ae , m., an appositive. This river formed the 

boundary between Aquitania and Celtica. Garumna = the modern Garonne. 

flumine, see 1. 7, above; abl. of means. Oceano, abl. of Oceanus , -t, m. ; in the 

same grammatical construction as flumine . 

Line 24. finibus, see 1. 19, above; abl. of means. Note the omission of the 
conjunctions — asyndeton — and compare remarks and grammatical references on 

lingud, institutis, legibus , 1. 5, above. Belgarum, gen. plur. of Belgae ; for decl., 

and an account of this people, see note on Belgae , 1. 2, above ; Belgdrum limits 

finibus, as poss. gen. A. & G. 214, 1 ; B. 131, REM. 1 ; G. 362; H. 396, I. 

attingit, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. of attingo , -ere, -tigi, - tactum , 3 (ad -f- tangere) ; 

its subj. is pars or Gallia. etiam, usually taken as a conjunction (et + iam) ; it 

serves to add a notion = and also. But sometimes it has an adverbial force and 
= even . ab, here = on the side of. See note on ab , 1. 6, above. 

Line 25. Sequanls, abl. plur. of Sequani, -drum, m. ; a Gallic clan occupying 
the territory between the river Arar and Mount Jura; abl. after the prep, ab. 


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8 


caesab’s gallic war 


(CHAP. I. 


it slopes toward 
the north. The 
territory of the 
Belgae begins 
at the farthest 
boundaries of 
Celtic Gaul ; it 
extends to the 
lower part of 
the Rhine river; 
it faces north- 
east. Aquitania 


ad septentridnes. Belgae ab extremis Galliae 26 

toward the north. The Belgae from the farthest of Gaul 

flnibus oriuntur ; pertinent ad Inferiorem 27 
boundaries arise ; they extend to the lower 

partem fluminis Rheni ; speetant in septentrionem 28 

part of the river Rhine ; they look to the north 

et orientem solem. Aquitania a Garumna 2 

and the rising sun. Aquitania from the Garonne 


et, see note on et, 1 . 7, above. Helvetiis, abl. plur. connected by et with Sequanis , 

and in the same grammatical construction. See note on Nelvetii, 1 . 16, above. 

flumen, acc. sing, of flumen , -inis, n., direct obj. of attingit. Rhenum, acc. of 

Rhenus, -i, m., an appositive. The river Rhine is, in general, a boundary between 

Gaul and Germany. vergit, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. of vergo, -ere ; perf. verst 

according to some critics ; its subject is either pars or Gallia , to be supplied. 
vergit = verges , or slopes , i.e. the rivers generally flow in a northerly direction from 
the point of view of the Cevennes mountains. 

Line 26. ad, prep, with the 3 lcc. = toward. See note on ad, 1 . 11, above. < 

septentridnes, acc. plur. of septentrid , -onis, m. ; acc. after the prep, ad (septem + tri 5 , * 
the seven plow- oxen) = the stars in the Great Bear constellation, i.e. —the north. 
The word is found in the lexicons in the plur., but often occurs in the sing. See 

1 . 28, below. Frequently the parts of the compound are separated by tmesis. 

Belgae, see note, 1. 2, above. ab, see note, 1. 6, above. extremis, adj. abl. 

plur. of exterus , exterior, extremus (extimus). The positive is rare, and generally is 
used in the plur. as a substantive, as e.g. exteri = foreigners. The adj. extremis 

limits finibus. Galliae, gen. sing, of Gallia, -ae, f. ; it, also, limits finibus. The 

Gaul here referred to is Celtic Gaul. Note the position of the gen. between the adj. 
and the noun it modifies ; the usual order when a noun limited by a gen. has an adj. 
with it. 

Line 27. finibus, abl. plur. after the prep. ab. See note, 1 . 20, above. 

oriuntur, 3d pers. plur. pres, tense of the deponent orior, oriri, ortus, 4. pertinent, 

3d pers. plur. of pertineb, -ere, -ui, 2 ; see note on pertinent, 1. 13, above; its subj. is 

Belgae understood. ad, see note on ad, 1 . 1 1, above. inferiorem, acc. sing. f. 

of the comparative inferior. The adj. is thus compared : inferus, inferior, infimus 
(- imus ); inferiorem modifies partem. 

Line 28. partem, acc. sing, of the noun pars, partis, f. ; it follows the prep, ad . 

fluminis, gen. sing, of flumen , -inis, n. ; it limits partem. Rheni, gen. sing. 

of Rhenus, -i, m. ; see note on Rhenum, 1 . 14, above; Rheni is in apposition with 

fluminis. speetant, 3d pers. plur. pres. ind. act. of specto, -dre, -dvi, -dtum, 1 ; its 

subj. is Belgae, to be supplied. in, prep., here with the acc. With speetant the 

prep. = toward; i.e. the territories of the Belgae from their southern boundary, or 
from the Province, look or lie toward the north and the rising sun, i.e. the east. 

septentrionem , acc. sing, of septentrid, -onis, m. ; the acc. follows in. See note 

on septentridnes , 1 . 26, above. 

Line 29. et, see note on et, 1 . 7, above. orientem, acc. sing. m. of the 

pres, participle oriens of the deponent verb orior, oriri , ortus, 4 ; the participle 
here limits solem. Observe that deponent verbs have the participles of both 


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LINES 30-32.] 


BOOK I. 


9 


30 flumine ad Pyrenaeos montes et earn partem 

river to the Pyrenean mountains and that part 

31 Ocean!, quae est ad Hispaniam, pertinet ; 

of the ocean which is near Spain extends; 

32spectat inter occasum solis et septentriones. 

it looks between the setting of the sun and the north. 


extends from the 
Garonne river 
to the Pyrenean 
mountains, and 
that part of the 
ocean which is 
near Spain ; it 
faces north-west. 


voices. Consult A. & G. 135, a; B. 109, 2; G. 128; H. 231, 1. Observe further 
that the Belgian rivers, generally, flow north-east. See maps, and note the direc- 
tion of Sadis flumen , and other streams. sdlem, acc. sing, of sol, solis , m. ; 

connected by et with septentridnem , and governed by in. With sol compare the 
gk. 1 j\ios, m., and ger. Sonne , f., and the English sun , m. ; and observe that the 
ancient classic languages, and most of the modern languages in imitation of these 
languages, conceive of the sun as masculine from the notion of the greatness or 
power displayed; whereas the German conception must have arisen from the notion 

of the sun as a mother-source of being and life. Aquitania, -ae, f., subject- 

nom. of pertinet , 1. 31, below. Aquitania = that part of Gallia omnis that lies between 

the Garumna flumen and the Pyrenees. a, see note on ab, 1. 6, above ; the prep. 

here governs flumine. Garumna, abl. of Garumna , -ae, f. ; see note on Garumna, 

1 . 7, above. Garumnd is here an appositive. 

Line 30. flumine, abl. after d. For decl., see note on flumen , 1. 7, above; for 

case references, see those on ab Aquitams , 1. 6, above. ad, takes the acc. montes 

after it. See note on ad, 1. 11, above. Pyrenaeos, adj. acc. plur. of Pyrenaeus , 

-a, -urn; it modifies montes. montes, acc. plur. of mbits, montis , m. ; acc. after 

ad; twenty-six prepositions take the acc. Observe that the first vowel in the stem 
of this word — montt — is short ; that it is only to be conceived as long in the nom. 
and voc. cases. Consult A. & G. 18,/; G. 12, rem. i, and 3, rem. ; H. 16, I. 2. 

et, conj., see 1. 7, above. earn, dem. adj. pron., acc. sing. f. of is, ea , id; 

it limits partem. partem, acc. sing, of pars, partis , f. ; and is connected by el 

with montes , and, like montes , is governed by ad. 

Line 31. Ocean!, gen. sing, of Oceanus , -i, m. ; it limits partem. quae, rel. 

pron., nom. sing. f. of qut , quae , quod; it refers to partem as its antecedent, and is 

subj. of est. est, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. of sum, esse,fui, fut. participle fttitirus ; its 

subj. is quae. ad, prep, with acc. Hispaniam, acc. of IJispdnia, -ae, f. ; 

in the text it is the acc. after the prep, ad which here = near, i.e. the Bay of Biscay. 
The phrase here is adjectival and predicative. For meaning of ad in such construc- 
tion, see A. & G. 258, c , 2, note 1 ; B. 173, 1 ; G. 337, 4 ; H. 380, I. pertinet, 

3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. of pertineb, -ere, -ut, 2 (1. 13, above) ; its subject-nom. is 
Aquitania, 1. 29, above. 

Line 32. spectat, see spectant, 1. 28, above ; the subj. is Aquitdnia understood. 

inter, prep, with the acc. occasum, acc. of occdsus, -us, m. (ob + cadere, to 

fall dotvn; hence lit. the noun = a f ailing down) ; occasum is in the acc. after the 

prep, inter. A. & G. 152, a ; B. 120, 1 ; G. 416, 13 ; H. 433. solis, gen. of sol, m., 

limiting the noun occdsum. See solem, 1. 29, above. et, see note on et, 1. 7, above. 

septentriones, acc. plur. of septentrio, - onis , m., connected by et with occdsum, 

and governed by inter. See note on septentriones, 1. 26, above. The reader will note 
that the point of observation is the Cevenna Afons, the north-western boundary of 
the Roman Province. From this mountain-range the rivers rise, and flow in a north* 
westerly direction. 


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caesar’s gallic war 


[CHAP. It 


10 . 


II. Among the 
Helvetii, Orgeto- 
rix was by far the 
noblest-born and 
the richest man. 
He, in the consul- 
ship of Marcus 
Messalaand Mar- 
cus Piso, influ- 


II. Apud Helvetios longe n5bilissimus furt 1 

Among the Helvetii by far the noblest was 

et ditissimus Orgetorix. Is, M. Messala et 2 

and the richest Orgetorix . He, Marcus Messala and 

M. Plsone consulibus, regnl cupiditate 3 

Marcus Piso being the consuls, of the sovereignty by a desire 


Line i. Apud, prep, with the acc. instead of the partitive gen. after the adj. 

nobilissimus. See A. & G. 153; B. 134, rem. 2; G. 372, rem. 2; H. 397, note 3. 

Helvetios, see note on Helvetii, 1 . 16, Chap. I. longe, adv., positive degree, com- 

parative lotigius , superl. longissime . As to formation of adverbs from adjectives, 
see 1 . 11, Chap. I. longe modifies and strengthens the superl. nobilissimus. Consult 

A. & G. 93, b, middle ; B. 68, rem. 4 ; G. 303 ; H. 170, 2, ( 2 ). nobilissimus is the 

superl. degree of nobilis, -ior,.-issimus (derived from noscere , to know ; hence nobilis 

= known, noted); predicate-ad j. after fuit. fuit, 3d pers. sing. perf. ind. act. of 

irr. verb sum. For parts, see 1 . i, Chap. I ; its subj. is Orgetorix. 

Line 2. et, cop. conj., joins words of equal importance. ditissimus, adj., 

superl. degree; positive dives; comparative divitior, or ditior; connected by et with 

ndbilissimus, and in the same grammatical construction. Orgetorix, -torigis, m., 

an Helvetian chief. Orgetorix is subject-nom. of fuit. Observe its emphatic posi- 
tion, and consult A. & G. p. 389, rem. ; B. 22. 6; G. 673, (a) ; II. 561, II. The un- 
emphatic order of the words is : Orgetorix fuit vir apud Helvetios longe ndbilissimus 

et ditissimus. Is, expressed for emphasis and rhetorical effect; it is subject-nom. 

of fecit, below. M., an abbreviation for the praenomen Marcus. Here, of course, 

the form is Marco , abl. Messala, abl. sing, of Messdla , -ae , m. The full name 

was Marcus Valerius Messala: Marcus, the praenomen, Valerius, the nomen, and 
Messala, the cognomen. Messala was consul 61 b.c. The grammatical construc- 
tion is the abl. absolute with consulibus, which see, 1. 3, below. et connects 

Marco Messdld with Marco Pisdne. 

Line 3. M. Pisdne is in the same grammatical construction as M. Messdld , 
i.e. both the names are in the abl. absolute with consulibus. The full name of Piso, 
-onis, m., was Marcus Papius Piso Calpurnianus. Calpurnianus denotes the gens. 

consulibus, abl. plur. of consul, -is, m. The construction is abl. absolute with 

M. Messdld et M. Piso , denoting time. Consult A. & G. 255, a ; B. 192, rem. i ; 
G. 409; H. 431, 4. In this construction, the noun and participle, or adj. or other 
noun form an essentially predicative proposition. If ens were in use, as the present 
participle of sum, the form of the sentence would be: M. Messdld et M. Pisdne 
entibus consulibus = lit. M. Messdla and M. Piso being the consuls, consulibus is in 
the plural because referring to two nouns. See A. & G. 185, b; B. 67. 3, rem. i ; 
G. 285; H. 362, 3, and 364, end. Observe (1) that predicate-nouns are sometimes 
used without a verb, or without even a participle. Observe (2) that the consuls were 
the two presidents of the Roman state, elected annually by the Roman people ; and 
(3) that their names are given to indicate the date of an event. Orgetorix’s con- 
spiracy, accordingly, occurred in 61 B.c.; or, which is the same thing, in A.u.C. 693; 

for 754 — 693 = 61. On reckoning time, see A. & G. p. 425 ; G. p. 492. regain 

objective gen. sing, of regnum, -i, n. (rex, king); it limits cupiditate. cupiditlte, 

abl. sing, of cupiditas, -dtis, f . ; abl. of cause. A. & G. 245, and b\ B. 165, and 
REM. 4; G. 408, NOTE 2 ; H. 416, NOTE I. 


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LINES 4 - 6 .] 


BOOK I. 


11 


4 inductus 

coniuratidnem 

nobilitatis 

fecit 

et 

being led , 

a conspiracy 

of the nobility 

made 

and 

6 civitati 

persuasit, ut 

de finibus 

suis 

cum 


the state persuaded , that from boundaries their , with 

6 omnibus c5piis exlrent : perfacile esse, 

all resources they should go out: very easy to be, 


enced by an exces- 
sive zeal for royal 
power, formed a 
conspiracy of the 
nobles, and per- 
suaded the cit- 
izens to migrate 
from their terri- 
tory with all their 


Line 4. inductus, perf. pass, participle of indued , -ere, -diixi, -due turn, 3; it 

limits the subj. is , 1. 2, above. coniurationem, acc. sing, of coniuratio , -onis, f. 

(con + iurare = to swear together). nobilitatis, gen. sing, of nobilitas , -dtis, f. 

(j nobilis , from noscere , see 1 . 1, above). Here the abstract is used for the concrete: 

ndbilitdtis = ndbilium, i.e. he formed a conspiracy of the nobles. fecit, 3d pers. 

sing. perf. ind. act. of facio , -ere , feci, factum, 3 ; its subj. is is, 1. 2, above. 

Line 5. civitati, dat. sing, of civitas , -dtis. Here too the abstract is for the 
concrete ; civitdti = civibus. For the dat. case after persudsit, see A. & G. 227, and 

note 1 ; B. 142 ; G. 346, rem. 2 ; H. 385, II. persuasit, 3d pers. sing. perf. ind. act. 

of persuddeo, -ere, -sudsi, -sudsum, 2 (per -f- suadere = lit. to advise thoroughly; the 
per is merely intensive), persudsit is connected by et with fecit, and has the same 
subject. ut, con]. = that in a subjunctive-clause; but a purpose - clause is, ordi- 
narily, best rendered into English by the infinitive. de, prep, with the abl. 

finibus, abl. plur. of finis, -is, m. ; abl. after prep. de. suis, abl. plur. of the 

reflexive pron. suus, -a, -um; it agrees with finibus; it refers to ei understood, i.e. 

Helvetii = the omitted subject of the subordinate clause — ut . . . exirent . cum, 

prep, with the abl. omnibus. 

Line 6. omnibus, abl. of the adj. omnis, - e , see note on ornnis, 1 . 1, Chap. I; 

omnibus limits cdpiis. cdpiis, abl. plur. of copia, -ae, f. (con -f- ops ; compare 

inops); in the sing, it == plenty ; in the plur. = resources, troops, cdpiis is an abl. of 
accompaniment with cum. A. & G. 248, a ; B. 168, rem. 4 ; G. 392, rem. i ; H. 419, 1 , 
and III. 1, 1). In military phrases cum is generally omitted if the noun has a modifier, 

but not always. exlrent, 3d pers. plur. imperf. subjunctive act. of exeo, -ire, -ivi (-«), 

-itum, irr. ; it agrees with Helvetii understood ; subjunctive of purpose after ut. 

A. & G. 331 ; B. 200, rem. 2 ; G. 546, and note i ; H/498, I. Observe (1) that the 
noun-clause, ut . . . exirent, is the direct obj. of persudsit ; (2) that exirent 
(ex + Ire) here takes after it de with the abl., but also admits of the abl. with ab or 

ex, and even the abl. alone, Caesar himself being the voucher. perfacile, acc. n. 

of the adj. perfacilis , -e (per, intensive = very + facilis) ; predicate after esse. 
Observe here the change from direct into indirect discourse. In the direct form, 
the main clause would be : perfacile est, cum virtiite omnibus praestemus, toiius 
Galliae imperio potiri. But note carefully that when the thought takes the indirect 
form, or is put in the ordtio obliqua , the infinitive clause perfacile esse depends on 
persudsit, or on dixit (= verb of saying) implied in persudsit, and that, therefore, 
praestemus in direct discourse is changed in the indirect discourse into the imperfect 
subjunctive by the law of sequence of tenses. Consult A. & G. 336, and 336. B; 

B. 245. 1, (a), (b); G. 508, 2, and 654; H. 522, 525. esse, for principal parts, see 

under est, 1 . 1, Chap. I. 

Note. — Indirect discourse is reporting what one has himself thought, or what 
another has thought, in a species of noun-clause ; e.g. dicit montem ab hostibus ieneri. 


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12 


CAESAR S GALLIC WAR 


[CHAP. H. 


effects. He said 
that it was very 
easy, since they 
surpassed all the 
Gauls in valor, 
to win the sover- 
eignty of entire 
Gaul. He per- 
suaded them to 
this migration 
the more easily, 
because the Hel- 
vetii are hemmed 


cum yirtute omnibus praestarent, totius f 

since in valor all (the Gauls) they excelled, of entire 

Galliae imperio potlri. Id hoc 8 

Gaul the supreme power to win. That by this 

facilius els persuasit, quod undique # 

the more easily them he persuaded , because on every side 

loci natura Helvetii continentur: unaii 

of the place by nature, the Helvetii are hemmed in: one 


Line 7. cum, conj. — causal — and hence followed by the subjunctive. A. & G. 

326; B. 198, (f) ; G. 579, II. (b ) ; H. 517. virtute, abl. sing, of virtus, -tufts, f. ; abl. 

of specification. A. & G. 253; B. 162; G. 397; H. 424. omnibus, dat. plur. m. ; 

it limits Gallis understood. Gallis , if expressed, would be dat. after the prae in the 

compound praestarent. praestarent, 3d pers. plur. imperf. subjunctive act. of 

frae s to, - stdre , -stiti, -stitum and - stdtum , 1 (prae + stare = lit. to stand before , i.e. to 

be superior to). tdtius, gen. sing. f. of the adj. totus, -a, - um . totius modifies 

Galliae. For list of words having the gen. in -ius and dat. in -i, see grammatical 
references to unum , 1 . 2, Chap. I. Synonyms : totus = an original whole that may 
be resolved into parts ; whereas omnis = a whole formed of original parts. 

Line 8. Galliae, gen. sing, of Gallia , -ae, f . ; see note, 1 . 1, Chap. I. Galliae 

limits imperio. imperio, abl. sing, of imperium , - 1 , n. ; abl. after pottri. A. & G. 

249; B. 167, 1 ; G. 407 ; II. 421, I. Observe that pottri is followed sometimes by the 
gen., and sometimes (rarely) by the acc. With the abl., as in the text with imperio \ 
it means to get possession of the sovereignty ; with the gen. the meaning would be: to 
gain the mastery of. Consult A. & G. 223, a ; B. 167, 1, REM.; G. 407, note 2, (d)\ 

H. 410, V. 3. potiii, pres. inf. of deponent potior, - irt , -itus, 4. This inf. with 

its modifiers is the subject-acc. of esse. A. & G. 329; B. 86; G. 422; H. 538. Note 
that while this inf. is the subject-acc. of esse , if the discourse had been direct, the 

same inf. would have been the subject-nom. of est. Id, a colorless pron. referring 

to the thought contained in the clause ut . . . exirent ; id is the direct obj. of 

persudsit. A. & G. 227,/ ; B. 150, rem. 2 ; G. 344; H. 384, II. hoc, abl., measure 

of difference after facilius. hoc is the herald of the following quod-c\a.use. Consult 
A. & G. 102,/, and 250, note; B. 84, rem. 3, and 164; G. 403; H. 423. The older 
grammars regard hoc in such construction as an abl. of cause. 

Line 9. facilius, adv., comparative degree of facile, superl .facillime. For the 
formation of adverbs from adjectives, see A. & G. 148; B. 117. 6; G. 91, (c); H. 306. 

els, dat. plur. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id, used as a personal pron. of the 3d person. 

eis is dat. after persudsit. A. & G. 227, and note i ; B. 142 ; G. 346, rem. 2 ; H. 385, II. 

persuasit, for parts, see 1. 5, above. quod, conj. (really an acc. of effect of 

rel. pron. qui, quae, quod), but in use here as a conj. and = because, introducing a 

statement or a fact. The quod-z\2A\sc is an adverbial modifier of persudsit. 

undique, adv. (unde + q.ue = wheresoever) = as used here, on all sides. 

Line 10. loci, gen. sing, of locus, -i, m. in the sing., but m. or n. in the plur., 
but with difference of meaning: loci in the plur. = single places ; loca = connected 

places — regions; loci in the text is gen. sing., and limits ndturd. natura, abl. 

sing, of natura , -ae, f. ; ndturd is the abl. of cause (derived from ndscor , ndtus, 3). 


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LItfES li-14.] 


BOOK I. 


13 


li ex parte flumine Rheno latissimo 

on, side by the river Rhine very broad 


atque 

and also 


12 altissimo, qul agrum Helvetium a Germanls 

very deep , which the territory Helvetian from the Germans 

13 dlvidit, altera ex parte monte Iura 

separates; the second on, side by Mount Jura 


14 altissimo, 

very high , 


qui est inter 

which is between 


Sequanos et 

the Sequani and 


in, on all sides, 
by the nature of 
their country: on 
one side, by the 
Rhine river very 
broad and very 
deep, which sep- 
arates the Hel- 
vetian territory 
from the Ger- 
mans ; on the sec- 
ond side, by the 
very lofty Jura 


Note that in nouns of the first declension the ultima of the abl. is always long ; in 

the nom. and voc. it is short. Helvetii, nom. plur. m., subj. of coniinentur. See 

note on Helvetii 1 . 16, Chap. I. continentur, 3d pers. plur. of co?itineo , -ere, - ul , 

•tentum, 2 (con + tenere). Note that here this verb in the pass, voice denotes that 
the people are held together, i.e. are hemmed in; while in 1 . 23, Chap. I, the same 

verb indicates that the territory is held together, i.e. is bounded. una, abl. sing. 

of unus , - a , -um ; for decl., see undm, 1 . 2, Chap. I ; find limits parte . 

Line ii. ex, prep, with the abl.; it has the form e which is only used before 
consonants, whereas ex is used before either vowels or consonants. A monosyllabic 
prep, is often thus placed between a noun and its modifier. A. & G. 345, a, 2 ; B. 58. 2 ; 
G. 413, rem. 1 ; H. 569, II. 1. parte, abl. sing, of pars , partis , f. ; it is in the 

abl. after the prep. ex. ( find ex parte: compare qud de causa , 1 . 16, Chap. I.) 

flumine, abl. sing, of fliimen , -inis, n. ; abl. of means. Rheno, abl. of Rhenus, -l, 

m.; in apposition with flumine. latissimo, abl. sing, of the adj. latissimus , -a -um; 

superl. degree of Idtus, - ior , - issimus ; superl. of eminence. See A. & G. 93, b\ B. 68, 
rem. 4; G. 302; H. 444, 1. atque, conj., see note on this particle, 1 . 10, Chap. I. 

Line 12. altissimo, abl. sing, of the adj. altissimus , -a, -um ; superl. degree of 
altus , -ior, -issimus. altissimo is connected by atque with latissimo ', and is in the same 
grammatical construction. Note that altus = high or low , according to the concep- 
tion of the point of observation. qui, rel pron., nom. sing, m., refers to the 

appositive Rhend rather than to flumine ; qul is subject-nom. of dlvidit .— — agrum, 

acc. sing, of ager, agrl, m., direct obj. of dlvidit ager denotes the open country — 
the fields; whereas finis in the sing. = a boundary, in the plur. = boundaries, i.e. 

territory with limits. Helvetium, acc. sing. m. of the adj. Ilelvetius , -a, -um ; 

it limits agrum. a, prep, with the abl. See note on ab, 1 . 6, Chap. I. 

Germanls, abl. plur. after prep. d. See note on Germanls , 1 . 18, Chap. I. 

Line 13. dlvidit, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. of dlvido , -ere, -vlsl, -visum, 3; it 

agrees with its subject-nom. qul. altera, abl. sing. f. of alter, altera, alterum, 

gen. alierius , dat. alterl. The gen. alterius is usually accented on the antepenult. 
alterd modifies parte. Synonyms: alter = the one, the other of two ; whereas alius = 

other, another, of an indefinite number. ex, prep, with the abl. See note on ex 

parte, 1. 11, above. monte, abl. sing, of mons, montis , m. monte is the abl. of 

means after continentur, 1 . 10, above. Iura, abl. sing, of Iura, - ae , m. Iura is 

in apposition with monte . The Iura is a mountain-range, extending from the Rhine 
to the Rhone. 

Line 14. altissimo, see note on altissimo, 1 . 12, above. qui, nom. sing. m. 

of the rel. pron.; its antecedent is monte, and qul is the subject-nom. of est. See 


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14 


Caesar’s gallic war 


[CHAP. II. 


mountain - range, 
which lies be- 
tween the Sequa- 
ni and the Hel- 
vetii ; on the 
third side, by 
Lake Geneva 
and the Rhone 
river, which sep- 
arates our prov- 
ince from the Hel- 
vetii. From this 
state of things, 


Helvetios, tertia lacu Lemanno et is 

the Ilelvetii ; on the third (side) by Lake Leman and 

flumine Rhodan5, qul provinciam nostram 16 

the river Rhone , which province our , 


ab Helvetils dlvidit. His rebus n 

from the Ilelvetii separates . Because of these things , 


flebat, ut et minus late vagarentur is 

it came to pass that both less widely they roamed 


note on est , 1 . i, Chap. I. inter, prep, with the acc. Sequanos. Sequanos, 

acc. pi. of Sequani y -orum y m. ; acc. after the prep, inter. The Sequani were a Gallic 
clan occupying the territory between the river Arar — the modern Saone — and 
Mount Jura. 

Line 15. Helvetids, acc. plur. of Helvetii , - drum , m., connected by et with 
Sequanos , and in the same grammatical construction. See note on Helvetios y 1 . 1, 

above. tertia, abl. sing. f. of ordinal-adj. tertius , -a y -um ; supply ex parte . 

tertia agrees with parte thus supplied; and parte thus supplied is governed by the 

prep, ex understood. lacu, abl. sing, of lacus , -us y m. lacu is an abl. of means 

after continentur , 1 . 10, above. Lemanno, abl. sing, of Lemannus y m. 

Lemanno is an appositive. The Leman Lake here mentioned is the modern Lake 
Geneva situated between Switzerland and the recently acquired territories of France; 
its length in crescent-form is rather more than fifty miles; its greatest breadth 
eight miles. 

Line 16. flumine, abl. of flumen y -inis y n. ; connected by et with lacu y and in the 

same grammatical construction. Rhodand, see note on Rhodand, 1. 23, Chap. I. 

qul, rel. pron., refers to the appositive Rhodand as its antecedent, and is the 

subject-nom. of dividit. provinciam, acc. sing, of provincia, -ae y f. ; it is the 

direct obj. of dividit. The reference is to the Roman Province in the south-east 

part of Gallia otnttis. nostram, acc. sing. f. of the poss. pron. noster , - tra , - trum ; 

it limits provinciam. 

Line 17. ab, prep, with the abl. See note on ab y 1 . 6, Chap. I. Helvetils, 

abl. plur. of the adj. Helvetius, -a y -«;//, used substantively. Helvetils is in the abl. 

after the prep. ab. For description, see note on Helvetii, 1 . 16, Chap. I. dividit, 

3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. of divido y -ere y - visi, -visum y 3. his, abl. plur. f. of 

the dem. pron. hic y haec y hoc; it modifies rebus. rebus is the abl. plur. of res, 

rei y f. rebus is abl. of cause. See A. & G. 245; B. 165; G. 408; H. 416. 

Line 18. flebat, 3d pers. sing, of the imperf. ind. of fio y fieri , factus y used as 
pass, of facio. flebat is used impersonally, or, strictly, the following ut . . . possent 

is the subject. ut, conj. = that. et . . . et = strictly, both . . . and ; it is 

often the better way to omit the first ei in the translation. minus, adv., com- 
parative degree of parum y superl. minime. minus modifies late. late, adv. 

(latusy wide) ; it modifies vagarentur. vagarentur, 3d pers. plur. imperf. sub- 

junctive of vagor y - ari y - atus y deponent ; its subject-nom. is ei y i.e. Helvetii. vagarentur 
is subjunctive of result after ut; i.e. the clause ut . . . vagdrentur is a noun-clause, 
and subj. of flebat. Consult A. & G. 332, a y 2 ; B. 201, rem. i, (e)\ G. 553, 3; H. 501, 1 . 


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LINKS 10-21.] 


BOOK I. 


15 


19 et minus facile flnitimls bellum Inferre 
and less easily upon the neighbors war to bring 

20 possent ; qua ex parte homines bellandl 

were they able ; which on, ground men of warring 

21 cupidi magno dolore afficiebantur. Pr 5 

eager , with great grief were affected . For 


it resulted that 
they wandered 
the less widely, 
and could the less 
easily bring war 
upon the neigh- 
boring clans ; in 
which respect 
these men so 
fond of wag- 


Line 19. minus, adv. ; it modifies facile. facile, adv., comparative facilius , 

superl. facillime. For formation of adverbs from adjectives, see A. & G. 148; 

B. 1 1 7. 6; G. 91, (c); H. 306. facile modifies inferre. finitimis, dat. plur. m. 

of the adj. finitimus, -a, -um (derived from finis); in the plur. used as a subst. 
finitimis is dat. plur. after the in in the compound inferre. A. & CL 228; B. 143; 

G. 347 ; II. 386, 1. bellum, acc. sing, of bellum , -i, n. ; bellum is the acc. of the 

direct obj. of inferre. Observe that the dat. after this verb depends on the pre- 
positional part of the compound, and the acc. upon the strictly verbal part — ferre . 
inferre, pres. inf. act. of inferd , ferre , -tuli, ill - or in-ldtum. inferre is a com- 
plementary inf. depending on possent . Consult A. & G. 271, and note; B. 181 ; 

G. 423; II. 533, 2. 

Line 20. possent is 3d pers. plur. imperf. subjunctive of possum , posse , potui 
(potis -f- sum) ; it is connected by et with vagdrentur , and in the subjunctive for the 

same reason. qua, at the beginning of a sentence — et ed. See A. & CL 180,/; 

B. 129, rem. 9; G. 610, rkm. 1 ; H. 453. qua limits parte. ex, prep, with the abl. 

(e before consonants only ; ex before vowels and consonants). parte, abl. sing. 

of pars , partis , f . ; parte is in the abl. after ex. See note on qua de causd, 1 . 16, 
Chap. I. qua ex parte = lit. on which part or side; more freely the phrase = and in 
this respect. The older reading here is: qud de causd. The phrase qud ex parte 
is a locdtid vexativa. The text and context show it is to be explained by what 
immediately follows, and = in which respect — being men fond of war — they 

had great vexation. homines, nom. plur. of homo , -inis, m. and f. homines 

is the subject-nom. of afficiebantur ; or, better perhaps, taken as an appositive 
to ei , the subject; i.e. they as men. Synonyms: homo is the generic term for 

man; vir is the special designation = the man of courage, the hero. bellandl, 

gen. of the gerund bellandum, -di, -do, - dum , -do. This neuter verbal noun occurs 
only in the gen., dat., acc. and abl. cases. This gerund is formed from the 
first stem of belld, -are, -dvi, - dtum , 1, thus: bella + ndl, -ndo, -ndum, -nd 5 . bellandi 
is objective gen. after the adj. cupidi. A. & G. 298; B. 184, rem. 4, I; G. 428; 

H. 542, 1 . The adjectives that take the gen. of the gerund denote desire, knowledge, 
recollection, and their contraries. 

Line 21. .cupidi, nom. plur. m. of the adj. cupidus, -a, -um (cupere, to desire). 
cupidi is an attributive of homines, but =.the relative predicative clause : who were 

desirous. magno, abl. sing. m. of the adj. rndgnus, -a, -um ; comparative maior, 

superl. mdximus. magno modifies dolore. dolore is the abl. sing, of dolor, - dris , m. ; 

it is an abl. of manner. A. & G. 248; B. 168, rem. i ; CL 399; H. 419, III. 

afficiebantur, 3d pers. plur. imperf. ind. pass, of af{d)ftcio, -ere, -feci, -fectum , 3 

(ad -f facere, lit. to do to one something, i.e. to affect him in some way). Pro, 

prep, with the abl. =/^r, in view of. 


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16 


caesar’s gallic war . 


[CHAP. II. 


ing war were af- 
fected with great 
discontent. More- 
over, considering 
their large num- 
ber of men and 
their reputation 
for prowess in 
war, they thought 
that they had 
too narrow limits 
which extended 


multitudine autem hominum et pro gloria 22 

the large number , moreover, of men and for the glory 

belli atque fortitudinis angustos se 23 

of war and of bravery narrow themselves 

fines habere arbitrabantur, qul in 24 

boundaries to have they thought, which in 

longitudinem mllia passuum ducenta et 28 

length thousands of paces two hundred and 


Line 22. multitudine, abl. sing, of multitudo , - inis , f. (multus); abl. after pro . 

autem, a weak adversative conj., usually = but . Here, however, it = moreover . 

hominum, gen. plur. of homo , - inis , m. ; it limits multitudine. et, cop. conj., 

here joins the phrases as if of equal importance. pro, note how the notions are 

kept quite distinct by the repetition of the prep. gloria, abl. sing, of gloria , -ae, f. ; 

abl. after pro . 

Line 23. belli, gen. poss. of bellum , -*, n. ; it limits gloria . The phrase prB 

glorid belli = lit. for war's glory. atque, adds a more important notion = and 

also . fortitudinis, gen. sing, of fortitudo , -inis, f. Observe that belli atque 

fortitudinis = bellicae fortitudinis (hendiadys). See note on humdnitdte , 1. io, Chap. I. 

angustos, acc. plur. m. of the adj. angustus , - a , -um ; angustos is an attributive 

of fines . se, acc. plur. of pron. sui, sibi , se, se; se is here the subject-acc. of habere . 

Line 24. fines, acc. plur. of finis , -is, m. fines is the direct obj. of habere. 

habere is the pres. inf. act. of habeo , -ere, -ui, -Hum, 2. arbitrabantur, 3d pers. 

plur. imperf. ind. of deponent arbitror, -ari, -dtus, 1 ; its subject-nom. is the pron. et, 
i.e. Helvetii. Note that the positive angustos in 1. 23, above, with the preceding pro - 
phrases expresses disproportion ; i.e. indicates limits too narrow for their number. 
Vide Gildersleeve’s Lat. Gram. § 289, rem. The direct form of the acc.-clause is: 

angustos nds fines habemus. qui, rel. pron., nom. plur. m. ; it refers to fines , 

the obj. of habere, as its antecedent, and is the subject-nom. of patebant, 1. 27, 
below. Here the pron. seems to = since. Causal propositions indeed generally take 
the subjunctive, but a statement viewed as fact admits of the indicative with qui. 
Consult A. & G. note immediately preceding 321, under the captjon 5. Causal 

Clauses; B. 198, rem. 2 ; G. 626; H. 517, 2. in, prep, with acc. and abl.; here 

with the acc. See grammatical references, 1. 1, Chap. I, end. 

Line 25. longitudinem) acc. sing, of longitudo, -inis, f. (longus); acc. after in. 

mllia, acc. plur. of adj. mille, indeclinable in the sing., but in the plur. it is 

declinable, and used as a neuter noun, milia is here an acc. of extent of space. 
A. & G. 257; B. 153 ; G. 335 ; H. 379. Observe that the form millia is used in some 

editions instead of milia. passuum, gen, plur. of passus, -us, m. ; partitive gen. 

after milia. A. & G. 216, a, 2; B. 134; G. 370; H. 397, 2. milia passuum = lit. 
thousands of paces; i.e. about four hundred feet less than an English mile. The 
phrase may be elegantly rendered into English by our word mile, although it should 

be borne in mind that one Roman mile = ten-elevenths of an English mile. 

ducenta (duo + centum), acc. plur. n. of ducenti, -ae, -a; it agrees with milia.' 

et, cop. conj., connects the two cardinals. In some texts, this numeral is expressed 
by CC. 


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LINES 26 - 27 .] 


BOOK I. 


17 


26 quadraginta, in latitudinem 


forty 

in breadth 

27 octoginta 

patebant. 

eighty 

extended. 


centum et 

a hundred and 


merely two hun- 
dred and forty 
miles in length, 
and one hundred 
and eighty in 
breadth. 


1 III. His rebus 

By these things 

2 Orgetorigis permoti 

of Orgetorix moved 


adductl et auctoritate 

led and by the counsel 

constituerunt ea, 

they determined those things 


III. Influenced 
by these consid- 
erations, and per- 
suaded by the 
counsel of Orge- 
torix, the Hel- 


Line 26. quadraginta, indecl. num. adj. ; it is connected by et with ducenta , 
and limits milia also, quadraginta is sometimes expressed by XL. Observe that 
of the cardinals, unus, duo and ires are declined ; but that from quattuor to centum 

the cardinals are indeclinable. in, prep, with acc. ; for grammatical references, 

see 1 . 1, Chap. I. latitudinem, acc. sing, of latitudo, - inis , f. ( latus , wide); acc. 

after prep. in. centum, an indecl. num. adj. ; sometimes represented by C. 

Line 27. octdginta, an indecl. num. adj.; sometimes represented by LXXX. 

These adjectives limit milia, to be supplied. patebant, 3d pers. plur. imperf. 

ind. act. of pated , - ere , -ui, 2, intrans. ; it agrees with its subject-nom. qui , 1. 24, above. 

Note. — Let the reader bear in mind that (a) this multitude was, according to 
Chap. XXIX, about 263,000 of those qui arma ferre possent; ( b ) that the boundaries 
of Helvetia extended in longitudinem from the Jura range of mountains to Lake 
Constance; (c) that the boundaries extended in latitudinem from Basle to the 
Lepontine Alps. 

Line i. HIs, abl. plur. f. of the dem. pron. hie, haec , hoc. His is an attributive 

of rebus . rebus, abl. plur. of res , rei , f. rebus is an abl. of cause. 'A. & G. 245, 

and 2. b; B. 165, and rem. 4 ; G. 408, and note 2 ; H. 416, and note i. So far as 
the form goes, rebus might be in the dat. case, but we infer that it is in the abl. of 
cause, because we know that intrans. and pass, verbs, and pass, participles of emo- 
tion usually take the cause in the abl. case. adductl, perf. pass, participle of 

addiicd, - ere , -diixi, - ductum , 3 == having been led , or being led, or simply led. adducti 

agrees with Helvetii, the omitted subj. of constituerunt . et, cop. conj., connects 

adducti and permoti. auetdritate, abl. of subjective cause after permoti. 

Line 2. Orgetorigis, gen. sing, of Orgetorix , -igis, m. ; limits auctoritdte. Orge- 
torix was an Helvetian nobleman. Observe that the nom. case Orgetorix is formed 
by adding s to the stem Orgetorig; the final g , a palatal, uniting with s forms x . 
Compare rex , stem reg, and consult A. & G. 44 ; B. 46, II, 1 ; G. 50 and 52 ; 

H. 30, and 59, 1, 3). permoti, nom. plur. m. of perf. pass, participle permotus , 

-a, - um , of the verb permoved , -ere, - movi \ - motum , 2 (per, intensive = very + movere). 

permoti agrees with Helvetii , the omitted subj. of constituerunt. constituerunt, 

3d pers. plur. perf. ind. act. of constituo, -ere, - stitui , - stitutum , 3. Observe that the 

pres, stem and the perf. stem of this verb are alike. ea, acc. neuter plur. of the 

dem. pron. is, ea, id; direct obj. of compardre ; ea agrees with the word for things to 
be supplied ; or, in other words, the pron. is used substantively. See A. & G. 189, b\ 
B. 6o, rem. ; G. 204, note 2 ; H. 441, 1, 


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18 


CAESAR S GALLIC WAR 


[CHAP. III. 


vetii determined 
to provide such 
things as were 
necessary for the 
expedition : to 

buy as large a 
number as pos- 
sible of horses 
and carts ; to sow 
as many fields as 
possible, in order 
that they might 


quae ad proficiscendum pertinerent, comparare, 3 

which to going forth pertained , to prepare , 

iumentorum et carrorum quam maximum 4 

of beauts of burden and of carts as much as the greatest 

numerum coemere, sementes quam maximas 5 

number to purchase , sowings as much as the greatest 

facere, ut in itinere copia frumentl 6 

to make , that on the journey aplenty of corn 


Line 3. quae, nom. plur. n. of the rel. pron. qui , quae , quod; it agrees with its 
antecedent in gender and number, but not in case, quae is subject-nom. of per- 
tinerent, ad, prep, with the acc. proficiscendum, acc. of the gerund of the 

verb proficiscor , -i, profectus , deponent, 3; the gerund is in the acc. after the prep, ad. 
Consult A. & G. 300; B. 184, rf.m. 4, III; G. 432; H. 542, III. ad proficiscendum 

= lit. to the going forth, pertinerent, 3d pers. plur. imperf. subjunctive act. of 

per tilted, -ere, -id (per + tenere = lit. to stretch through to a place ; hence pertinere = to 
reach , to extend ', to pertain to anything), pertinerent is in the subjunctive mode, 
because it expresses the thought of the Helvetii , not Caesar’s thought. Consult 
A. & G. 341, d\ B. 235; G. 628; H. 528, 1. quae ad proficiscendum pertinerent = 
which things (they said) pertained to their departure. This is a good example of 

what is styled informal indirect discourse. comparare, pres. inf. complementary 

of compard , 1. compardre completes the meaning of constituerunt without asubject- 
acc. See A. & G. 271 ; B. 86. 2 ; G. 423, 1 and 2 ; H. 533. 

Line 4. iumentorum, gen. plur. of iumentum , -i, n. ; it limits numerum. (Con- 
tracted from iugumentum = iugum + mentum.) carrdrum, gen. plur. of either 

carrtts , m., or of carrum , n.; connected by et with iumentorum , and in the same 

grammatical construction. Note that this noun of two genders is called a heteroge- 
neous noun. See A. & G. 78. 2; B. 50, 1 ; G. 6 7; II. 144. quam, adv., modifies 

tndximum ; quam is really an acc. of specification of the rel . qui, quae, quod •= in 
what way , how. Further, in the use of quam with the superl., it is a correlative to 
tarn. The full expression is: tam mdgnum quam maximum numerum = so great as 

the gi‘eatest number ; i.e. as great as possible. maximum, acc. sing. m. of adj. 

maximus, -a, -um. mdximum is superl. degree of magnus , comparative mdior ; it 
limits numerum. 

Line 5*. numerum is acc. sing, of numerus , -i, m. ; direct obj. of coemere. 

coemere is pres. inf. act. of coetno , coemere, -end, -emptum, 3 (con, intensive + 
emere = lit. to buy up). The diaeresis shows that the vowels do not coalesce as a 

diphthong, coemere is also a complementary inf. depending on constituerunt. 

sementes, acc. plur. of sementis, -is, f. {semen, seed). Some editions have here 
sementis , another form of the acc. plur. of f-stems. sementes is the direct obj. of 

facere. quam, see quam, 1. 4, above. maximas, acc. plur.; agrees with 

sementes ; see mdximum, 1. 4, above. 

Line 6. facere, pres. inf. act. of facio , -ere, -feci, -factum, 3; complementary, 

and depends on constituerunt. ut, conj. = that. in, prep, with acc. and abb ; 

here it takes the abb itinere, abb sing, of iter, itineris, n. ; abb after prep. in. 

The nom. iter is formed from the stem i finer, without s, by dropping i and n from 


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LINES 7 - 9 .] 


BOOK I. 


19 


7 suppeteret, 

cum proximis 

civitatibus pacem 

might he in atore , 

with the near ext 

states 

j>eace 

s et amlcitiam 

confirmare. 

Ad 

eas 

res 

and frienduhip 

to confirm. 

For 

these 

things 

9 conficiendas 

biennium 

sibi 

satis 

esse 

to he done the space of two years 

for them 

enough 

to he 


have a plenty of 
corn during the 
journey ; and to 
establish peace 
and friendship 
with the nearest 
states. They 
thought that a 
period of two 
years was suffi- 


the middle of the stem. copia, -ae, f., subject-nom. of suppeteret. copiae in the 

plur. = resources, troops. frumentl, gen. sing, of f rumen turn , -i, n. ; it limits 

cdpia. (Contracted from frugl [stem of friix,frugis] + mentum.) 

Line 7. suppeteret, 3d pers. sing, imperf. subjunctive of suppeto, - ere, - tivi (-/*), 
•1 Hturn , 3, n. (sub + petere = lit. to go to one ; hence, to be near), suppeteret is a neuter 
verb; supply eis, dat. of possessor. A. & G. 231 ; B. 146; G. 349; H. 387. The 
dat. of the possessor occurs after abest, deest, ddfit, fore and suppetit ; it is in the 

subjunctive of purpose after ut. A. & G. 317 ; B. 200, (£) ; G. 544 ; II. 497, II. 

cum, prep, with the abl. proximis, abl. plur. f., adj., superl. of the comparative 

propior; it agrees with civitatibus. The comparative degree is derived from stem 
prope—near, not used as adj. The positive degree is wanting. See A. & G. 91 ; 
B. 74, 1 ; G. 87. 8 ; H. 166. This list of every-day adjectives should be memorized. 

Civitatibus, abl. plur. of civitds, - dtis , f. ; abl. of manner with prep. cum. 

A. & G. 248; B. 168, rem. 1 ; G. 399; H. 419, III. (civitds is derived from clvis 

+ the ending tas, forming an abstract noun = citizenship .) pacem, acc. sing, of 

pax, pads , f. ; direct obj. of confirm are. pax is from the root pac, as seen in 
pacts c or y pactus y 3 ; hence = a thing agreed to y and, as a result, peace. 

Line 8. et, conj. ; observe how it joins here words of equal importance. 

amlcitiam, acc. sing, of amicitia y -ae y f. ; direct obj. of confirmare. ( amicus =• that 

loves, from amare.) confirmare, also complementary inf. of confirm 0, 1, and 

depends on constituerunt, 1 . 2, above. Observe the omission of the conjun< tion 

before the complementary infinitives facere and confirmare (asyndeton). Ad, 

prep, with the acc. eas, acc. plur. of the dem. pron. is, ea y id; it is the attrib- 
utive of res; it refers to the particulars mentioned in the preceding sentence. 

res is the acc. plur. of res , rei, f., and follows the prep. ad. 

Line 9. conficiendas, gerundive or fut. pass, participle of conficio , - ere , feci , fectum , 
3; it agrees in gender, number and case with res. The construction as a whole denotes 
purpose. Consult A. & G. 300; B. 184, rem. 4, III ; G. 432 ; H. 544, and note 2. The 
phrase ad eas res conficiendas = lit .for those things to be accomplished. This construction 
is often best rendered by a participle in -ing with a direct obj. The gerundive phrase 
thus = for accomplishing these things. Compare note on effeminandds , 1 . 13, Chap. 1 . 

biennium, acc. sing, of biennium, -i y n. ; subject-acc. of esse, (bis + annus.) 

sibi, dat. plur. of the reflexive pron. sui, sibi , se, se. sibi is dat. of reference. 

A. & G. 235 ; B. 145 ; G. 352 ; II. 384, II, 1, 2). This dat. is usually called dat. of 

advantage or disadvantage (dat. com. aut incom.). satis, usually an adv. ; here 

it is an adj. in predicate-acc. after esse. esse, pres. inf. of sum , esse,fui ', fut. 

participle futurus. Observe that the infinitive-clause is the direct obj. of duxerutit . 
This is an example of implied indirect discourse. What they thought, expressed in 
direct form, is : biennium nobis satis est. 


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20 


[CHAP. III. 


Caesar’s gallic war 


cient for them to 
accomplish these 
things, and, ac- 
cordingly, they es- 
tablished by law 
their migration 
for the third year. 
Orgetorix was 
chosen to con- 
summate these 
plans. He took 
upon himself an 


duxerunt ; in tertium annum profectionem 10 

they thought ; for the third year the departure 

lege conformant. Ad eas res conficiendas it 
by law they establish. For these things to be accomplished 

Orgetorix deligitur. Is sibi legationem 12 

Orgetorix is chosen. lie upon himself a legation 

ad clvitates suscepit. In eo itinere 13 

to the states took. On that journey 


Line 10. duxerunt, 3d pers. plur. perf. ind. act. of duco, - ere , duxi, ductum , 3. 
Its subj. is, of course, Ilelvetii to be supplied, ducere = lit. (a) to lead , in the widest 
sense; (b ) to lead in regard to one’s will, hence, to influence ; (c) to lead one in regard 
to time, to protract ', put off; and (d) to lead or control one’s own thought, to reckon , 

to think. in, prep, with acc. and abl. ; here with the acc. in an idiomatic phrase 

=zfor. tertium, acc. sing. m. of the ordinal-adj. tertius , -a, -um ; it limits 

annum. annum, acc. sing, of annus , -i, m. ; the object of the prep. in. The 

phrase in tertium annum = for the third year. See A. & G. 259, b\ B. 120. 3; 

G. 418. 1 ; H. 435, I, 2. profectionem, acc. of profectio , -onis, f. ; direct obj. of 

cdnfirmant. (Derived from profectus, the participle of proficiscor , -/, 3, deponent ; 
hence lit. = a going away.) 

Line ii. lege, abl. of lex , legis, f . ; abl. of means. By law here means by a 

resolution of an assembly of the people. cdnfirmant, 3d pers. plur. pres. ind. 

act. of confirmd, -are, -dvi, -dtum, 1 ; its subject-nom. is Helvetia understood. 

Ad eas res cdnficiendas, see the phrase explained lines 8 and 9, above. 

Line 12. Orgetorix, -origis, m. ; subject-nom. of deligitur. deligitur, 3d pers. 

sing. pres. ind. pass, of deligo , -ere, - legt , - ledum , 3 (de + legere = lit. to choose from). 
Observe that deligitur is an historical pres. ; so also cdnfirmant , 1 . 11, above; while 
the very next sentence has the perfect. This use of the historical pres, for the 
historical perf. is common enough in all languages ; it conduces to vivacity, but is 
at the expense of stateliness and dignity of historical narration. Caution : Do not 

confound deligo , 3 = I choose, with deligo, 1 = / find. Is, dem. pron. = lit. this, 

or that, but, often, as here used, as a personal pron. of the 3d person. is is a 
weaker demonstrative than hie , tile and iste ; it frequently refers to an object just 
mentioned, as in the text it refers to Orgetorix ; but is is emphatic when it stands 
at the head of a principal sentence. Is is the subject-nom. of suscepit. For special 
directions, as to the use of this pron., see A. & G. 102, d; B. 87, B. 7 ; G. 308; 

H. 451. sibi, dat. of the indirect obj. after the compound suscepit. A. & G. 

227,/, and 228; B. 143; G. 345, 347 ; H. 384, 386, 1. legationem, acc. sing, of 

legdtio, -onis , f. ; direct obj. of suscepit. legdtio is a verbal abstract noun formed 
from the verb-stem lega (of legere, to despatch) + tio = lit. a despatching. 

Line 13. clvitates, acc. plur. after ad; for other particulars, see civitatibus, 1 . 7, 

above. suscepit, 3d pers. sing, of suscipio, -ere, -cepi, -ceptum, 3 (sub + capere = lit. 

to take from beneath; hence — to undertake), suscepit agrees with its subject-nom. is. 

In, prep, with acc. and abl. ; here it takes the abl. eo, abl. sing. n. of dem. 

pron. is, ea, id; it agrees with itinere , but it refers to his embassy. Here in eo 
itinere = in ed legdtione, but might be freely rendered as if the text were in suo 
itinere. The design of Orgetorix’s tour to the SequanI, Aedul, etc., was to arouse 


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LINES 14 - 17 .] 


BOOK I. 


21 


14 persuadet 

Castico, 

Catamantaloedis 

fili5, 

he persuades 

Casticus , 

Catamantaloedes' s 

son, 

15 Sequano, 

cuius 

pater 

regnum 

in 

a Sequanian , 

whose 

father 

the sovereignty 

among 

ic Sequanis 

multos 

annos 

obtinuerat 

et 

the Sequani 

many 

years 

had held 

and 

17 a senatu 

populi 

Romani 

amicus 

by the senate of the people 

Roman, 

friend 


embassy to the 
states. In the 
course of that 
progress he pre- 
vailed on Casti- 
cus, son of Ca- 
tamantaloedes, a 
Sequanian, whose 
father had held 
the royal power 
among the Se- 
quani for many 


the various clans to make some sort of united effort to secure the sovereignty of 

entire Gaul. The number of clans throughout Gaul was about sixty. itinere, 

see itinere, 1. 6, above. 

Line 14. persuadet, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. of persuaded , -ere , - sudsl , 
-sud sum, 2 (per + suadere = lit. to advise thoroughly). Note that persuadet is an 

historical pres., and see remarks on deligitur , 1 . 12, above. Castico, dat. of the 

proper noun Castieus t m. ; dat. after the intrans. verb persuddet. A. & G. 227 ; 
B. 142 ; G. 346, rem. 2 ; H. 385, II. The student will observe that, in such con- 
structions, many intrans. verbs in Latin have a transitive meaning in English, and 
are to be rendered into English as such; i.e. just as if they took the acc. of the 

direct obj. Casticus was an influential Sequanian. Catamantaloedis, gen. sing. 

of Catamantaloedes, -is, m. ; it limits ftlio, Often spelled Catamantaledes ; he was 
a nobleman among the Sequanl. filio, dat. sing, of filius , -*, m., an appositive. 

Line 15. Sequand, dat. sing, of the noun Sequanus , -/, m. ; an appositive; both 
ftlio and Sequand are in apposition with Castico. Consult A. & G. 184; B. 127; 
G. 321 ; H. 363. The territory of the Sequanl was bounded by Mount Jura and the 

river I)oubs. cuius, gen. sing. m. of qui, quae , quod; it limits pater, cuius 

pater — lit. father of 7 uhom; the rel. refers to Castico. pater, nom. sing, of pater , 

patris, m.; pater is subject-nom. of obtinuerat. The stem of pater is regarded by 
some as patr , as seen in the gen. patris. But compare GK. irari}/>, gen. iraripot, 
syncopated form irarpbs. Comparative grammar thus favors pater as the true stem. 

regnum, acc. sing, of regnum , -i, n. ; direct obj. of obtinuerat. regnum here 

denotes the dominion of which the old kings had been dispossessed. in, prep. 

with acc. and abl. ; here with the abl. = among. 

Line 16. multds, acc. plur. m. of the adj. multus, -a, -um ; comparative plus, 

superl. plurimus. multds is an attributive of annos. an nos, acc. plur. of 

annus , m.; acc. of time how long. A. & G. 256, 2 ; B. 153 ; G. 336; H. 379. 

Obtinuerat, 3d pers. sing, pluperf. ind. act. of obtineo , -ere, -ui, -ten turn, 2 ; it agrees 
with its subject-nom. pater. et, cop. conj., connects the verbs. 

Line 17. a, prep, with the abl. d before consonants, ab before either vowels 

or consonants. senatu, abl. sing, of sendtus , -us, m. ; abl. of the agent with 

prep. d. Consult A. & G. 246; B. 166; G. 401 ; II. 415, I. populi, gen. sing. 

of populus, - i , m. ; populi limits senatu. Romani, gen. sing. m. of the adj. 

Romdnus, -a, -um ; it modifies populi. Synonyms: populus = the people collectively, 
including the senate; whereas plebs or plebes = the cotnmon people opposed to senators 

and knights. amicus, -i, m. ; here predicate-nom. after appelldtus erat. amicus 

is here the designation of a mere title, conferred by the Roman senate with the 
design of attaching the barbarians to Roman interests. 


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Google 




22 


caesar’s gallic war 


[CHAP. III. 


years, and who 
had been called 
f riend by the sen- 
ate of the Roman 
people, to seize 
the sovereignty 
in his own state, 
which his father 
had held previ- 
ously. And he 
also prevailed on 
Dumnorix the 
Aeduan, brother 


a p(d)pellatu s erat, ut regnum in civitate is 

had been called , that the sovereignty in state 


sua occuparet, quod pater ante 19 

his own , he might seize , which his father before 


habuerat ; itemque DumnorigI Aeduo, fratri 20 

had held; also and , Dumnorix an Aeduan, a brother 


Divitiaci, qul e 5 tempore prlncipatum 21 

of Divitiacus, who at that time the first position 


Line 18. appellatus erat, 3d pers. sing, pluperf. pass, of appello , -are , -dvi , 
-dtum, 1 ; it is connected by the conj. et with obtinuerat , and has the same subj. : 

pater. ut, telic conj. here. regnum, -i, n. ; direct obj. of occuparet. See 

note on regnum , 1. 15, above. in, prep, with acc. and abl. ; here it takes the abl. 

civitate, abl. sing, of civitds , -dtis, f. ; abl. after prep. in. 

Line 19. sua, abl. sing. f. of poss. pron. suus , -a, -um ; it modifies civitdte. 

occuparet, 3d pers. sing, imperf. subjunctive of oc&upo , - dre , - dvi , - dturn , 1 ; its 
subject-nom. is Casticus , to be supplied; subjunctive of purpose after ut. A. & G. 
317, 1 ; B. 200, (b ) ; G. 552, 553 ; H. 497, II. The tense is imperf., because persuddet 
is the historical pres, which admits the secondary sequence. Consult A. & G. 287, e; 

B. 190, rem. I ; G. 51 1 ; H. 495, II. quod, acc. sing. n. of rel. pron. qui, quae , 

quod; its antecedent is regnum ; it is the direct obj. of habuerat. pater, patris, 

m. ; subject-nom. of habuerat. ante, adv., here = previously ; it is oftener a 

prep, with the acc. 

Line 20. habuerat, 3d pers. sing, pluperf. ind. act. of habeo , -ere, - ut , - itum , 2. 

itemque = item + que. item , adv. (is). Synonyms : etiam (et + iam) serves to 

add a notion to a statement = and also; whereas item indicates that one statement 
is made after the same manner as another = also, etiam alone often = item + que. 

DumnorigI, dat. of Dumnorix , -igis, m. ; dat. after persuddet , 1 . 24, below. See 

A. & G. 227; B. 142; G. 346, rem. 2; H. 385, II. See also note on Castico , 1 . 14, 
above. Dumnorix was a younger brother of Divitiacus, a devotee of the old 
aristocratic order of things among the Aedui. He was intensely hostile to the 

Roman party in his clan. Aeduo, dat. sing, of Aeduus , m. ; here used as a 

noun from the adj. Aeduus , - a , -um. Aeduo is in opposition with Dumnorigi. The 
Aedui were a Gallic clan living, at the time of Caesar’s invasion of Gaul, in the 

territory between the Loire and the Saone. fratri, dat. sing, of f rater, frdtris, m. ; 

appositive of Dumnorigi. 

Line 21. Divitiaci, gen. sing, of Divitiacus , -/, m. ; it limits frdtri. qui, rel. 

pron., nom. sing, m., refers to Divitiaci; it is subject-nom. of obtinebat. eo, abl. n. 

of dem. pron. is, ea, id; it limits tempore. tempore, abl. case of tempus , -oris, n. ; 

abl. of time when. See A. & G. 256, I ; B. 171 ; G. 393; H. 429. The root of tempus is 
tern, as seen in the c;k. tIjavu, to cut ; hence = a section or division , in particular, of 

time. The time referred to is that of Orgetorix’s journey. prlncipatum, acc. 

sing, of prtncipdhts, -its, m. ; direct obj. of obtinebat. principdtus is derived from 
princeps (primus -f- capere); hence = the foremost position or the most influential posi- 
tion in the state. 



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I 


LINES 22-25.] 


BOOK I. 


23 


22 in clvitate obtinebat ac maxime plebi 

in the state was holding and especially to the common people 

23acceptus erat, ut idem conaretur, 

acceptable was , that the same he might attempt, 

24 persuadet elque flliam suam in 

he persuades, . him and, daughter his in (into) 

25 matrimonium dat. Perfacile factu esse 

marriage he gives . Very easy in the doing to &e(it is) 


of Pivitiacus, 
who at that time 
was holding a 
very influential 
position in his 
state, and was 
very acceptable 
to the common 
people, to make a 
like attempt, and 
he gave him his 
daughter in mar- 


Line 22. in clvitate, see note on this phrase, 1. 18, above. obtinebat, 

3d pers. sing, of obtined , -ere, - ut , - tentum , 3 (ob + tenere == lit. to hold by or against 

anything ); it agrees with its subject-nom. qui. ac, see note on atque , 1. 10, 

Chap. I. maxime, adv., superl. degree of the comparative magis ; mu l turn 

(multd) is sometimes used as an irr. positive, maxime qualifies the adj. acceptus. 

plebi, dat. sing, of plebs , -is, f. ; dat. after the adj. acceptus. A. & G. 234 ; 

B. 144; G. 359; H, 391, I. 

Line 23. acceptus, a participial adj.; predicate after erat. This participle is 
from the verb accipid , -ere, - cepi , -ceptum, 3 (ad + capere — lit. to take to one's self ; 
hence in participle = acceptable). Synonyms : grdtus is the proper epithet to bestow 
upon one who is dear, beloved ; it has reference to the feelings ; whereas acceptus 
refers to the expression of the feelings; in other words, acceptus is related to grdtus 

as effect to cause : he who is grdtus, for that very reason is acceptus. erat, 

3d pers. sing, imperf. ind. of the intrans. verb sum, esse,fui, fut. participle futurus; 

connected by ac with obtinebat, and has the same subj. qui. ut, telic conj. here. 

idem, acc. sing. n. of the dem. pron. idem , eadem, idem (from root whence is, and 

the demonstrative suffix -dem)\ cognate acc. after conaretur. A. & G. 238, b\ B. 150, 
rem. 2; G. 333, I; H. 371, II. Observe that the cognate acc. is used with both 

trans. and intrans. verbs. conaretur, 3d pers. sing, imperf. subjunctive of the 

deponent verb conor, -dri, -dtus, 1 ; subjunctive of purpose after ut. Note that ut 
idem conaretur is a noun-clause of purpose, the direct obj. of persuadet. Consult 
A. & G. 331 ; B. 200, and rem. 2 ; G. 546; H. 498. condretur is in the imperf. tense, 
because it depends on an historical pres., which admits of either the primary or 
secondary sequence, more commonly the latter. 

Line 24. persuadet, see note on this verb, 1 . 14, above; historical pres. 

eique = ei -f- que ; ei is dat. sing, of the dem. pron. is, ea, id; dat. of the indirect 
obj. after dat. Observe how closely the clauses are connected by the enclitic -que. 

flliam, acc. sing, of filia, -ae, i . ; direct obj. of dat. Let the student remember 

that dea and filia, though nouns of the first declension, yet have the dat. and abl. 
plur. in -dbus, by exception. The exception is taken in order to avoid confusion 

with the dat. plur. of deus and filius. suam, acc. sing. f. of the poss. adj. pron. 

stius , -a, -um; it refers to the subj. of dat, but agrees in gender and number with 

flliam. This is the usual construction ; filiam sui would be inadmissible. in, 

prep, with acc. and abl. ; here used idiomatically with the acc. after dat, as if dat 
were a verb of motion : he gives into marriage ; the English idiom is : he gives in 
marriage. 

Line 25. matrimonium, acc. sing, of mdtrimonium , - i , n. ; the obj. of the prep. 
in (from stem matri + monium = state of motherhood). dat, 3d pers. sing, of do, 


24 


Caesar’s gallic war 


[CHAP. m. 


riage. He showed 
them how easy 
it would be to 
accomplish the 
venture, as he 
personally was 
about to seize the 
supreme power 
in his own state ; 


illis probat coniita perficere, propterea 26 

to them he proves attempts to accomplish, for this reason 

quod ipse suae civitatis imperium 27 

because he himself of his own state the military power 

obtenturus esset ; non esse dubium, 28 

about to acquire was ; not to be (it is) doubtful, 


dare , dedi , datum, I ; but observe that by exception the a before -re in the pres, 
inf. act. is short; dat, like persuddet ', in the preceding line, agrees with Orgetorix 

understood as subject-nom. Perfacile, acc. sing. n. of the adj. perfacilis , -e, 

predicate-acc. after esse (per + facilis). factu, a latter supine of facto, -ere, feci, 

factum , 3 ; in fact, it is a noun of the fourth decl., in the abl. case of specification. 

Consult A. & G. 253, a\ B. 186 (B) ; G. 397, 436; H. 545, note i. esse, its 

subject-acc. is the inf. phrase condta perficere . 

Line 26. Ulls, i.e. Casticus and Dumnorix; dat. of the indirect obj. after probat . 

probat, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. of probo, -dre, -dvi, -atum, 1 ( probus , good) ; 

an historical present-conative. Consult A. & G. 2 76, d; G. 227, 2; H. 467, 6. 

cOnata, acc. plur. of noun condtum, -i, n. ; it is the direct obj. of perficere . condtd is 
properly a participle, acc. n. plur. of condtus , -a, -um (from editor, 1), used sub- 
stantively. perficere, pres. inf. act. of perficio, -ere, -feci, -fectum, 3 ; it is here 

used with its direct obj. as the subject-acc. of esse . Consult A. & G. 270, 3, a; 

B. 86. 1 ; G. 422 ; H. 538. propterea, adv., herald of the following quod-clause; 

see note on proptered, 1. 9, Chap. I. 

Line 27. quod, a conj. ^because; but see note on quod, 1. 9, Chap. I. ipse, 

nom. sing., dem. pron , = he himself ; more emphatic than is, as subject-nom. in 1. 12, 
above ; ipse is subject-nom. of obtenturus esset. Observe that ipse is the only dem. 

pron. that from its signification admits of the voc. case. suae, gen. sing, of the 

poss. adj. pron. suus, -a, -um; it is reflexive in meaning = of his own; it limits 

civitatis . Civitatis, gen. sing, of civitds, - dtis , f. ; it limits imperium. 

imperium, acc. sing, of imperium, -i, n.; direct obj. of obtenturus esset. Synonyms: 
imperium = supreme military power; whereas potestds — the civil poiver. Caesar, 
however, seems to use regnum, principdtus and imperium, with very little difference 
in meaning, in this chapter. If there is any difference, regnum = sovereignty as 
one’s hereditary right, though now dispossessed of it ; principdtus = the sovereignty 
^wdiich one exercises on account of his wealth or popularity; and imperium =. the 
sovereignty that is the outcome of military power. 

Line 28. obtenturus esset, 3d pers. sing, imperf. subjunctive, first periphrastic 
conjugation, formed of the fut. act. participle of obtineo, -ere, -ui, - ten turn , 2, and esset, 
3d pers. sing, imperf. subjunctive of sum, esse , fui. It is in the subjunctive mode, 
because it is in a subordinate clause in the ordtio obliqua; it is in the imperf. tense, 
because probat is an historical pres. ; in other words, the tense-sequence is secondary. 

ndn, adv., modifies adj. dubium . esse, pres. inf. of sum, esse, fui , futiirus , 

an intrans. verb; the grammatical subj. of esse is the following y*/f/*-clause used as 

a noun in the acc. case. dubium, acc. sing. n. of the adj. dubius, -a, -um ; 

predicate after esse. Ordtio recta of lines 25-28 : perfacile factu vobis est conata 
perficere, propterea quodego ipse rneae civitatis imperium obtinebo. 


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LINES 29-32J 


600K I. 


25 


29 quin totius Galliae plurimum Helvetil 

that of entire Gaul most the IJelvetii 

30 possent ; se suis c5piis suoque 

were able ; himself with his resources with his and , 

31 exercitu illTs regna conciliaturum 

army for them the royal powers to be about to secure , 

32 c5nfirmat. Hac oratione adduct! inter se 

he affirms. By this oration led among tnemselves 


Line 29. quin, conj. (qul + ne, or non); after a negative quin = that. 

totius, gen. sing. f. of the adj. totus , -a, -urn; it agrees with Galliae. For list of the 
adjectives whose gen. end in - ius, dat. in -i, see A. & G. 83; B. 56; G. 76, and rkms. ; 

H. 1 51, 175. Galliae, gen. sing, of Gallia , -ae, f.; partitive gen. after plurimum. 

Consult A. & G. 216, 4; B. 134; G. 372; H. 397, 3. — plurimum, adj., cognate acc. 
of plurimus,-a,-um, superl. ; positive rnultus , comparative plus. As to cognate acc. with 

adverbial force, see A. & G. 240; B. 150, rem. 2; G. 333, 338, 2; H. 371, II. Hel- 

vetii, nom. plur. of adj. Helvetius , - a , -um, used substantively ; subject-nom. of possent. 

Line 30. possent, 3d pers. plur. of possum , posse, potui; imperf. subjunctive 
after quin, a clause of result. A. & G. 319, d; B. 201, rem. 3 ; G. 555, 2 ; H. 504, 3, 2). 
The y«i>/-clause of the text is equivalent to : quin omnium Gallorum Helvetil 
potentissimi essent. It will be noticed that the Helvetians here are classed with the 

Gauls. se, acc. sing, of the reflexive pron. sui, sibi, se, se; se is subject-acc. of 

conciliaturum, supply esse. suis, abl. sing. f. of poss. pron. suus, -a, -um ; it 

refers to Orgetorix, but agrees with copiis. copiis, abl. plur. of copia, - ae , f. ; in 

the sing, —plenty ; in the plur. = resources, sometimes = troops, cdpiis is an abl. of 

means. suoque (suo-f-que); suo is abl. sing. m. of suus , -a, -um ; it is the 

attributive of exercitu. que , note how closely the phrase suo exercitu is connected 
with copiis by this enclitic. 

Line 31. exercitu, abl. sing, of exercitus, -us, m. ; abl. of means. Synonyms: 
acies = an army in battle-array ; agmen = an army in motion or on the march {agere); 

but exercitus = an exercised or disciplined army (exercere, to train). illis, i.e. 

Casticus and Dumnorix; dat. of reference or advantage. A. & G. 235 ; B. 145; 
G. 352 ; H. 384, II, 1, 2). Observe that illis in direct discourse is changed into 

voids. regna, acc. plur. of regnum, -i, n. ; direct obj. of conciliaturum {esse), it is 

in the plur. as denoting the three powers. conciliaturum (esse), fut. inf. act. of 

concilio, -dre, -dvi, -alum, 1 ; its subject-acc. is the personal pron. se, preceding line. 

Line 32. confirmat, 3d pers. sing, of confirm 0, -dre, -dri, -atum, 1 ; historical 
pres. ; its subject-nom. is a pron. of the 3d pers. referring to Orgetorix. The above 
speech which Caesar reports in lines 28-31, above, in the did (id iccta would have 
this form: non est dubium, quin totius Galliae plurimum Helvetil possint; ego 

meis copiis meoque exercitu vobis regna concilidbo. Hac, abl. sing. f. of the 

dem. pron. hie, haec, hoc ; it modifies ordtidne. dratidne is the abl. sing, of 

ordtio , -onis, f . ; abl. of cause. A. & G. 245, and 2. b; B. 165, and rem. 4; G. 408, 

and note 2 ; H. 416, and note i. adducti, nom. plur. m. of the perf. pass. 

participle of adduco, -ere, -duxi, - ductum , 3 ; it agrees with ei understood, referring to 
the trio, Orgetorix, Casticus and Dumnorix ; the subject-nom. of dant, 1 . 33, below. 
inter se, a reciprocal phrase ; see note on the phrase, 1 . 6, Chap. I. 


and he said that 
there was no 
doubt that the 
Ilelvetii were the 
most powerful of 
all the Gauls, and 
he declared that 
he would win for 
them the royal 
power with his 
own resources 
and with his own 


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26 


caesar’s gallic war 


[CHAP. IV. 


fidem et ius iurandum dant et, 3 J 

a pledge and an oath they give and , 

regno occupato, per tres 34 

the sovereignty having been seized , through three 

potentissimos ac flrmissimos populos totlus 35 

very powerful and very strong peoples of the whole 

Galliae sese potlrl posse 36 

of Gaul themselves to gain the mastery , to be able , 

sperant. 37 

they hope . 

Line 33. fidem, acc. sing, of fides, - et , f., stem fide; direct obj. of dant. 

ius iurandum (ius -f- iurandum), a compound noun in which both parts are declined; 
ius is a neuter noun of the third decl., and iurandum is a neuter noun of the second 
decl. But in the plur., the gen., dat. and abl. are wanting. The two nouns connected 
by et = a pledge confirmed by an oath , hendiadys ( tv 5t A duoiv) — the use of two 
nouns connected by a conj. instead of a single noun with a modifier. Consult 

A. & G. 385 ; B. 310, 2, (b ) ; G. 698 ; H. 636, III, 2. dant, 3d pers. plur. pres. 

ind. act. of do, dare, dedi , datum, 1. See note on dat , 1. 25, above. et, cop. conj.; 

connects dant with sperant, 1. 37, below. 

Line 34. regno, abl. sing, of regnum, - i , n.; abl. absolute with occupdtd, denoting 

time when. A. & G. 255; B. 172, 192; G. 409, 410; H. 431, 1 and 2. occupato, 

abl. sing. n. of perf. pass, participle of occupd, 1 ; abl. absolute with regno. Supply ab 

els, as abl. of the voluntary agent. per, prep, with the acc . = through, by means of. 

tres, acc. plur. of num. adj. tres, tria; an /-stem, and declined like the plur. of 

levis. The first three cardinals, iinus , duo and tres, are declined ; from quattuor to 
centum the cardinals are indeclinable ; tres is an attributive of populos. 

Line 35. potentissimos, acc. plur. m. of the adj. potentissimus , -a, -urn, superl. 
degree of potens , comparative potentior (properly a participle of possum ); the adj. 

qualifies populos . ac, stronger than et, see note on atque, 1. 10, Chap. I. 

firmissimos, acc. plur. m. of the superl. degree of firmus, comparative firmior ; this 

adj. also qualifies populos. populos, acc. plur. of populus , -/, m. ; acc. after per 

denoting the persons through whom Consult A. & G. 246, b\ B. 166, rem. i ; 

G. 401 ; H. 415, note 1. totlus, see note on totius , 1. 29, above. 

Line 36. Galliae, gen. sing, of Gallia, - ae , f . ; gen. case after potiri. A. & G. 
249, a; B. 167, 1, rem.; G. 407, note 2, (d ) ; H. 410, V, 3. potiri usually takes the 

abl. sese, acc. plur., a reduplication of the reflexive pron. se; sese is subject-acc. 

of posse. potiri, pres. inf. of potior, drt, -itus, 4, deponent ; it completes the ‘ 

meaning of posse. posse, in form a pres. inf. of possum, posse, potut, irr. 

(potis -|- sum) ; in use here, it = the fut. inf. After verbs of hoping, promising and 
undertaking, the fut. inf. usually occurs, but possum has no fut. inf., and hence there 
often occurs the pres, posse as equivalent to the periphrase fore ut possint. Consult 
A. & G. 288,/ ; B. 245, 4, (3); G. 248, rem., and 656, rem. ; H. 537, 3, and note i. 

Line 37. sperant, 3d pers. plur. pres. ind. act. of spero, -are, -dvi, - dtum , 1 ; it 
agrees with et, a pron. representing Orgetorix, Casticus and Dumnorix. 


army. Influenced 
by this speech, 
they gave to 
one another the 
pledge of an oath, 
and hoped that, 
when they had 
seized the sov- 
ereignty in their 
own states, they 
could, by means 
of three very in- 
fluential and very 
powerful peoples, 
gain the mastery 
of entire Gaul. 


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LINES 1-4.] 


BOOK I. 


27 


1 IV. 

Ea res 

est 

Helvetiis 

per 


This thing 

is 

to the Helvetii 

through 

2 indicium 

enuntiata. 


M5ribus 

suis 


information made known . According to customs their, 


3 Orgetorigem ex vinclls causam dicere 
Orgetorix from chains (his) case to plead 


4 coegerunt ; damnatum poenam sequl 

they compelled; (him) condemned punishment to overtake 


IV. This con- 
spiracy was dis- 
closed to the Hel- 
vetii by an in- 
former; and they 
compelled Orge- 
torix, according 
to their custom, 
to plead his case 
in chains. The 
punishmentof be- 
ing burned with 


Line i. Ea, nom. sing. f. of the dem. pron. is, ea , id; it is an attributive of res. 

res, nom. sing, of res , ret, f., subj. of est enuntiata (enuntiata est). Observe: 

that the phrase ea res is descriptive of the plot referred to in the preceding chapter; 
that haec res might have been used as indicating nearness of time or place ; but that 
ea res denotes that conspiracy of three years ago, b.c. 6i, is denoting this ox that, 

according to the connection ; and that res is a word of very elastic meaning. 

est, 3d pers. sing, of sum, esse, fut, but here used as part of the compound perf. 
pass, tense enuntiata est. Note the insertion of Helvetiis per indicium between the 

parts, by which the entire group of words is made emphatic. Helvetiis, dat. 

plur. m. of the adj. Helvetius , -a, -um, used as a noun ; indirect obj. of est enuntidta. 
For description, see note on Helvetii 1 . 16, Chap. I. per, prep, with the acc. 

Line 2. indicium, acc. sing, of indicium, -i, n. ; the agent considered as means 
is denoted by per with the acc. See A. & G. 246, b; B. 166, rem. i ; G. 401 ; 
H. 415, I, 1, note i. Observe that indicium = lit. information, but here the abstract 

is put for the concrete, and indicium = an informer. est enuntiata (emintiata 

est), 3d pers. sing. perf. pass. ind. of enuntio, -are, -tivi, -a. turn, 1 ; it agrees with its 
subject-nom. res; entiniidre (e -f-niintius) = lit. to speak out, especially what ought to 

be kept secret. Moribus, abl. plur. of the noun mos, moris, m. ; may be taken as 

an abl. of cause, A. & G. 245; B. 165; G. 408; H. 416; or as an abl. of specification, 

A. & G. 253, note; B. 162 ; G. 397 ; H. 424. suis, abl. plur. m. of poss. pron. 

suus, -a, -um; it agrees with moribus, but refers to the subj. of the proposition. 
A. & G. 196; B. 80, REM. 2 ; G. 309, I ; H. 449. 

Line 3. Orgetorigem, acc. sing, of Orgetorix, -igis, m. ; subject-acc. of dicere . 

See note on Orgetorix, 1 . 2, Chap. II. ex, prep, with the abl. ; the form e before 

consonants only, ex before vowels and consonants. vinclis, abl. plur. of 

vinclum , -t, n. ; abl. after prep. ex. See A. & G. 152, b; B. 120. 2 ; G. 417; H. 434. 
The common editions read vinculis instead of the syncopated vinclis. The phrase 
ex vinclis — lit. out of chains, in the sense of under arrest. The critics tell us the 
phrase = in chains. Does it not rather mean that Orgetorix was compelled to 

defend himself, although he was not formally imprisoned ? causam, acc. sing. 

of causa, - ae , f. ; direct obj. of dicere. dicere, pres. inf. act. of died, -ere, dixi, 

dictum, 3 ; its subject-acc. is Orgetorigem. Note that the acc. infinitive-clause, as a 
whole, is the direct obj. of coegerunt. 

Line 4. coegerunt, 3d pers. plur. perf. ind. act. of edgo, cogere, coegi, codctum, 3 
(con + agere = lit. to drive together; hence cogere = to urge, to compel). The subject-nom. 

is pron. ei, i.e. Helvetii understood. damnatum, perf. pass, participle of damnd , 

-dre, -dvi, - atum , 1 ; it agrees with eum , to be supplied, which latter pron. is the 


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28 


caesar’s gallic war 


[CHAP. IV. 


oportebat, ut ignl cremaretur. Die 5 

it must needs 6e, that with fire he he burned . On the day 

c 5 nstituta causae dictiSnis Orgetorix e 

appointed of (for) (his) case's pleading Orgetorix 

ad iudicium omnem suam familiam, ad 7 

near the court all his household , about 

hominum milia decern, undique coegit 8 

of human beings thousands ten , from every side collected , 

direct obj. of sequi. The participle here denotes condition. See A. & G. 292 ; 

B. 204, REM. 6 ; G. 667 ; H. 549, 2. poenam, acc. sing, of poena , - ae , f. ; subject- 

acc. of sequt. Consult A. & G. 270, 272, a, I; B. 194, rem. 2, (^) ; G. 535; 

H. 538. Observe that the acc.-clause damndtum (eum) poenam sequt is the subj. of 

oportebat. sequi, pres. inf. of the deponent sequor,,-i, secutus , 3; its subject-acc. 

is poenam. 

Line 5. oportebat, 3d' pers. sing, imperf. ind. of oportet , -ere, -nit, impersonal 
(opus, need). Synonyms : oportet = it behooves , i.e. expresses duty in general; whereas 
debere denotes the obligation of a particular person ; de -j- habere = to have from a 

person, hence = to owe him. ut, conj., ecbatic. igni, abl. sing, of ignis , -is, m. 

The more common form of the abl. is tgne, though the regular form of an f-stem, in 
the abl. sing, is -i. But see A. & G. 57, b; B. 46, IV, Class II, near the end; G. 57. 2 ; 

H. 62; igni is an abl. of means. A. & G. 248, c, I ; B. 167; G. 401; H. 420. 

cremaretur, 3d pers. sing, imperf. subjunctive of cremb , -are, -art, - dtum , 1 ; its sub- 
ject-nom. is a personal pron: implied in the ending, and referring to the pron. eum , 
the omitted obj. of sequi. .Note that the clause ut . . . cremdretur is a result-clause 
in apposition with, and explanatory oi, poenatn ; and consult A. & G. 332 ,/; B. 201, 
REM. 3, note; G. 557; H. 501, III. Synonyms: cremare = to consume by fire; 

whereas urere = to burn , simply, though sometimes = to burn up. Die, abl. sing. 

of dies, -ei, m. and f. in the sing. ; always m. in the plur. ; die is abl. of time at which. 
A. & G. 256 ; B. 1 71 ; G. 393 ; H. 429. dies is f. usually when it denotes a set time ; 
see A. & G. 73 ; B. 49, rem. 2 ; G. 64 ; H. 123. 

Line 6. constitute, abl. sing. f. of the perf. pass, participle of constituo, -ere, -ut 9 

-utum, 3 ; used here as an adj. agreeing with die. causae, gen. sing, of causa , 

-ae, f.; objective gen. limiting dictionis; see A. & G. 217; B. 131, rem. 2; G. 363, 2; 

ll. 396, III. dictionis, gen. sing, of dictio , -onis, f. (dicere); compare English 

diction; it limits die. Orgetorix, see note on this word, 1 . 2, Chap. II; Orgetorix 

is subject-nom. of coegit, 1. 8, below. 

Line 7. ad, prep, with the acc. iudicium, acc. sing, of indicium, -i, n. 

(ius + dicere, through iiidicdre) ; iudicium is the obj. of the prep. ad. omnem, 

acc. sing. f. of adj. omnis, -e ; it limits familiam. suam, acc. sing. f. of poss. 

pron. suus, -a, -uni; it modifies familiam, but refers to Orgetorix, the subj. of the 

proposition. A. & G. 196; B. 80, rem. 2; G. 309, I; H. 449. familiam, acc. 

sing, of familia, -ae, f. ; direct obj. of coegit. This word here = serfs. ad, here 

an adv. denoting an approximation = about; compare c,k. ws. 

Line 8. hominum, gen. plur. of homo , -inis, m. and f. ; partitive gen. after milia. 

A. & G. 216, 3 ; B. 134 ; G. 293 ; H. 397. 2. milia, acc. plur. n. of indecl. adj. mille in 

the sing. ; in the plur. it is a decl. noun ; milia is an appositive, an explanatory modifier 


fire must needs 
overtake him if 
condemned. On 
the day appoint- 
ed for pleading 
his case, Orgeto- 
rix assembled at 
the place of trial, 
from all quarters, 
all his vassals, 
about ten thou- 
sand people, and 


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LINES 9 - 12 J 


BOOR I, 


29 


9 et omnes clientes 

obaeratosque 

SUOS, 

and 

all retainers 

debtors and , 

his , 

10 quorum 

magnum 

numerum 

habebat, 

of whom 

a great 

number 

he had , 

11 eodem 

conduxit ; 

per eos, 

ne 

to the same place he brought ; 

through them , 

that not 

12 causam 

diceret, 

se eripuit. 

Cum 

(his) case 

he might plead , himself he rescued. 

When 


conducted to the 
same place all his 
clients and debt- 
ors, of whom he 
had a large num- 
ber; and through 
their instrumen- 
tality he saved 
himself from the 
necessityof plead- 
ing his case. 


of familiam. decem, indecl. num. adj., cardinal ; it modifies milia. undique, 

(unde + que) = lit. whencesoever; and indef. adv. The enclitic -que gives to the 

word a tone of universality. coegit, 3d pers. sing. perf. ind. act. of cogo, - ere , 

coegi, code turn, 3 ; its subject-nom. is Orgetorix . 

Line 9. et, cop. conj., connects coegit with conduxit , 1 . 11, below. omnes, 

acc. plur. of the adj. omnis, - e ; it limits clientes . clientes, acc. plur. of cliens. 

-entis, m. and f. (cluens from c lucre, to hear) ; hence = one who hears , a proiigS, 

clientes is the direct obj. of cojidiixit. obaeratosque (obaeratos + que) ; obaeratos 

is an acc. plur. m. of the adj. obaerdtus , -a, -urn, used substantively, connected with 
clientes by the enclitic -que, and in the same grammatical construction. This word 
is derived from oberdrius (ob + aes) ; and hence = debtors , those that must work out 
their debts. The vassals and retainers were intensely devoted to their chiefs. They 
shared with them prosperity and adversity. If the chiefs suffered violent deaths, 
the vassals shared a like fate ; and if chey would not meet death with them in battle, 

they often committed suicide. suds, acc. plur. m. of the poss. pron. suus , -a , -um; 

it agrees with obaerdtds , but refers to Orgetorix . 

Line 10. quorum, gen. plur. m. of the rel. qui , quae , quod ; it refers to obaeratos 

as its antecedent, but, as a gen., limits numerum . magnum, acc. sing. m. of the 

adj. mdgnusy mdior , m&ximus ; it modifies numerum. numerum, acc. sing, of 

numerus, - i , m. ; direct obj. of habebat. habebat, 3d pers. sing, imperf. ind. act. 

of habeo, -ere, -ui, - Hum , 2 ; it agrees with a subject-nom. implied in the ending, 
referring to Orgetorix. 

Line ii. eodem, an adv., strictly, an old dat. of idem; sc. loco; as an adv. 
eodem modifies conduxit. The place referred to, of course, is that denoted by 

indicium , 1. 7, above. conduxit, 3d pers. sing. perf. ind. act. of conduc'd , -ere, 

-duxi, - ductum , 3 ; its subj. is Orgetorix understood. per, prep, with the acc. 

eds, acc. plur. m. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id, used as a personal pron. of the 

3d pers. ; acc. of the agent as means after per. See A. & G. 246, b ; B. 166, rem. i ; 
G. 401 ; H. 415, I, 1, note 1. ne, conj. adv. = that not , telic; if the construc- 

tion were ecbatic, ut non would be used. 

Line 12. causam, acc. sing, of causa , ~ae, f. ; direct obj. of diceret. diceret, 

3d pers. sing, imperf. subjunctive of died, -ere, dixi, dictum , 3; subjunctive of purpose 
after ne. Consult A. & G. 317; B. 200, (£); G. 545, 3, end; H. 497, II. Observe 

that the purpose-clause ne causam diceret depends on se eripuit. se, acc. sing, of 

the reflexive pron. sui, sibi , se, se; direct obj. of eripuit. eripuit, 3d pers. sing. 

perf. ind. act. of eripio , -ere, -ui, - reptum , 3 (e -f-iapere, to snatch away). Cum, conj. 

= when , or while , or as, or since; here it = when, and is used to describe the time of 
the main-clause : Orgetorix mortuus est. 


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30 


[CHAP. IV. 


Caesar’s gallic war 


When the state, 
incensed at such 
action, attempted 
to secure its own 
rights by arms, 
and the magis- 
trates were col- 
lecting a large 
number of men 
from the country, 
Orgetorix died ; 


clvitas ob earn rem incitata arnils 13 

the state on account of this thing aroused, by arms 

ius suum exsequi conaretur, multitudinemque 14 
right its own to enforce attempted, a great number and , 
hominum ex agris magistrates cogerent, is 
of men from the fields the magistrates were collecting, 

Orgetorix mortuus est; neque abestie 

Orgetorix died ; not and, is wanting 


Line 13. Clvitas, -atis, nom. sing, f.; used by metonymy for elves clvitdtis; 

subj. of conaretur . ob, prep, with the acc. earn, acc. sing. f. of the dem. 

pron. is . , ea, id; it is an attributive of rent. rem, acc. sing, of res , ret , f. ; 

obj. of the prep. ob. Observe that the objective cause is thus expressed by ob, 
or per with the acc. If the cause-subjective were to be indicated, the abl. of cause 
would be the construction. Consult A. & G. 245, b; B. 165, rem. 4; G. 408, note 3 ; 

H. 416, I, 2). The thing referred to is the conduct of Orgetorix. incitata, 

perf. pass, participle of incitd , -are, - dvl , - dtum , 1 ; it agrees with clvitds. armis, 

abl. plur. of arma , - drum , n. ; abl. of means after exsequi. Synonyms: arma = arms 
used in close contest . tela = those used in contests at a distance. 

Line 14. ius, acc. sing, of ins , iuris, n. ; direct obj. of exsequi. suum, acc. 

sing, n., poss. reflexive adj. pron. ; it qualifies ius , but refers to clvitas , the gram- 
matical subj. of the sentence. exsequi, pres. inf. of the deponent verb exsequor, 

-l, - cutus , 3 ; complementary inf. ; it completes the meaning of conaretur. A. & G. 
271 ; B. 181 ; G. 423; II. 533. Observe the force of the prep, in the compound = 

to follow out to the end, i.e. with ids = to enforce. conaretur, 3d pers. sing. 

imperf. subjunctive of the deponent verb editor ; - drl , - dtus , 1 ; subjunctive after the 
conj. cum , relative time ; i.e. the temporal clause defines the time of the principal 
action. A. & G. 323; B. 222 ; G. 585; II. 521, II, 2. multitudinemque (multi- 

tudinem -f- que) ; multitudinem is acc. sing, of multitudo , -inis, f. ( multus ); acc. of 
the direct obj. after cogerent. 

Line 15. hominum, gen. plur. of homo , -inis, m. and f. ; it limits multitudinem. 

ex, prep, with the abl. agris, abl. plur. of ager, agri , m. Synonyms : agrl 

= the fields , the open country ; rus = the country in opposition to the town. 

magistrates, nom. plur. of magistrdtus , -us, m., subj. of the verb cogerent. magistrdtus 
{inagister, root mag, whence magnus) in contradistinction from imperia is used of 
civil offices at Rome ; imperia , of the authority of the officials in the provinces. 
But in Rome there were two species of civil offices — the magistrdtus extraordinaril 
and ordindril. The former were the dictators and other extraordinary rulers ; the 
latter consisted of the consuls, praetors and censors, and some other minor officers. 

There were also magistrdtus patricil and magistrdtus plebil. cogerent, 3d pers. 

plur. imperf. subjunctive act. of cogo, -ere, coegt \ coactum , 3 ; connected by the 
enclitic conj. -que with condretur, and still under the influence of cum. 

Line 16. Orgetorix, -igis, m., subject-nom. of mortuus est. mortuus est, 

3d pers. sing. perf. ind. act. of the deponent verb morior, morl, mortuus, 3; it agrees 

with its subject-nom. Orgetorix. neque (ne + que) = lit. and not; but neque 

. . . neque = neither . . . nor. abest, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. of absum , -esse, 

ab(d)ful , ab(d)fuiurus ; it agrees with the subject-nom. susplcio . 


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LINES 17-18.] 


BOOK I. 


31 


17 susplci5, ut 

the suspicion , as 


Helvetil arbitrantur, 

the Ilelvetii think 


is ipse sibi mortem consclverit. 

he himself to himself death decreed. 


quin 

that 


and there is no 
doubt, as the Hel- 
vetii think, that 
he committed su- 
icide. 


i V. Post eius mortem nihilo minus 

After his death in nothing the less 


2 Helvetil 
the Ilelvetii 

3 conantur, 
they attempt 


id, quod constituerant, facere 

that , which they had resolved on , to do 

ut e flnibus suls exeant. 

that from limits their own , they may go forth. 


V. After Orge- 
torix’s death, the 
Helvetii never- 
theless attempt- 
ed to do as they 
had purposed — 
to emigrate from 
their borders. 


Line 17. suspicio, -onis, f., sometimes written suspitio; it is subject-nom. of 
qbest. Observe that suspicio is derived from sub + specere, to look at secretly or 

askance; hence ( effectns pro causa) = to mistrust. ut, adv. =as. Helvetil, 

nom. plur. m. of the adj. Ilelvetius , -a, -um 9 used as a noun, and subject-nom. of 

arbitrantur. arbitrantur, 3d pers. plur. pres. ind. of the deponent verb arbitror , 

-dri y -diusy 1 {arbitery a witness) ; it agrees with its subject-nom. Helvetii. quin 

(qul + ne) = lit. who or which not; but after negations and negative phrases = that. 

Line 18 . ipse, intensive pron. expressed for emphasis, subject-nom. of cdnsci- 
verit; or ipse may be taken as an appositive of the omitted subj. of the verb. 

sibi, dat. of the reflexive pron. sui, sibi , se, se ; dat. of the indirect obj. after cottsci- 

verit. mortem, acc. sing, of mors y mortis , f. ; the direct obj. of cdnsciverit. 

cdnsciverit, 3d pers. sing. perf. subjunctive act. of conscisco, -ere y -sciviy -scitum, 3 ; 
subjunctive of result after quin. Note carefully that the result-clause: quin sibi 
mortem cdnsciverit , is in apposition with suspicid. See A. & G. 332, f ; B. 201, 
rem. 3; G. 555, 2 ; H. 501, III. Observe that the perf. subjunctive is used after a 
primary tense to denote any past action. Here it represents an historical perfect. 
The direct statement is : sibi mortem conscivit. 

Line i. Post, prep, with the acc. eius, gen. sing. m. of dem. pron. is, ea , tW f 

used substantively, i.e. as a personal pron. ; in the gen. = Engl. poss. case his. 

mortem, acc. sing, of mors, mortis , f. ; the obj. of the prep. post. nihilo, abl. of 

nihilum , -/, n. ; abl. of degree of difference after the comparative minus. See 
A. & G. 250 ; B. 164; G. 403 ; II. 423. The word is sometimes written with minus 

thus : nihilominus. minus, adv., comparative degree of parum (parve, rare), 

superl. mistime ; minus modifies conantur. 

Line 2 . Helvetii, nom. plur. m. of the adj. Helvetiusy -a t - urn , used as a noun ; 

subject-nom. of conantur. For description, see note on Helvetiiy 1 . 16, Chap. I. 

id, acc. sing. n. of the dem. pron. is, ea t id; direct obj. of facere. quod, acc. 

sing. n. of the rel. pron. quiy quae t quod; it refers to id as its antecedent, and is the 

direct obj. of constituerant. constituerant, 3d pers. plur. pluperf. ind. act. of 

constitudy - ere y -ui t -utumy 3 ; it agrees with a pron. implied in the ending -ei y i.e. Hel- 
vetia facere, pres. inf. act. of faddy - erey feci y factum , 3 ; complementary of 

conantur . See A. & G. 271, and note; B. 181 ; G. 423; II. 533, 2. 

Line 3. conantur, 3d pers. plur. pres. ind. of deponent verb conor t - ari , -dtusy 1 ; 
it agrees with its subject-nom, Helvetii, ut, ecbatic conj. e, prep, with the 


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32 


caesar’s gallic war 


[CHAP. V. 


When at length 
they thought they 
were ready for 
the undertaking, 
they set fire to 
all their towns 
about twelve in 
number, to their 
villages about 
four hundred, 
and to the re- 
maining private 


Ubi iam se ad earn rem paratos 4 

When already themselves for that thing prepared 


esse arbitrate sunt, oppida 

to be they thought , towns 

numero ad duodeeim, 

in number about twelve , 


sua omnia, 6 

their own , all , 

vicos ad 6 

villages about 


quadringentos, reliqua privata aedificia 7 

four hundred , the remaining private buildings 


abl. (e before consonants ; ex before vowels and consonants). flnibus, abl. plur. 

of finis , -is, m. ; abl. after prep. e. suis, abl. plur. of the poss. pron. suns, 

-a, - um ; it modifies finihus, but refers to Helvetii of the principal clause — indirect 

reflexive. exeant, 3d pers. plur. pres, subjunctive of the verb exeo , -ire, -ivi(-ii), 

-Hunt; subjunctive of result after ut; but note that this clause is explanatory of, 
and in apposition with, the dem. pron. id. See A. & G. 332,/; B. 201, rem. 3, 
note; G. 557, and rem., end; H. 501, III, and note. 

Line 4. Ubi, adv. (qul + ending bi) = (a) in what place; (b) of time = whenever. 

iam, adv. = now, of any time present, past or future ; whereas nunc = now, of 

the present. se, acc. plur. of the reflexive pron. sui, sibi, se, se; subject-acc. 

of esse. ad, prep, with the acc. ; with verbs of motion = to or toward; with 

verbs of rest = to, at, for. earn, acc. sing. f. of dem. pron. is, ea, id; it modifies 

rem. rem, acc. sing, of noun res, rei, f. ; it follows the prep. ad. The phrase ad 

earn rem = for that thing , i.e. the emigration. paratos, acc. plur. of the participial 

adj. pardtus , -a, -um, from the verb paro, 1 ; predicate after esse. 

Line 5. esse, pres. inf. of the verb sum, fut, futurus; its subject-acc. is the 

pron. se. arbitrate sunt, 3d pers. plur. perf. ind. of the deponent verb arbitror, 

-dri, - dtus , 1 ; its subject-nom. is Helvetii understood. oppida, acc. plur. of 

oppidum, -i, n. ; direct obj. of incendunt. sua, acc. plur. n. of poss. pron. suus , 

-a, -um ; it qualifies oppida. omnia, acc. plur. n. of the adj. omnis, -e; it also 

qualifies oppida. 

Line 6. numero, abl. of specification. See A. & G. 253; B. 162; G. 397; 

H. 424. ad, usually a prep., but here an adv. = about; it modifies duodeeim . 

duodeeim, cardinal num. adj. (duo + decim). vicos, acc. plur. of vicus , 

-i, m. ; direct obj. of incendunt. ad, here too, an adv. 

Line 7. quadringentos (quattuor-f- centum), acc. plur. m. of the adj. quadrin - 
genti, -ae, -a, num. adj., modifies vicos. Observe that the num. adjectives in the hun- 
dreds are declined like the plur. of bonus: boni, -ae, -a. reliqua, acc. plur. n. of 

adj. reliquus, -a, -um ; it modifies aedificia. Synonyms: reliqui—the rest, the 
remainder that completes the whole ; whereas ceteri (caeteri) = others in opposition 
to those first mentioned; compare gk. ol dXXoi; and alii = others as merely differen- 
tiated from those mentioned. privata, acc. plur. n. of participial adj. privdtus , 

-a, -um, from the verb privo, -dre, -dvi, - atum , 1. aedificia, acc. plur. of the noun 

aedificium, -i, n. ; direct obj. of incendunt. Note the omission of the conjunctions 
between the direct obj. phrases preceding incendunt — asyndeton. See note on legibus, 

I . 5, Chap. I; and especially A. & G. 346, c; B. 123, rem. 6; G. 474, note; H. 636, 
I, 1. Synonyms: aedificium =the general word for a building of any kind; domus 
;= the dwelling-house , the family home » 


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LINES 8-11.] 


BOOK I. 


33 


8 incendunt ; frumentum omne, praeterquam 

they set fire to ; the grain all , farther than 

9 quod secum portaturl erant, comburunt, 

what themselves with , about to carry they were , they burn up , 

10 ut domum reditionis spe sublata, 

that home , of return the hope being taken away , 

11 paratiores ad omnia pericula subeunda 

more prepared for all dangers to be endured 


edifices; and they 
burned up all 
their grain ex- 
cept what they 
had purposed to 
carry aloijg with 
them, ifi order 
that, all hope of 
returning home 
being taken away, 
they might be 
the more ready 
to endure all per- 


Line 8. incendunt, 3d pers. plur. pres. ind. act. of incendo , - ere , - cendt , - cert sum , 3; 
it agrees with its subject-nom. lielvetii, to be supplied. Synonyms : incendere = to 

burn ; comburere = to burn up. frumentum, acc. sing, of frumentum , -i, n. ; 

direct obj. of comburutit , 1 . 9, below. Note that frumentum , sing. =.the grain, while 

friimenta , the plur. = the growing crop. omne, acc. sing, n., an attributive of 

frumentum. praeterquam, adv. (praeter + quam). Note that quam, which is 

sometimes separated from praeter by tmesis, merely adds intensiveness to the beyond- 
notion involved in praeter (prae + ter) = motion beyond somewhat. 

Line 9. quod, acc. sing. n. of the rel. pron. qui, quae , quod; it refers to fru- 
mentum, as its antecedent, and is the direct obj. of portdturi erant. secum (se + 

cum), se, abl. plur. of the reflexive pron. sin, sibi, se, se; it is in the abl. after the 
prep, cum , which is here enclitic. Consult A. & G. 99, e; B. 79. 2 ; G. 413, rem. i ; 

H. 184, 6. portaturi erant, 3d pers. plur. imperf. ind. of the first periphrastic 

conjugation of porto , - dre , -avi, - atum , I. Consult A. & G. 129; B. 106, II; G. 247; 
H. 233 ; and observe that verbs in the act. periphrastic conjugation denote purpose. 

comburunt, 3d pers. plur. pres. ind. act. of comburd, -ere, - usst , - iistum , 3 (con-{- 

buro). Observe that b is rejected in - uro , but retained in comburd ; comburunt agrees 
with its subject-nom. Helvetii , to be supplied. 

Line 10. ut, telic conj. domum, acc. of domus, -us or -f, f. ; end of motion 

after the verbal noun reditionis, as if the latter were a gerund — redeundi. Consult 

A. & G. 258, b\ B. 174; G. 337 ; H. 380, II, 2, 1). reditidnis, gen. sing, of the 

verbal noun reditid, -onis, f. (red + Ire) = lit. to go back; hence the noun = return; 

reditidnis limits spe. spe, abl. of spes, et, {., absolute with subldtd, denoting cause. 

A. & G. 255. 2 ; B. 192 ; G. 409, 410; II. 431. sublata, abl. f. perf. pass, participle 

of tollo, -ere, sustuli, subldtum, irr. ; abl. absolute with spe. 

Line ii. paratiores, nom. plur. m. of the participial adj., comparative degree, 
pardtior, -ius ; positive pardtus, comparative -ior, superl. -issimus ; paratiores is 

predicate-ad j. after esse?it. ad, prep, with the acc. omnia, acc. plur. n. of 

adj. omnis , -e ; it is an attributive of pericula. pericula, acc. plur. of periculum, 

-i, n. ; obj. of the prep. ad. subeunda, acc. plur. n. of the gerundive subeundus, 

-a, -um, of the verb subeo, -ire, -ivi (-ii), -Hum (sub+Tre). Observe that pericula is 
the acc. after ad, and that the gerundive agrees with the noun. The literal translation 
of the complete gerundive phrase is : with respect to all the perils to be undergone. 
Observe again that in the third and fourth conjugations the gerund and the gerundive 
frequently end in -undum and - undus , instead of -endum and -endus . 


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34 


caesar’s gallic war 


[CHAP. v. 


ils; they ordered 
each one to carry 
for himself from 
home meal sup- 
plies for three 
months. They 
prevailed on the 
Raurici, the Tu- 
lingi and the La- 
tovicitheir neigh- 
bors to adopt 


essent ; trium mensum 

they might be; three months' 

sibi quemque dom5 

for himself each from home 


molita cibaria 12 

ground-meal supply 

efferre iubent. 13 

to carry they order . 


Persuadent 

Rauricis 

et 

Tulingis 

et 14 

They persuade 

the Raurici 

and 

the Tulingi 

and 

Latovicls 

flnitimls, 

utl 

eodem 

usi 15 

the Latovici (their) neighbors, 

that 

the same , 

using, 


Line 12. essent, 3d pers. plur. imperf. subjunctive of sum, esse, fui, futurus ; 
subjunctive of purpose after ut. Consult A. & G. 317, I; B. 200, (b) ; G. 544, I; 

H. 497, II. trium, gen. plur. m. of the num. adj. ires, trium; it is an attributive 

of mensum. Of the cardinals up to centum , only unus, duo and ires are declined ; 

ires is an /-stem, and is declined like the plur. of levis. mensum, gen. plur. of 

mensis , -is, m. ; gen. of measure. See A. & G. 215, b; B. 132; G. 365, 2; H. 396, V. 
Note that the regular gen. plur. of mensis is tnensium , showing that this noun is 
properly an /-stem ; in fact, most editions read tnensium in this text ; mensum, how- 
ever, occurs. But see A. & G. 59; B. 46, IV, gen. plur. class II, end; G. 57, 3, middle ; 

H. 62, V, and especially foot-note 3. molita, acc. plur. n. of participial adj. 

molitus, -a, -um ; in form a perf. pass, participle of mold, -ere, -ui, -Hum, 3 ; it modifies 

cibdria. cibaria, acc. plur. n. of the adj. cibdrius , -a, -um, used as a noun ; it is 

the direct obj. of efferre . 

Line 13. sibi, dat. sing, of the reflexive pron. sui, sibi, se, se; dat. of reference 

or advantage. A. & G. 235; B. 145; G. 352; H. 384, II, 1,2). quemque, acc. 

sing, of the indef. pron. quisque, quaeque , quodque , quidque or quicque ; quidque and 

quicque are substantive forms ; quemque is subject-acc. of efferre. domb, abl. of 

domus, -us, or loc. - i , f. ; abl. of place from which. A. & G. 258, a ; B. 175; G. 390, 2 ; 

H. 412, II, 1. efferre, pres. inf. act. of efferd, efferre , extuli, eldlum. iubent, 

3d pers. plur. pres. ind. act. of iubeo, -ere, iussi , iussum, 2. Note that the regular 
construction after this verb is the acc. with the inf. The subject-nom. of iubent is 
a pron. implied in the ending referring to Helvetii. 

Line 14. Persuadent, 3d pers. plur. pres. ind. act. of persuddeo -ere, -sudsi, 

-sudsum, 2 (per, intensive + suade re, to advise ); supply ei, as subject-nom. 

Rauricis, dat. of the noun Raurici, -drum, m. ; dat. after persuddent. A. & G. 227 ; 
B. 142 ; G. 346, rem. 2 ; H. 385, II ; sometimes spelled Rauraci. These people were a 
Celtic tribe on the upper Rhine. Tulingis, dat. plur. of Tulingi, -drum, m., con- 

nected by et with Rauricis, and in the same grammatical construction. The Tulingi 
were a German tribe east of the Raurici. 

Line 15. Latovicls, dat. plur. of Latovici, -drum, m. ; in the same grammatical 
construction as Tulingis. The Latovici dwelt north of the Tulingi ; they were a 

German clan. Some texts read Lalobrigis , instead of Latovicis. fmitimls, dat. 

plur. of the adj. finitimus , -a, -um, in the plur. used as a noun; it is in apposition 

with the three preceding nouns. utl, the original form of the more common 

conj. and adv. ut. eodem, abl. n. of the dem. adj. pron. idem, eadem, idem; it 

modifies cdnsilio. usi, nom. plur. of the participle iisus, -a, -um, of the deponent 

verb utor, -/, iisus, 3; it agrees with ei, the omitted subj. of proficiscantur , 1. 17, below. 
Note that, as a deponent participle, it is used in an act. sense. 


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LINES 16-19.] 


BOOK I. 


85 


their plan — to 
burn their towns 
and villages, and 
to emigrate along 
with them ; and 
the Boii, who had 
dwelt across the 
Rhine and had 
crossed into the 
Norican country 
and had stormed 


Line 16. consilio,abl sing, of cdnsilium , n. ; abl. after usi — participles are 
followed by the same cases as their verbs. A. & G. 289; B. 98, 1 ; G. 112. 5, I; 
H. 548. For usi as followed by the abl., see A. & G. 249; B. 167, 1 ; G. 407; H. 421. 

oppidls, abl. plur. of oppidum , n. ; abl. absolute with the perf. pass, participle 

exustis . See A. & G. 255 ; B. 192 ; G. 409, 410 ; H. 431. suis, abl. plur. of the 

poss. pron. suus, -a, -um ; it agrees with oppidis. vicisque (vicis + que). vicis, 

abl. plur. of vicus , -z, m., connected by the enclitic -que with oppidts , and it is in the 

same grammatical construction. exustis, perf. pass, participle, abl. plur. of 

exustus, -a, -um, from exiiro, - ere , -us si, ustum, 3; abl. absolute with oppidts and 
vicis. Observe that this construction is made necessary, because there is no perf. 
act. participle of uro. 

Line 17. una, adv. modifying the prep. cum. Note that the adv. una is derived 
from the adj. iinusy -a f -um t and hence with cum = together withy a prepositional 

phrase = closely with. cum, prep, with the abl. eis. eis, abl. plur. of the 

dem. pron. is, ea, id, used as a personal pron. of the 3d pers ; it is the obj. of 
the prep. cum. Instead of the three words una cum eis f Caesar might have used 

simply secum, an indirect reflexive. proficiscantur, 3d pers. plur. pres, subjunctive 

of proficiscor, -i t profectuSy 3; subjunctive of purpose after tili t I. 15, above. Consult 
A. & G. 331 ; B. 200, (b) t and rem. 2 ; G. 546, 1, and note 1 ; II. 498, I. Observe 
that uH . . . proficiscantur as a noun-clause is the direct obj. of persuddent, 1 . 14, 

above. Bdidsque (BoiSs + enclitic que). Boios, acc. plur. of Boii, -drum, m., 

direct obj. of adsciscunty 1. 21, below. The Boii were a people of Celtic Gaul; a part 
of them migrated to Germany, a part settled in Pannonia, and a part federated in 
some sort with the Helvetii, and migrated with them. 

Line 18. qui, nom. plur. of rel. pron. qtiiy quaey quod; it refers to Boios as its 

antecedent, and is subject-nom. of incoluerant. trans, prep, with acc. Rhenum. 

Rhenum, acc. sing, of Rhenus, -i, m. ; an appositive of fiumeti understood, 

which latter is the obj. of the prep, trdns. incoluerant, 3d pers. plur. pluperf. 

ind. of incold , - ere, -ui, -cultumy 3 ; it agrees with its subject-nom. qui. in, prep. 

with the acc. or abl. ; here it takes the acc. For use, see note on in f 1. 1, Chap. I, end. 

Line 19. agrum, acc. sing, of ager, agri, m. ; obj. of the prep. in. Noricum, 

acc. m. of the adj. A T oricus, -a -um ; it modifies agrum. The adj. — of or belonging 
to Noricumy a region of Germany, which had the Danube on the north, the Alps on 

the south, upper Romania on the east and Rhetia on the west. transierant, 

3d pers. plur. pluperf. ind. act. of trdnsedy -irey -ivi (-ii), -Hum ; syncopated form for 
trdns siverant. See A. & G. 128. I, 2 ; B. 251 ; G. 131. 1 ; H. 235. trdnsierant is 
connected by the conj. et with incoluerant, and agrees with the same subject-nom. 

qui. Noreiamque (Noreiam + que). Noreiam is acc. sing, of Noreia , -ae, f.; 

direct obj. of oppugndrant. Noreia was a town of Noricum. 


16 consili5 oppidls suis vicisque exustis, 

plan towns their oton , milages and , being burned , 

17 una cum els proficiscantur; Boidsque, 

together with them they may set out; the Boii and , 

is qui trans Rhenum incoluerant et in 
who across the Rhine had dwelt and into 

19 agrum Ndricum transierant Noreiamque 
the country Norican had crossed Noreia and , 


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36 


[CHAP. VI. 


caesar’s gallic war 


Noreia, they re- 
ceived to their 
number and unit- 
ed to themselves 
as allies. 


oppugnanmt, receptos ad se socios 20 

had stormed, having been received to themselves, as allies 

sibi adsciscunt. 21 

to themselves they unite . 


VI. There were 
but two routes, 
by which the Hel- 
vetii could leave 
home. One route 


VI. Erant omnlno itinera duo, quibus 1 

There were in all routes two, by which 

itineribus domo exire possent ; unum 2 

routes from home to go forth they were able ; one (route) 


Line 20. oppugnarant, 3d pers. plur. pluperf. ind. act. of oppugno , -dre, -dvi , 
-« dtum , 1 ; connected by the conj. que with transierant , and in the same grammatical 

construction. receptos, acc. plur. of perf. pass, participle receptus , -a, - urn of the 

verb recipid , -ere, - cepi , - ceptum , 3; it agrees with the noun Boids , 1 . 17; but is best 
translated by a codrdinate clause. Consult A. & G. 292, and rem. ; B. 191 ; G. 664, 

rem. 1 ; H. 549. 5. ad, prep, with the acc. se, acc. plur. of the reflexive 

pron. sui, sibi , se, se; it is the obj. of the prep. ad. socios, predicate-acc. See 

A. & G. 239, I, a ; B. 151, (b) ; G. 340, (b) ; II. 373, 1. 

Line 21. sibi, dat. plur. of the indirect obj. adsciscunt, 3d pers. plur. pres. 

ind. act. of adscisco, -ere, -scivT, -scitum, 3 ; it agrees with its subject-nom. Helve til, to 
be supplied. Observe the strictly literal translation of the last line : they admit as 
allies to themselves the Boii having been received to themselves. 

Line i. Erant, 3d pers. plur. imperf. indicative of sum, esse, fui, futurus ; its 
subject-nom. is itinera, erant here makes a complete predicate in itself ; and hence 
as thus used is called a substantive-verb, and as such usually stands first in the 

sentence. Consult A. & G. 172, note, end, and 344, c. omnlno, adv. ( omnis ) = 

in all , i.e. alone, only. itinera, nom. plur. of iter , itineris , n., subject-nom. of 

erant. Synonyms: via (digammated from i in ire thus : /ri + a =via or wia) = the 
ordinary travelled way ; whereas iter, in a concrete sense = the way direct to a par- 
ticular point, whether travelled or not. But both iter and via are used in an abstract 

sense, and = journey, march , without any particular difference in meaning. 

duo, nom. plur. n. of the num. adj. duo, duae, duo. See note on tres , 1 . 2, Chap. I. 

duo modifies itinera. quibus, abl. plur. n. of the rel. pron. qui, quae, quod; it 

refers to itinera as its antecedent, but is here used adjectively, and agrees with 
itineribus. Observe the repetition of the antecedent in the relative clause, and con- 
sult A. & G. 200, a; B. 129, rem. i, (b)\ G. 615 ; H. 445. 8. 

Line 2. itineribus, abl. plur. of iter, itineris , n. ; abl. of the way by which. See 

A. & G. 258 ,g; B. 170, rem. 4; G. 389; II. 425, II, 1). domo, abl. sing, of the 

noun domus, -us, or loc. -i, f. ; abl. of the place from which. A. & G. 258, a; B. 175 ; 
G. 390, 2 ; H. 412, II, 1. exire, pres. inf. act. of exeo, -ire, -ivt (-//), -Hum; com- 

plementary inf., depends on possent. Consult A. & G. 271, and note; B. 181 ; 

G. 423 ; H. 533, I, 2. possent, 3d pers. plur. imperf. subjunctive of possum 9 

posse, potui (potis + sum); subjunctive, because it is a clause of characteristic . See 

A. & G. 320; B. 234, 1 ; G. 631 ; H. 503, I. unum, nom. sing. n. of the adjj^ 

unus, -a -um; supply iter; the latter is an explanatory appositive of itinera; or erat 
may be supplied, of which iter would be subject-nom. 


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LINES 3 - 7 .] 


BOOK I. 


37 


3 per Sequanos, angustum et difficile, inter 
through the Sequani , narrow and difficult , between 

4 montem Iuram et flumen Rhodanum, vix 

Mount Jura and the river Bhone , scarcely 

s qua slnguli carri ducerentur ; mons 

where one by one waggons could be dragged ; a mountain 

6 autem altissimus impendebat, ut facile 

moreover very high was overhanging , so that easily 

7 perpauci prohibere possent ; alterum 

a very few to hold (the pass) were able ; a second (way was) 


was through the 
Sequani, between 
Mount Jura and 
the river Rhone, 
narrow and diffi- 
cult, along which 
in single file carts 
could with diffi- 
culty be drawn. 
Moreover, a high 
beetling mount- 
ain was near it, 
so that a very 
few men could 
easily impede the 


Line 3. per, prep, with the acc. Sequanos, acc. plur. of Sequani , - drum , m.; 

it follows the prep. per. As to this clan, see note on Sequanis, 1 . 25, Chap. I. 

angustum, nom. sing. n. of the adj. angustus , -a, -um ( angere , to press together) ; 

angustum is an attributive of iter understood. difficile, nom. sing. n. of the adj. 

difficilis, -e ; connected by the conj. et with angustum , and in the same grammatical 
construction (dis + facilis) ; the s is assimilated ; dis denotes privation ; and hence 
difficilis = not easy , difficult. inter, prep, with the acc. 

Line 4. montem, acc. sing, of mdns , montis, m. ; acc. after the prep, inter. 

Iuram, acc. sing. Jiira, -ae, m. ; it is in apposition with montem. For description, 

see note on Jiird, 1 . 13, end, Chap. II. flumen, acc. sing. n. of flumen, - inis , n. ; 

connected by the conj. et with montem , and in the same grammatical construction. 

Rhodanum, acc. sing, of Rhodanus , m. ; an appositive. vix, adv. ; it 

modifies ducerentur. Observe how emphatic it becomes by being placed at the 
beginning of the clause. 

Line 5. qua, adv. ; strictly, an abl. of the pron. qui , quae , quod , used adjectively, 

and agreeing with parte understood ; and hence = in which direction , where. 

slnguli, nom. plur. of the distributive num. adj. -i, - ae , - a ; declined like the plur. of 

bonus. See A. & G. 95, a ; B. 63, c ; G. 97 ; H. 174, 2 ; it agrees with carri. 

Carri, nom. plur. of carrus , m. ; it is the subject of ducerentur. ducerentur, 

3d pers. plur. imperf. subjunctive pass, of duco , -ere, diixi, ductum , 3; its subject is 
carri; subjunctive, because a clause of characteristic. For grammatical references, 

see note on possent, 1 . 2, above. mdns, nom. sing., and subj. of impendebat. Note 

that the vowel o is conceived to be naturally long only in the nom. and voc. sing. ; 
in the other cases it is conceived to be short. 

Line 6. autem, conj., a weak adversative particle; here = moreover. altis- 

simus, superl. degree of the adj. altus, comparative altior; it is an attributive of 
mdns; the superl. of eminence. A. & G. 93, b; B. 68, REM. 4; G. 302; H. 444, 1. 

impendebat, 3d pers. sing, imperf. ind. act. of impended, -ere (no perf, or supine); 

in + pendere = to hang on or over. This verb is in use sometimes l.ans., and some- 
times intrans. ; it is here to be taken as intrans. — was overhanging. Ut, ecbatic 

conj. = so that. facile, adv., modifying prohibere ; the neuter acc. of the adj. is 

often used as an adv. See A. & G. 148, d; B. 117, 6; G. 91, 1, (*■) ; II. 304, I, 3, 1). 

Line 7. perpauci, nom. plur. of the adj. perpaucus, -a, -urn, used substantively; 
it is subject-nom. of possent. prohibere, pres. inf. act. of prohibeo, -ere, - ui , itum, 2 


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38 


cabsar’s gallic war 


[CHAP. VL 


passage. The 
other route was 
through our prov- 
ince; it was much 
easier and quick- 
er, because the 
Rhone flows be- 
tween the territo- 
ries of the Ilelve- 
tii and the Allo- 
broges, who had 
lately been sub- 


per provinciam nostram, mult5 facilius 8 

through province our , much more easy 

atque expeditius, propterea quod inter 9 

and expeditious on this account , because between 

fines Helvetiorum et Allobrogum, qui 10 

the boundaries of the Ilelvetii and the Allobroges, who 

nuper pacatl erant, lthodanus fluit, isque u 

lately pacified were , the Rhone fiows , this and , 


(pro habere = lit. to hold forth or from); complementary inf. See note on extre , 

1 . 2, above. The pron. id, i.e. iter, may be here supplied as the direct obj. of pro- 
h there ; or, if preferred, eds extre may be supplied, giving a little different turn to 

the meaning. possent, 3d pers. plur. imperf. subjunctive of possum ; see possent, 

1 . 2, above; here, however, is subjunctive of result. A. & G. 319, i ; B. 201 ; 

G. 552, 1 ; II. 500, II. alterum, nom. sing. n. of adj. alter, - era , - erum =the one, 

the other of two ; as a numeral it = secundus , -a, -um ; supply here iter, of which 
alterum is a modifier, iter thus supplied may be put in apposition with itinera , 1. I, 
above; or it may be taken as subject-nom. to erat , to be supplied. The route 
intended is the southern route. 

Line 8. per, prep, with the acc. provinciam, acc. sing, of provincia , -at r, f.; 

it is the obj. of the prep. per. nostram, acc. sing. f. of the poss. pron. noster , 

-, tra , -trum ; it modifies provinciam ; it refers to the Roman province. See note on 

proviuciae , 1 . 10, Chap. I. multo, abl. n. of the adj. multus , -a, -um ; abl. of 

degree of difference after the comparative facilius; it may, however, be taken as an 

adv. But consult A. & G. 250; B. 164 ; G. 403 ; H. 423. facilius, nom. sing. n. 

of the comparative degree facilior , -ius ; positive facilis , superl .facillimus; facilius 
modifies iter, already supplied, and with which alterum , in the preceding line, agrees. 

Line 9. atque, see note on this particle, 1 . 10, Chap. I. expeditius, nom. 

sing. n. of the participial adj. expeditus , comparative degree expedltior , superl. 
expeditissimus ; expeditius is connected by the conj. atque with facilius , and is in 
the same grammatical construction. Observe (a) that the verb from which this 
participle comes is expedio, -ire, -ivi (-ii), -itum, 4 ; and (h) that it is derived from 

ex + pes = lit. to get the foot out of the snare; hence expedire = to extricate . 

propterea quod, see notes on these particles, 1 . 9, Chap. I. inter, prep, with the acc. 

Line 10. fines, acc. plur. of finis, -is, m. ; it is the obj. of the prep, inter. 

For synonyms, see note on agrum, 1 . 12, Chap. II. Helvetiorum, gen. plur. of 

Ilelvetii, -drum, m. ; it limits fines. For description, see note on Helvetii , 1 . 16, Chap. I. 

Allobrogum, gen. plur. of Allobroges, -um, m., connected by the conj. et with 

Helvetiorum , and in the same grammatical construction. The Allobroges occupied 

the country near the junction of the Saone and the Rhone. qul, nom. plur. m.’ 

of the rel. pron. qui, quae , quod ; it is the subject-nom. of pdcdti erant. 

Line i i. nuper, adv. (for noviper from novus) = newly ; it modifies pdcdH erant. 

pacatl erant, 3d pers. plur. pluperf. ind. pass, of pded, -dre, -dvi, - dtum , 1 ; the 

subject-nom. is the rel. pron. qui. The Allobroges were “pacified” by Caius Pomp- 
tinus 61 b.c., after a desperate struggle. Rhodanus, - 1 , m. ; subject-nom. of 


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LIKES 12-15.] 


BOOK I. 


89 


12 nonnullls locls vado transltur. Extremum 

in some places by a ford is crossed . The most distant 

13 oppidum Allobrogum est proximumque 

town of the Allobroges is, nearest and, 

14 Helvetiorum finibus Genava. Ex e 5 oppido 

to the Helvetian boundaries, Geneva. From this town 

is pons ad Helvetios pertinet. Allobrogibus 

a bridge to the Helvetii extends. The Allobroges , 


dued ; and this 
river can be ford- 
ed in some places. 
Geneva was the 
furthermost town 
of the Allobroges, 
and was very near 
to the territory 
of the Ilelvetii. 
From this town 
a bridge reached 
across to the II el- 


Jluit. fluit, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. of fluo , -ere, ftuxt , fluetum , 3 ; it agrees 

with its subj. Rhodanus. isque (is + que). is, a dem. pron., is, ea, id; it points 

to Rhodanus as its antecedent ; is expressed for emphasis, and is the subject-nom. 
of trdnsitur. Observe that the enclitic - que connects the clauses very closely. 

Line 12. nonnftllls, abl. plur. of the adj. ndnnfdlus, -a, -urn; it is an attributive 
of locls. Observe that the position of non, as either before or after mi l l us, and 
some other words, changes the meaning: thus nonnulli = some ; whereas nftllus non 

= every. Consult A. & G. 150, a and b; B. 117. 10; G. 449, 4; H. 553, I. loeis, 

locative abl. of locus , -l, m., plur. loci, m., or loca, n., gen. locorum. For definition of 
meaning, see note on loci, 1. 10, Chap. II. loeis is locative abl. by A. & G. 25 8,/ ; 

B. 170, REM. 3 ; G. 385, NOTE I ; H. 425, II, 2. vado, abl. sing, of vadum , -i, n. ; 

abl. of the way by which , i.e. means. transltur, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. pass, of 

trdnseo, -ire, -ivi \-ii), -itum ; it agrees with its subject-nom. is. Extremum, nom. 

sing. n. of the superl. degree of the adj. exterus , -rior, extremus or extimus ; extremum 
modifies oppidum . 

Line 13. oppidum, -I, n. ; predicate-nom. after est. Allobrogum, gen. plur. 

of Allobroges, - um , m. ; it limits oppidum . est, 3d pers. sing, of the intrans. verb 

sum, esse, fui, futiirus; it agrees with its subject-nom. Genava. proximumque 

(proximum + que). proximum, nom. sing. n. of the superl. degree of the adj . proxi- 
mus, -a, -um, comparative propior ; the positive is wanting; closely connected by the 
enclitic - que with the adj. extremum, and in the same grammatical construction. 

Line 14. Helvetiorum, gen. plur. of Helvetii , - drum , m. ; it limits finibus. 

finibus, dat. plur. of finis , -is, m. ; it is dat. after the adj. proximum. See A. & G. 

234, a; B. 144, rem. 4; G. 359; II. 391, I. Genava, nom. sing, of Genava, - ae , f. ; 

subject-nom. of est. Genava was a town of the Allobroges ; it is sometimes written 
Geneva, and also Genua; compare the ger. Genf, and the gk. Yevoia, of the Greek 
paraphrase. The reader will note the emphasis indicated by the order of the words. 
The natural Latin order is: Genava est extremum Allobrogum oppidum proximumque 

Helvetiorum finibus. Ex, prep, with the abl. (e before consonants only, ex before 

vowels or consonants). eo,* abl. sing. n. of the dem. adj. pron. is, ea, id; it is an 

attributive of oppido. oppido, abl. sing, of the noun oppidum, -i, n., after the 

prep. ex. 

Line 15. pons, nom. sing, of pons, pontis, m.; it is subject-nom. of pertinet. 

ad, prep, with the acc. Helvetios, acc. plur. of Helvetii, -drum, m. ; it is the obj. 

of the prep. ad. pertinet, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. of pertined, -ere, -ui, 

-tentum, 3 ; it agrees with its subject-nom. pons. Allobrogibus, dat. plur. of 


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40 


caesar’s gallic war 


[CHAP. VI. 


vetii. The latter 
thought that they 
could either per- 
suade the Allo- 
broges, inasmuch 
as they did not as 
yet seem to be 
well-disposed to- 
ward the Roman 
people, or they 
could force them, 
to allow them to 
go through their 


sese vel persuasuros, quod nondum 16 

themselves either to he about to persuade, because not yet 

bono animo in populum Romanum viderentur, n 

of good mind to the people Roman they seemed, 

exlstimabant, vel vi coacturos is 

they thought , or by force to be about to compel (them) 

ut per suos fines eos Ire paterentur. 1$ 

that through their boundaries them to go they might permit. 


Allobroges, - um , m. ; dat. after persudsiirds (esse). Consult A. & G. 227, and NOTE 1 j 
B. 142 ; G. 346, and rem. 2 ; H. 385, II. 

Line 16. sese, acc. plur. of sui , sibi , se, se; reduplicated reflexive pron. for the 

simple se , but more emphatic; subject-acc. of persuasuros (esse). vel . . . vel = 

either ... or. Synonyms: vel , imperative of void , gives a choice between the alter- 
natives ; whereas aut excludes the alternative. This distinction is not always 

observed. persuasuros (esse), fut. inf. act. of persuaded, - dere , - suasi , - sudsum , 2 

(per, intensive -f- suadere = to advise thoroughly); its subject-acc. is the pron. sese. 
quod, conj. = because. nondum, adv. (non + dum); it modifies viderentur . 

Line 17. bond, abl. sing. m. of the adj. bonus , -a , -um; comparative melior , 

superl. optimus ; bond is the attributive, of animo. animo, abl. of quality with 

the adj. bond. See A. & G. 251 ; B. 169; G. 400; H. 419, II. Observe that the abl. 

of quality is essentially a predicative construction. in, prep, with the acc. and 

abl. ; here it takes the acc. and = to or toward. populum, acc. sing, of populus , 

m. ; it is the obj. of the prep. in. Romanum, acc. sing. m. of the adj. Romd- 

nus, -a, -um ; it is an attributive of populum. Synonyms: populus = the people in 
their civil capacity ; plebs = the common people in distinction from the patricians ; 

and vulgus = the crowd , the rabble. viderentur, 3d pers. plur. imperf. subjunctive 

of video , -ere, vidi, visum , 2 ; in the pass., vidert = lit. to be looked up to or regarded; 
hence = to seem , to appear, viderentur is in the subjunctive, because the statement 
is made on the authority of the Helvetii, not on that of Caesar. Consult A. & G. 
341 ; B. 245, 1, (b ) ; G. 663, I ; H. 516, II, and 528, 3. 

Line 18. exlstimabant, 3d pers. plur. imperf. ind. act. of existimo, - dre , - dvi , 
-1 dtum , 1 ; its subject-nom. is Helvetii understood. Note (1) that the construction 
here is that of informal indirect discourse. What the Helvetii thought in direct 
form is: Allobrogibus persuddebimus , quod nondum bond animo in populum Romanum 
videntur. Note (2) that a few years before the time of this narrative, the ambas- 
sadors of the Allobroges had been tampered with by Catiline’s agents. Compare Cic., 

ordtio III in Cat., Sec. II. vel, see vel, 1 . 16, above. vi, abl. of vis, vis, f.; 

nom. plur. vires; vi is an abl. of means. coacturos (esse), fut. inf. act. of cdgo, 

-ere, coegi, codctum ; its subject-acc. is sese, to be supplied; supply also eos, as 
direct obj. What the Helvetii said in direct form is : vi (eos) cogemus , ut per suds 
fines nos ire patiantur. 

Line 19. ut, telic conj. = lit. that, but often best rendered in connection with its 
verb in the subjunctive by the English to, with the verb-stem. per, prep, with 


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LINES 20 - 22 .] 


BOOK I. 


41 


20 Omnibus rebus ad profectionem comparatls, 

All things for the expedition having been prepared, 

21 diem dicunt, qua die ad rlpam Rhodani 

a day they name, on which day near the bank of the 'Rhone 

22 omnes conveniant ; is dies erat ante diem 

all should assemble; this day was before , day , 


country. Now 
when all things 
were ready for 
the migration, 
they appointed a 
day on which all 
were to assemble 
at the margin of 
the river Rhone; 
and this day was 


the acc. su5s, acc. plur. m. of the poss. pron. suus , -a, -um; it agrees with fines, 

but refers to the Allobroges. fines, acc. plur. of finis , -is, m. ; obj. of the prep. 

per. : eos, acc. plur. m. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id, used as a personal pron. of the 

3d pers.; it is subject-acc. of ire; it refers to the Helvetii. Observe that the pro- 
nouns are not used according to the rules. If Caesar had written leisurely he would 

probably have written here : per eorurn fines se ire. ire, pres. inf. act. of eo , ire , 

ivi (/*), itum; its subject-acc. is eos. paterentur, 3d pers. plur. imperf. sub- 

junctive of patior , pati , passus, 3, deponent ; subjunctive of purpose after ut. A. & G. 
331, and foot-note 2 ; B. 200, rem. 2 ; G. 546, I ; H. 498, II. 

Line 20. Omnibus, abl. plur. f. of adj. omnis, -e ; see note on omnis, 1 . 1, 

Chap. I ; omnibus is an attributive of rebus. rebus, abl. plur. of res, rei, f. ; abl. 

absolute with the participle co?nparatis, denoting time when. See A. & G. 255, d, 1 ; 

B. 172, 192 ; G. 409, 410; II. 431, and 2. (3). ad, prep, with the acc. ; it is here 

used with the acc. to denote purpose, and may be rendered for. profectionem, 

acc. sing, of profectio , -onis, f. ; it is in the acc. after the prep. ad. comparatls, 

abl. plur. f. of compardtus, -a, -tun, perf. pass, participle of the verb comparo, -dre, 
-avi, - dtum , 1 ; abl. absolute with the noun rebus. 

Line 21. diem, acc. sing, of dies, - ei , f. here, denoting fixed time, as indicated 
by the following qud die; but m. next line, as describing the time. Consult A. & G. 

73; B. 49, rem. 2; G. 64 ; II. 123. die?n is the direct obj. of dicunt. dicunt, 

3d pers. plur. pres. ind. act. of died, -ere, dixi, dictum, 3 ; its subject-nom. is Helvetii, 

to be supplied. qua, abl. sing. f. of the rel. pron. qui, quae, quod; it is used 

here both relatively and adjectively: as a rel. it refers to diem; as an adj. it agrees 

with die. See note on itineribus, 1 . 2, above. die, abl. sing, f., denoting time 

when. See A. & G. 256, 1 ; B. 171 ; G. 393; II. 429. ad, prep, with the acc.; here 

it = near; not on; the latter notion would be indicated by in ripd. ripam, acc. 

sing, of ripa, - ae , f. ; it is the obj. of the prep. ad. Rhodani, gen. sing, of Rho- 

danus, ■*, m. ; it limits the noun ripam. 

Line 22. omnes, nom. plur. m. and f. of omnis, -e ; used here substantively as 
the subject-nom. of conveniant, or may be taken as an adj. modifying IlelvetH under- 
stood. conveniant, 3d pers. plur. pres, subjunctive act. of convenio, -ire, -veni, 

-ventum, 4; subjunctive denoting purpose. Observe that the phrase qud die — ut ed 
die , and consult A. & G. 317, 2, and note; B. 200, (b), 233, 1 ; G. 630; II. 497, I. 

is, dem. pron. ; it is an attributive of dies, and is here a pure demonstrative. 

dies, subject-nom. of erat. erat, 3d pers. sing, imperf. ind. of the intrans. 

verb sum, esse, fui, futurus; it agrees with its subject-nom. dies. ante, prep. 

with the acc. diem, acc. sing, of dies, -ei, m. ; acc. after prep. ante. Observe that 

ante is both a prep, and an adv., like its opposite post. The archaic form of this 
particle is anti, whence antidea and antihde ; kindred with the gk. dvrl. 


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42 


[CHAP. VII. 


Caesar’s gallic war 


the fifth before 
theApril Kalends 
(March 28th), in 
the consulship of 
Lucius Piso and 
Aulus Gabinius. 


quintum Kalendas Apriles, 

the fifth. Kalends April, 

Aul 5 Gablnio cdnsulibus. 

Aulus Gabinius being the consuls. 


Lucid Plsone, 23 

Lucius Piso, (and) 


24 


VII. When the 
report was made 
to Caesar that 
the Helvetii were 
attempting to 


VII. 


Caesarf cum id 

To Caesar when this 


eos per provinciam 

them (that they) through province 


nuntiatum esset, 1 

had been announced, 

nostram iter 2 

our a journey 


Line 23. quintum, acc. sing. m. of the ordinal adj. qulntus, -a, -urn ; it agrees 
with diem. But observe carefully (1) that the complex phrase ante diem quintum 
Kalendds Apriles is the predicate-nom. after erat. Observe (2) that the phrase ante 
diem by itself is used as an indecl. noun, and may take an acc. after it ; that the 
grammatical form would be strictly: die quinto ante Kalendds Apriles ; or (3) that 
the phrase takes, sometimes, the prep, in or ex before it. On the Roman method 
of designating dates, the reader may consult A. & G. 259, e, and 376; B. 261. 5; 
G. pp. 491, 492; H. 642, 3. Kalendas, acc. plur. of Kalendae , - drum , f. ; anom- 

alous acc. after the phrase ante diem quintum; see specifications (1) and (2), 

immediately preceding. Apriles, acc. plur. f. of the adj. Apidlis , -e ; it agrees 

with Kalendds. Observe that the Latin names of months are adjectives. 

Lucio, abl. sing, of the praenomen Lucius , - i , m., praenomen of Piso. Plsone, 

abl. sing, of Pis 5 , -dnis, m. ; abl. absolute with cdnsulibus. 

Line 24. Aulo, abl. sing, of the praen 5 men Aldus , -i, m., praenomen of Gabinius. 
— — Gabinid, abl. of Gabinius , -i, m. ; abl. absolute with cdnsulibus. Gabinius was 
consul with Piso, 58 B.c. For the construction here, see note on M. Messala et 
M. Pisone , 1 . 3, Chap. II. Observe (1) that the names of the consuls put in the abl. 
absolute with cdnsulibus — often without a conj. — denote the year in the narrative 
of Roman historic events. Observe (2) that the complex phrase ante diem quintum 
Kalendds Apriles is sometimes abbreviated thus: a. d. V. Kal. Apr. Observe (3) that 
this phrase = in our method of designating the time of the month, the 28th of 
March. The process of transmutation is thus represented- V. Kal. Apr. (33 — 5) = 

March 2%th. See A. & G. 376, a , b , c, d; B. 261, 7, (b ) ; G. p. 492 ; H. 644, II. 

Cdnsulibus, see 1 . 3, Chap. II. 

Line i. Caesari, dat. of Caesar , -aris, m. ; indirect obj. of nuntidtum esset. 

A. & G. 224; B. 140; G. 344; H. 384, I. cum, conj., temporal. id, nom. 

sing. n. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id; used here as a n. personal pron. of the 3d pers., 
and = *V; it is subject-nom. of nuntidtum esset. Note that id — i.e. the following 
statement — is the herald of the following infinitive-clause eos . . . condri and is in 
apposition with it. That is to say, the infinitive-clause is the real subj. of nuntidtum 

esset. nuntiatum esset, 3d pers. sing, pluperf. subjunctive of nuntid (sometimes 

written nuncio ), - dre , -dvi, - dtum , 1 ; subjunctive after cum, temporal. Consult 
A. & G. 325; B. 220; G. 585; H. 521, and II, 2. Observe that the participle-part of 
this tense is neuter, because the subject-nom. is neuter. 

Line 2. eos, acc. plur. m. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id, used as a personal pron. 

of the 3d pers.; it refers to the Helvetii, and is subject-acc. of condri. per, prep. 

with the acc. provinciam, acc. sing, of provincia , -ae, i . ; it is the obj. of the 


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LINES S-6.] 


BOOK L 


43 


3 facere 

to make 


conari, 

to attempt (attempt), 


maturat 
he hastens 


ab 

from 


urbe 
the city 


4 proficisci 

et, 

quam 

maximis 

potest 

to set out 

and 

by as much as 

the greatest , 

, he is able , 

6 itineribus, 

ill 

Galliam 

ulteriorem 

contendit 

marches , 

into 

Gaul 

farther 

he presses on 


6 et 

and 


ad 

at 


Genavam 

Geneva 


pervenit. 
he arrives . 


Provinciae 
To the province 


march through 
our province, he 
made haste to 
leave the city, 
— Rome, — and 
with all possible 
speed he pressed 
on into ulterior 
Gaul, and arrived 
at Geneva. He 


prep. per. nostram, acc. sing. f. of the poss. pron. noster , -tra, -trum ; it is an 

attributive of pravinciam . The allusion is to the Roman province, south of Celtica 
and east of Aquitania. iter, acc. sing, of iter, itineris , n. ; direct obj. of facere . 

* Line 3. facere, pres. inf. act. of facio , -ere, feci, factum, 3; complementary inf., 
and depends on condrt. Consult A. & G. 271, and note; B. 181 ; G. 423 ; H. 533, 2. 

Conari, pres. inf. of deponent verb editor , -art, -dtus, 1 ; its subject-acc. is the 

pron. eds. maturat, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. of mdtiird, -are, -art, - atum , 1 ; 

its subject-nom. is Caesar understood, maturare is derived from the adj. mdturus 
= ripe; hence lit. the verb = to ripen; then of events maturare = those that ripen 
or come to pass speedily ; hence tropically the verb == hasten. Observe that mdturat 
is the historical pres, which admits of the primary or secondary sequence. Consult 

A. & G. 276, d, 287, e, note; B. 190, rkm. 1 ; G. 51 1, rem. i ; II. 495, II. ab, 

prep, with the abl. urbe, abl. sing, of urbs , urbis, f. ; abl. after the prep. ab. 

Note that ab, not ex, is used, because Caesar was near, not in the city. Caesar was 
consul 59 b.c. He became pro-consul in 58, and the provinces of Cis- and Trans- 
Alpine Gaul and Illyricum were assigned him for five years. As pro-consul he held 
the military power — imperium — and was not permitted to enter the city. 

Line 4. proficiscf, pres. inf. of the deponent verb proficiscor , -1, profectus, 3; 
complementary infinitive, depending on mdturat. Consult A. & G. 271, and note; 

B. 181 ; G. 423; II. 533, I. 1. quam, adv., modifies mdximis. maximis, 

abl. plur. n. of mdximus , -a, - urn ; superl. of magnus, comparative mdior; it modifies 

itineribus. potest, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. of possum , posse , potui ; it agrees with 

its subject-nom. is, referring to Caesar understood. 

Line 5. itineribus, abl. plur. of iter , itineris , n. ; abl. of means. Note the 
ellipses, and supply as follows : tain mdgnis quam mdximis mdtiirdre potest itineribus; 
i.e. by so great as the greatest marches he can hasten. Caesar is said to have travelled 
100 miles a day, and to have reached the Rhone in a week, after leaving Rome. 

in, prep, with the acc. or abl.; here it takes the acc. after a verb of motion. 

Galliam, acc. sing, of Gallia, - ae , f. ; acc. after the prep. in. See note on Gallia, 1 . 1, 

Chap. I. ulteriorem, acc. sing. f. of the adj. ulterior, - ins , comparative degree, 

no positive; it modifies Galliam. The reference is to Gaul beyond the Alps; i.e. 

from Rome it was trdns- Alpine in distinction from r/j-Alpine Gaul. contendit, 

3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. of contendd, -ere, -tendi, - tentum , 3 ; its subject-nom. is 
Caesar understood ; con + tendere = to stretch out; hence, to hasten one’s course 
eagerly in a certain direction — to press on. See note on contendunt, 1 . 18, Chap. I. 

Line 6. ad, prep, with the acc.; after verb of motion = toward. Genavam, 

acc. sing, of Gendva , -ae, i . ; acc. after the prep. ad. pervenit, 3d pers. sing. 


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44 


caesah’s gallic war 


[CHAP. VII. 


made requisition 
upon the entire 
province for as 
large a number 
of soldiers as pos- 
sible — there was 
but one legion in 
ulterior Gaul — 
and he ordered 
the bridge which 
was near Geneva 


toti quam maximum potest militum 7 

entire as much as the greatest he is able, of soldiers 

numerum imperat — erat omnino 8 

the number (to be levied) he gives orders — there was in all 

in Gallia ulteriore legio una; — pontem 9 

in Gaul farther legion one; — the bridge 

qul erat ad Genavam iubet rescind!. 10 

which was near Geneva he orders to be broken down . 


pres. ind. act. of pervenio , -ire, -vein, -ve it turn, 4 ; connected by the conj. et with con- 
ten dit, and in the same grammatical construction. Observe that the finite verbs in 

this sentence, with the exception of nuntidtum esset, are historical presents. . 

Provinciae, dat. of the indirect obj. after imperat 

Line 7. toti, dat. sing. f. of the adj. tdtus , -a, -urn, gen. totius; tod is the attrib- 
utive of provinciae . The province referred to here is transalpine Gaul. quam 

maximum potest, see notes on these words, 1. 4, above, and note on the entire 
phrase, 1 . 4, Chap. III. potest, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. of possum , posse , potui 

(potis + sum) ; its subject-nom. is ea, i.e. provincia understood. militum, gen- 

plur. of miles, - itis , m. ; it limits numerum . 

Line 8. numerum, acc. sing, of numerus , -i, m.; direct obj. of imperat Observe 
that some verbs have both the direct and indirect obj. Consult A. & G. 227 ,f ; 

B. 141 ; G. 345; H. 384, II. Observe that this construction may be fully analyzed 

by supplying cogendum , the gerundive agreeing with numerum . imperat, 3d pers. 

sing. pres. ind. act. of impero, 1 ; it agrees with a pron. as subject-nom. implied in 

the ending, referring to Caesar. erat, 3d pers. sing, imperf. ind. of sum , 

esse , fui, fut. participle futurus ; it is here a verb of complete predication, and 

agrees with its subject-nom. legio . omnino, adv. (omnis) = lit. in all; it 

modifies erat 

Line 9. in, prep, with the acc. or abl. ; here it takes the abl. Gallia, abl. 

of Gallia, -ae, f. ; abl. after prep, in . ulteriore, abl. sing. f. of the adj. ulterior , 

-ius. See note on iilteriorem , 1 . 5, above. legio, nom. sing, of legio, -onis, f. ; 

subject-nom. of erat This was the tenth legion — Caesar’s favorite. una, nom. 

sing. f. of the num. adj. iinus, -a, - um , gen. tinius, dat. uni; una is an attributive of 
legio . For a description of the Roman legion, see the article Legion in any of 

the Encyclopedias. pontem, acc. sing, of pons, pontis, m.; subject-acc. of 

rescindi. 

Line 10. qui, nom. sing, of the rel. pron. qui, quae, quod; it refers to pontem 

as its antecedent; and is the subject-nom. of erat erat, see erat, 1. 7, above. 

ad, prep, with the acc. ; here = near or at Genavam, acc. sing, of Gendva , 

1 ae , f. ; obj. of the prep. ad. Some copies here read Genuam, and others read 

Genevam. iubet, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. of iubeo, -ere, -ius si, -ius sum, 2 ; it 

agrees with a pron., referring to Caesar, implied in the ending. rescindi, pres. 

inf. pass, of rescindo, -ere, -scidi, -scissum, 3 ; its subject-acc. is pontem . This con- 
struction follows iubet Observe that verba sentiendi et decldrandt have the acc. 
and inf. after them. _ 


\ 


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LINES 1I-14.J 


BOOK I. 


45 


11 Ubi de eius adventu Helvetia certiores 

When of his arrival the Uelvetii more certain 

12 fact! sunt, legates ad eum mittunt 

were made , legates to him they sqnd, 

13 nobilissimos clvitatis, cuius legationis 

the noblest of the state, of which legation 

w Nammeius et Verudoctius prlncipem locum 

Nammeius and Verudoctius the chief place 


to be destroyed. 
When the Helve- 
tii were informed 
of his arrival, 
they sent to him 
ambassadors of 
the highest rank 
in the state — and 
of this embassy 
Nammeius and 
Verudoctius were 


Line ii. Ubi, adv. (supposed to be from quo-f-bi, a locative form = *7/ what 
place); transf., most frequently of time = when. Sometimes, colloquially, it is 

used as referring to things and persons, and = with which , with whom. 

de, prep, with the abl. eius, gen. sing. m. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id, used 

as a personal pron. of the 3d pers. ; it limits adventu; it refers to Caesar. 

adventu, abl. sing, of adventus, -us, m. (ad -f- venire) ; abl. after the prep. de. 

Helvetii, nom. plur. m. of Uelvetii, -drum, m. ; subject-nom. of facli sunt; see note 

on Helvetii , 1. 16, Chap. I. certiores, nom. plur. m. of the adj. comparative 

degree certior, -ius ; positive certus (originally a participle oi.cernd, 3) ; superl. cer- 
tissimus ; certiores is predicate-adj. after facH sunt. 

Line 12. fact! sunt, 3d pers. plur. perf. ind. of fid, fieri, f actus, 3; used as a 

pass, of facid , -ere, feci, factum, 3 ; it agrees with its subject-nom. I/elvetii. 

legatos, acc. plur. of legdtus, -i, m. ; an appositive of viros understood, which is the 

direct obj. of mittunt. ad, prep, with the acc. after verb of motion. eum, 

acc. sing. m. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id, used as a personal pron. of the 3d pers. ; it 

is the object of the prep. ad. mittunt, 3d pers. plur. pres. ind. act. of mitto, 

•ere, misi, missum, 3 ; it agrees with the pron. ei, i.e. Helvetii understood, as its 
subject-nom. 

Line 13. nobilissimos, acc. plur. m. of the adj. nobilissimus , -a -um; superl. 
degree; positive nobilis , comparative ?iobilior. nobilissimos modifies veros under- 
stood, which is the direct obj. of mittunt. For derivation, see note on nobilissimos, 

1. 2, Chap. II. Clvitatis, gen. sing, of civitds , -dtis, f. (ewes); it limits viros 

understood ; civitdtis might be taken as a partitive gen. after nobilissimos . See note 

on horum, 1. 8, Chap. I. cuius, gen. sing, of the rel. pron. qui, quae , quod, used 

adjectively ; it limits legationis. legatidnis, gen. sing, of legdiio , -onis, i. ; it 

limits locum . 

Line 14. Nammeius, -I, m. ; subject-nom. of obtinebant. Verudoctius, -I, m. ; 

connected by the conj. et with Nammeius, and in the same grammatical construction. 
These men were Helvetian nobles. Some copies have Ve rucloetius instead of Veru- 
doctius. We suggest that Verucloetius is an orthography based on worn Latin type 
used in the printing of some early copy of MS. text. The Greek paraphrast has 
B €po 8 o£tov in the gen. absolute construction; the nom. is B epo56£ios. Worn type 

might make doc look like cloe. prlncipem, acc. sing. m. of the adj. princeps, 

•ipis; it is an attributive of the noun locum, princeps is often used as a subst. As 
such, it often denotes the first, the chief, the most noble. Compare Cic. : Eudoxus in 

astrologid facile princeps. locum, acc. sing, of locus, -i, m. in the sing., but m. or 

• n. in the plur.; see note on loci, 1. 10, Chap. II; locum is the direct obj. of obtinebant. 


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46 


[CHAP. VII. 


caesar’s gallic war 


holding the chief 
place — to say 
that they pur- 
posed without do- 
ing any damage 
to march through 
the province be- 
cause they had 
no other route. 
They requested 
that it might be 


obtinebant, qui dleerent, sibi esse is 

were holding , who should say to themselves to he (it is) 

in animo sine ullo maleficio iter per is 

in mind without any harm a journey through 

prdvinciam facere, propterea quod aliud 17 

the province to make, for this reason because another 

iter haberent nullum : rogare, ut eius is 

route they had none: to ask (they ask), that with his 


Line 15. obtinebant, 3d pers. plur. imperf. ind. act. of obtineo , - ere , -ut, - tentum , 2 
(ob + tenere) = lit. to hold against; hence -=to retain, to possess, obtinebant is plur., 
because it has two sing, subjects connected by et. Consult A. & G. 205; B. 126, 

REM. 1 ; G. 285 ; H. 463, II. qui, nom. plur. of the rel. pron. qul, quae, quod; it 

refers to Nammeius et Verudoctius as its antecedents, and is subject-nom, of dleerent; 

qui here = «/ el. dleerent, 3d pers. plur. imperf. subjunctive of died, -ere, dixt , 

dictum , 3; it agrees with its subj. qui; it is in the subjunctive mode, because it is a 
rel.-clause denoting purpose. See A. & G. 317, and note 2; B. 233, and 1 ; G. 545, 1, 

and 630; II. 497, I ; and note that qul in this construction = ut el. sibi, dat. 

plur. of the reflexive pron. sui, sibi , se, se; dat. possessor after esse. Consult A. & G. 

231 ; B. 146; G. 349; H. 387. esse, pres. inf. of sum, esse,fui,futurus; it is here 

used impersonally ; strictly, however, iter facere is its subject. 

Line 16. in, prep, with the acc. or abl. ; here it takes the abl. animo, abl. 

sing, of animus, -l, m. ; it is in the abl. after the prep. in. Synonyms: anima = the 
soul, the principle of animal life like the gk. rj/vxv i mens denotes the intellectual ox 

thinking faculty ; whereas animus — the soul including all its faculties. sine, 

prep, with the abl. ullo, abl. sing. n. of the adj. iillus, -a, -urn, gen. ullius, dat. 

ulli (contracted from unulus, diminutive adj. of unus) ; ullo is an attributive of 

maleficio. maleficio, abl. sing, of maleficium , -l, n. (malum + facere) ; it is in the 

abl. after the prep. sine. iter, acc. sing, of iter, itineris, n. ; direct obj. of facere. 

per, prep, with the acc. 

Line 17. prdvinciam, acc. sing, of prdvincia, - ae , f. ; it is the obj. of the prep. 

per. facere, pres. inf. of facio , -ere, feci, fdetum ; facere with its modifiers is 

subject-acc. of esse. propterea quod, see note on these words, 1 . 9, Chap. I. 

aliud, acc. sing. n. of the adj. alius, -a, - ud , gen. alius, dat. alii; aliud is an attrib- 
utive of iter. 

Line 18. iter, acc. sing, of iter, itineris, n. ; direct obj. of haberent. 

haberent, 3d pers. plur. imperf. subjunctive act. of habeo, -ere, -ui, -Hum, 2; it agrees 
with the pron. el, i.e. Helvetii , implied in its ending as subject-nom. It is in the 
subjunctive mode, because it is in a dependent clause in the ordtio obliqua. Consult 

A. & G. 336, 2 ; B. 245, 1, (£); G. 650; H. 524. nullum, acc. sing. n. of the adj. 

niillus , -a, -urn (ne .+ ullus) ; it is an attributive of iter. Observe its very emphatic 

position. rogare, pres. inf. act. of rogo, -dre, -dvi, -atum, 1 ; supply se, i.e. Hel- 

vetios, as subject-acc. For the inf. in indirect discourse, see A. & G. 336 ; B. 245, 1 ; 

G. 650; H. 523, I. ut, telic conj. eius, gen. sing, of the dem. pron. is, ea, id, 

used as a personal pron. of the 3d pers. ; it refers to Caesar ; it limits voluntdte . 


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LINES 19 - 22 .] 


BOOK I. 


47 


19 voluntate id sibi facere liceat. 

permission this for themselves to do it might he lawful * 

20 Caesar, quod memoria tenebat, L. Cassium 

Caesar , because in memory he held , Lucius Cassius 

21 consulem occisum exercitumque eius ab 

the consul to have been slain, army and, of him by the 

22 Helvetils pulsum et sub iugum 

Helvetii to have been routed and under the yoke 


allowed them to 
do so with his 
permission. Cae- 
sar, as he remem- 
bered the fact 
that Lucius Cas- 
sius the consul 
had been slain 
and his army had 
been sent under 
the yoke by the 


Line 19. voluntate, abl. sing, of voluntds , -tdtis, f. ; abl. of in accordance with . 
A. & G. 253, note; B. 162, and rem. 3; G. 397; H. 416. Synonyms: voluntds 
(velle, to wish) = an act of the will whose impulse is good-will; whereas sponie — an 

act of the will whose impulse is freedom in opposition to fate or chance. id, 

acc. sing, of the dem. pron. is, ea , id, used substantively; direct obj. of facere; it 

refers to the idea of making a march through the Roman province. sibi, dat. 

plur. of the reflexive pron. sui, sibi , se, se; it refers to the Helvetii ; it is dat. after 
the impersonal verb liceat. Consult A. & G. 227, e; B. 142 ; G. 346; H. 384. Observe 

that strictly id facere is the subj. of liceat. liceat, 3d pers. sing. pres, subjunctive 

of licet, -ere, licuit or lictum est, 2 ; an impersonal verb ; it is in the subjunctive, 
because it expresses with ut the purpose of rogdre. Consult A. & G. 331 ; B. 200; 
G. 546; H. 498. Note particularly that the entire clause ut . . . liceat, as such, is 
the direct obj. of rogdre. What the Helvetians said in lines 15-19, in direct form, 
was : nobis est in animo sine ullo maleficid iter per provinciam facere, propterea 
quod aliud iter habemus nullum: rogamus , ut tud voluntate hoc nobis facere liceat. 

Line 20. Caesar, -aris, m. ; subject-nom. of putdbat, 1 . 23, below. quod, 

conj. = because. memoria, abl. sing, of memoria, -ae, f. (memor) ; abl. of means. 

tenebat, 3d pers. sing, imperf. ind. act. of teneo, -ere, -ut, ten turn, 2 ; it agrees 

with a pron. implied in the ending as its subject-nom., referring to Caesar. Observe 
that memorid tenebat — he remembered, and hence is followed by the inf. with the 

acc. L., an abbreviation for Liicium here; acc. sing, of Lucius, -i, m., the prae- 

nomen. Cassium, acc. sing, of Cassius, -i, m., the nomen ; subject-acc. of occisum 

(esse). This was that Lucius Cassius whose cognomen was Longinus ; he was consul 
107 B.c. ; was slain in battle by the Tigurini, in his province Gallia Narbonensis. 

Line 21. consulem, acc. sing, of consul, - ulis , m. ; an appositive of Cassium, 

and in the same grammatical construction. occisum (esse), perf. inf. pass, of 

occidd , -ere, -cidi, - cist/m , 3 (ob + caedere) == lit. to strike down. Not to be confounded 
with occidd (ob + cadere) = lit. to fall down. Note the difference in the quantity of 

the penults. exercitumque (exercitum + que). exercitum, acc. sing, of exercitus, 

-us, m. ; subject-acc. of pulsum (esse) and missum (esse). For synonyms, see note on 
exercitii, 1 . 31, Chap. III. eius, gen. sing, of the dem. pron. is, ea, id, used sub- 
stantively ; it is an attributive of exercitum ; it refers to Cassius. ab, prep, with 

the abl. 

Line 22. Helvetils, abl. plur. of Helvetii, -drum, m. ; abl. of the agent with ab. 

A. & G. 246; B. 166; G. 401 ; H. 415, I. pulsum (esse), perf. inf. pass, of pello , 

-ere, pepuli , pulsum, 3 ; it agrees with its subject-acc. exercitum. et, conj., con- 
nects pulsum (esse) with missum (esse). sub, prep, with the acc. and abl. ; here 


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48 


CAESAR’S GALLIC WAR 


[CHAP. VII. 


Helvetii, did not 
think that the re- 
quest ought to be 
granted ; nor did 
he think thatmen 
of hostile dispo- 
sition, if the priv- 
ilege of marching 
through the prov- 
ince were grant- 
ed, would refrain 
from outrage and 
wrong-doing. And 


mlssum, coneedendum non putabat ; 23 

to have been sent, it to be conceded did not think; 

neque homines inimlcS anim5, data 24 

not and, men of hostile mind having been given 

facilitate per provinciam itineris 25 

the opportunity through the province of a journey 

faciundl, temperaturos ab iniuria 26 

to be made , to be about (themselves) to restrain from wrong 

et malefici5 exlstimabat. Tamen, ut 27 

and outrage , he thought . Yet that 


it takes the acc. after a verb of motion. iugum, acc. sing, of iugum , -i, n. (com- 

pare iungere, to join) ; acc. after the prep. sub. 

Link 23. mlssum (esse), perf. inf. pass, of mitto, -ere, mist, mis sum, 3; con- 
nected by et with pulsum, and in the same grammatical construction. With the 
phrase sub iugum compare the English word subjugate. Observe, as explaining the 
language of the text, that a species of arch was formed by sticking two spears into 
the ground, and by placing another horizontally across them. Under this arch, in 

token of their defeat, conquered armies were compelled to go. coneedendum 

(esse), pres. inf. pass, of conccdo, -ere, -cessi, -cessurn, 3; used impersonally; second 
periphrastic conjugation. See A. & G. 113, d\ B. 106, II, middle; G. 251 ; H. 234. 

n 5 n, negative adv. ; observe that it has here its normal place in a Latin 

sentence. putabat, 3d pers. sing, imperf. ind. act. of puto, -are, -dvi> -dtum, 1 ; 

it agrees with a subject-nom. implied in the ending, i.e. Caesar. 

Line 24. neque (ne + que = lit. and not), a conjunctive adv. here; as a conj., it 

connects the sentences; as an adv., it modifies existimdbat , 1. 27, below. homines, 

acc. plur. of homo, -inis, m. and f. ; subject-acc. of temperaturos (esse). inimiCO, 

abl. of the adj. inimicus, -a, -um (in, not-\- amicus); it modifies animo. animO, 

abl. of animus, -i, m. ; abl. of quality with the adj. inimico. Consult A. & G. 251 ; 

B. 169; G. 400 ; II. 419, II. data, perf. pass, participle of do, dare , dedt, datum , 1 ; 

abl. absolute with facultdte. 

Line 25. facultate, abl. sing, of facultds, -dtis, f . ; abl. absolute with datd, 

denoting condition. A. & G. 255, d, 4 ; B. 172; G. 409; H. 431, 2,(3). per, 

prep, with the acc. prbvinciam, acc. sing, of provincia , - ae , f. ; acc. after the 

prep. per. itineris, gen. sing, of iter , itineris, n. ; it limits facultdte. 

Line 26. faciundl, gen. of the gerundive faciundus, -a, -um, of the verb facto, 
-ere, feci, factum, 3; the gerundive is an attributive of itineris. Observe that - undi 
for -endi is the usual orthography of the gerund and gerundive in verbs of the third 

and fourth conjugations, especially after i. temperaturos (esse), fut. inf. act. of 

tempera, 1 ; it agrees with its subject-acc. homines. Note that the participial form 
of this compound is in the acc. plur., conforming thus in case with its subj. Note 

further that esse is oftener omitted than expressed in such compounds. ab, 

prep, with the abl. iniuria, abl. of iniuria , -ae, f. ; abl. after ab. 

Line 27. maleficio, abl. of maleficium, -i, n. (malum + facere = lit. to do evil); 
hence maleficium = a deed of evil. Observe that in general usage maleficium denotes 


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LINES 28-31.] 


BOOK I. 


49 


28 spatium intercedere 

space of time to intervene 


posset, dum mllites, 

might be , until the soldiers 


29 quos 

whom 


imperaverat, 

he had ordered to be levied 


convenirent, 

might come together, 


so legatls respondit, 

to the legates he replied : 


diem se 

a day himself 


si ad deliberandum sumpturum ; si 

for deliberating to be (lie is) about to take ; if 


yet that length of 
time might inter- 
vene, until the 
soldiers whom he 
had ordered to 
be levied might 
assemble, he re- 
plied to the am- 
bassadors that 
he would take 
time for deliber- 


a deed of evil intent that deserves punishment ; while iniuria (in + ius) = any act 
or deed contrary to right, maleficid is connected by et with iniurid , and is in the 

same grammatical construction. existimabat, 3d pers. sing, imperf. ind. act. of 

existimo , 1 ; its subject-nom. is a pron. implied in the ending, referring to Caesar. 
Synonyms : existimdre (ex + aestimare) = to think or judge af ter examination ; arbi - 
trdri = to think as an arbiter , i.e. to consider ; putdre = to think as a reckoning 

process ; and cogitdre (con 4" agitare) = to pursue something in the mind. Tames, 

conjunctive adv., a particle that introduces a thought in contrast with some preced- 
ing concession expressed or implied. ut, telic conj. 

Line 28. spatium, nom. sing, of spatium , -it, n. ; subj. of posset, spatium here 
= time. intercedere, pres. inf. act. of intercedo , -ere, - cessi - cessum , 3 ; com- 

plementary inf. A. & G. 271, and note; B. 181 ; G. 423 ; H. 533, I, 2 ; it depends 

on posset. posset, 3d pers. sing, imperf. subjunctive of possum , posse, potui 

(potis + sum) ; subjunctive of purpose after ut. posset agrees with its subject-nom. 

spatium. dum, conj., synonymous with donee, and = as long as, until. 

mflites, nom. plur. of miles, - itis , m. ; subject-nom. of convenirent. 

Line 29. qu5s, acc. plur. m. of the rel. pron. qtii , quae , quod; it refers to 

milites; it is the direct obj. of imperaverat. imperaverat, 3d pers. sing, pluperf. 

ind. act. of impero, 1. Supply the lacuna in the* construction thus: quos cogendds 
imperdverat ; if the ellipsis be thus filled, quos is the obj. of imperdverat, with which 
the gerundive will agree. Consult A. & G. 294, d; B. 184, rem. 4, III, a; G. 430; 

ll. 544. convenirent, 3d pers. plur. imperf. subjunctive of convenio, -ire, -vent, 

- ventum , 4 (con, together + venire) ; imperf. subjunctive after dum signifying futurity. 
Consult A. & G. 328; B. 229, (2) ; G. 572 ; II. 519, II, 2. 

Line 30. legatls, dat. plur. of legdtus , -i, m. ; indirect obj. after respondit. 

respondit, 3d pers. sing. perf. ind. act. of responded, -ere, -spondi, -sponsum, 2 ; it 
agrees with a subject-nom, implied in the ending, referring to Caesar. diem, 

acc. sing, of dies, -ei, m. or f. in sing., always m. in the plur. ; diem is the direct obj. 

of sumpturum (esse). Observe that diem here denotes time in general. se, acc. 

sing, of the reflexive pron. sui, sibi, se, se; subject-acc. of siimpturum (esse). 

Line 31. ad, prep, with the acc. deliberandum, acc. of the gerund of 

delibero, 1 (de + libra) ; hence deliberdre denotes that what is spoken is weighed ; 
deliberandum is the acc. of the gerund after the prep, ad, denoting purpose. See 

A. & G. 300; B. 184, rem. 4, III; G. 432; H. 542, III. sumpturum (esse), 

fut. act. inf. of sumo , -ere, siimpsi , sumptum , 3 ; it agrees with its subject-acc. se. ■ — — 
si, conditional conj. 


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50 


CAESAR S GALLIC AVAR 


[CHAP. VIII. 


ation ; if they 
wished anything, 
let them return 
on the thirteenth 
of April. 


quid. vellent, 

anything they wanted , 
reverterentur. 
let them return. 


ad 

at 


Idus Applies 32 

the Ides of April 

33 


VIII. Mean- 
while Caesar, 
with the aid of 
the legion that 
he had with him 
and the sol- 


VIII. Interea ea legione 

Meantime with that legion 

secum habebat mllitibusque, qul 

himself with , he had with the soldiers and , who 


quam i 
which 

ex 2 
from 


Line 32. quid, acc. sing. n. of indef. adj.-pron. quis, quae , quid; direct obj. of 
vellent. Sometimes the conj. and pron. are combined, and written as one word: 
siquis , etc. But note that after si, nisi and num the f. sing, and the n. plur. have 
quae or qua. On the indef. pronouns, consult A. & G. 104, 105, d; B. 89, 1 ; G. 315; 

ll. 190. vellent, 3d pers. plur. imperf. subjunctive of void, velle , volui; sub- 

junctive, because in the condition after si; it is in the imperf. tense, because the 

verb of saying — respond'd — is an historic perf. ad, prep, with the acc.; it 

here = at or on. The common text reads here : ante diem Idus. Idus, acc. plur. 

of Idus, - uum , f., plur. ; the obj. of the prep. ad. Observe that the Ides fell on the 
15th of March, May, July and October, and on the 13th of the other months. 
According to the text, they were directed to return on the 13th of April. According 
to the common lection — ante diem Idus — they were directed to return on the 12th 

of April. Ap riles, acc. plur. of the adj. April is, -le ; it agrees with the noun 

Idus. Note that the month-designajions in Latin are adjectives, and also that Idus 
Apriles are sometimes abbreviated Id. Apr. 

Line 33. reverterentur, 3d pers. plur. imperf. subjunctive of the deponent verb 
reverior, -i, - versus , 3 ; subjunctive, because the discourse is indirect, reverterentur 
is for the 2d pers. plur. imperative in ordtio recta. See A. & G. 339 ; B. 45, 2 ; 
G. 652; H. 523, III. The ordtio recta of lines 30-33 is: diem ego ad deliberandum 
sumam ; si quid vultis, ad Idus Apriles revertimini. 

Line i. Interea, adv. (inter + ea) = lit. between these things , i.e. meanwhile. 
The long ultima in this and some other words similarly compounded is anomalous. 

ea, abl. sing. f. of is, ea, id, dem. pron. ; it is an attributive of legione. 

legidne, abl. sing, of legid, - onis , f. ; abl. of means ; not agent , because not voluntary. 
The legion referred to is the tenth, see note on legid, 1 . 9, Chap. VII. quam, 

acc. sing. f. of the rel. pron. qui , quae , quod; it refers to legidne as its antecedent ; 
it is the direct obj. of habebat. 

Line 2. secum (se + cum); se is the abl. sing, of the reflexive pron. sui, sibi, 
se, se; it is the obj. of the enclitic prep. cum. For the prep, cum as enclitic with 

pronouns, see A. & G. 99, e; B. 79, 2 ; G. 413, rem. i ; II. 184, 6. habebat, 

3d pers. sing, imperf. ind. act. of habco , -ere, -ui, -Hum, 2 ; it agrees with a pron. as 

subject-nom. implied in the ending, referring to Caesar. mllitibusque (militibus 

-f- que). militibus , abl. plur. of miles, -itis, m. ; connected by the enclitic conj. -que 

with legidne, and in the same grammatical construction. qui, nom. plur. m. of 

the rel. pron qui, quae, quod; it refers to militibus, as its antecedent, and is the 
subject-nom, of convenerant. ex, prep, with the abl. 


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LINES 3-7.] 


BOOK I. 


51 


3 provincia 

the province 


convenerant, a lacu Lemanno, 

had assembled , from Lake Leman , 


4 qul in flumen Rhodanum 

which into the river Rhone 


Influit, ad 

flows , to 


6 montem 

Mount 


Iuram, qul fines Sequanorum 

Jura, which the borders oftheSequani 


6 ab Helve tils dividit, 

from the llelvetii , divides , 

7 decern novem murum in 

nineteen, a wall to 


mllia passuum 

thousands of paces 

altitudinem pedum 

the height of feet 


diers that had 
been collected 
from the prov- 
ince, constructed 
a wall sixteen 
feet high, and a 
ditch nineteen 
miles in length, 
from Lake Ge- 
neva which flows 
into the river 
Rhone, to Mount 
Jura which sep- 
arates the coun- 
try of the Se- 
quani from that 


Line 3. provincia, abl. sing, of provincia , ae , f. ; it is the obj. of the prep. ex. 

convenerant, 3d pers. plur. pluperf. ind. act. of convenio , -ire, - vent , - ventum , 4 

(con -f- venire) = to come together; it agrees with its subject-nom. qtti. a, prep. 

with the abl. d before consonants, ab before vowels or consonants. lacfl, abl. 

sing, of lacus , -iis, m. ; it is in the abl. after the prep, d . Lemanno, abl. of 

Lemannus, -i, m.; in apposition with lacu . See note on Lema?md, 1. 15, Chap. II. 

Line 4. qul, nom. sing. m. of the rel. pron. ; it refers to lacu, as its antecedent, 

and is the subject-nom. of influit. in, prep, with acc. or abl. ; here it takes the 

acc. See note on in, 1. 1, Chap. I. flumen, acc. sing, of flumen, -inis, n. ; it is 

the obj. of the prep. in. Rhodanum, acc. sing, of Rhodanus, -t, m. ; it is in 

apposition with flumen. influit, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. of uifluo , -ere, 

-fluxi, -fluxum, 3 (in + fluere); it agrees with its subject-nom. qut. Observe that 
when the idea of motion is distinct, the noun with a prep, is used, instead of a dat. 
after verbs compounded with certain prepositions ; in other words, the prep, which 
enters into the compound is repeated with its appropriate case, instead of the dat. 
construction. ad, prep, with the acc. 

Line 5. montem, acc. sing, of motis, montis, m.; montem is the obj. of the prep. 

ad. Iuram, acc. sing, of Jura, -ae, m. ; an appositive. See note on Jura, 1. 13, 

Chap. II. qul, nom. sing. m. of the rel. pron. qut, quae, quod ; it refers to 

montem, as its antecedent, and is the subject-nom. of dividit. fines, acc. plur. of 

finis, -is, m. ; direct obj. of dividit. For synonyms, see agrttm , 1. 12, Chap. II. 

Sequanorum, gen. plur. of Sequani, -drum, m.; as a gen. it limits fines. For descrip- 
tion of this clan, see note on Sequanis, 1. 25, Chap. I. 

Line 6. ab, prep, with the abl. Helve tils abl. plur. of Helvetii , -drum, m.; 

abl. after the prep. ab. See note on JJelvetii, 1. 16, Chap. I. dividit, 3d pers. 

sing, of divido, -ere, -visi, -visum, 3 ; it agrees with its subject-nom. qui. mllia, 

acc. plur. of adj. mille ; in the sing, indecl. ; in the plur. used as a n. subst. and decl. 
throughout, milia is an acc. of extent of space. A. & G. 257; B. 153; G. 335; 

H. 379. passuum, gen. plur. of noun passus, -its, m. ; gen. partitive after milia. 

A. & G. 216, 2; B. 134 ; G. 370 ; H. 397, 2. 

Line 7. decern, num. adj. cardinal ; an attributive of milia. novem, num. 

adj. cardinal ; also an attributive of milia. Observe the various forms in which the 


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52 


CAESAR’S GALLIC WAR 


[CHAP. VIII. 


of the Helvetii. 
After completing 
this work, he sta- 
tioned garrisons 
and intrenched 
redoubts at in- 
tervals, in order 
that, should the 
Helvetii attempt 


sedecim fossamque 

sixteen moat and , 

perfecto, praesidia 

being finished , garrisons 

communit, qu5 

he fortifies, that 


perducit. 

he extends . 


Eo 

This 


disponit, 

he places apart , 

facilius, si 

the more easily , if 


opere 8 

work 

castella 9 

redoubts 

se 10 

himself 


equivalent of nineteen in English may be expressed in Latin : by XVI III , by noven - 
decim , by undhdginti, and by decern novem , as in our text. The distance here 

indicated = about 17J English miles. murum, acc. sing, of mums , -;, m.; direct 

obj. of perducit. Synonyms: murus — any sort of wall ; tnoenia = etty walls, ram- 
parts. in, prep, with the acc. here ; it sometimes takes the abl. See note on 

in, 1 . 1, Chap. I. in here = to; it is followed by altitudinem. altitudinem, acc. 

sing, of altitudo, -inis, f. (altus, high); it is in the acc. after in. pedum, gen. 

plur. of pes, pedis, m. (compare gk. 1 rotfs, iroSSs) ; quality gen. of measure with the 
adj. sedecim. Consult A. & G. 215 ,b; B. 132; G. 365, 2; H. 395, V, and note i. 
We might take pedum as a partitive gen. after sedecim , sedecim agreeing with mumm , 
and the phrase in altitudinem as an adjective-phrase equivalent to altum. The lit. 
English of the whole of which would be : a wall sixteen of feet in height. The con- 
struction is to be preferred, however, that takes in altitudinem as denoting the limit 
reached after the verb perducit. 

Line 8. sedecim (sex -f - decern) ; sometimes written sexdecim; it is an attrib- 
utive of pedum. fossamque (fossam -f- que). fossam, acc. sing, of fossa, -ae, f. 

(compare perf. participle f. of fodere'). Note how closely fossam is connected by the 

enclitic with murum, and is in the same grammatical construction. perducit, 

3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. of perdued, - diixi t -ductum, 3 (per + ducere). The reader 
is not to understand that the wall and the ditch were continuous, but that a line of 
forts and moats were constructed where needed at the fordable places on the south- 
east bank of the Rhone between Lake Geneva and Pas de PEcluse. E 5 , abl. 

sing. n. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id; it is an attributive of opere. opere, abl. sing. 

of opus, - eris , n. ; abl. absolute with perfecto, denoting time when. Consult A. & G. 
255; B. 192; G. 409, 410; H. 431. 

Line 9. perfects, abl. sing. n. of the perf. pass, participle perfectus , -a, - um , of 

the verb perficio, -ere, feet, feclum, 3 ; abl. absolute with opere. praesidia, acc. 

plur. of praesidium, - i , n. ; direct obj. of disponit. disponit, 3d pers. sing. pres. 

ind. act. of dispono, - ponere , -posui, -positum, 3 (dis + ponere) = lit. to place apart. 

castella, acc. plur. of castellum, -f, n. (diminutive of castmm, compare English 

castle ); direct obj. of communit. 

Line 10. communit, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. of communio, -ire, -ivi (-it), 

-itum, 4 (con, intensive + rnunlre) = lit. to fortify strongly. qu5, strictly an abl. 

of the rel. qut; but in use in clauses containing an adv. in the comparative degree, 
qud = ut, in order that; hence in this construction quo is a conj. facilius, com- 

parative degree of adv. facile or faciliter, superl. facillime. facilius as an adv. 
modifies prohibere. As to the formation of this adv., see A. & G. 148, d ; B. 117. 6; 
G. 91, I, (c) ; H. 304, I, 3, 1). si (original form set, sibilated from gk. el), con- 
ditional conj. = tf. se, abl. sing, of the reflexive pron. sui, sibi, se , se; it refers 

to Caesar, and is in the abl. absolute with invito. See A. & G. 255, a ; B. 192, REM. I ; 
G. 409; H. 431, 4. 


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LINES 11-14.] 


BOOK I. 


53 


11 invTt 5 

transire 

conarentur, 

being unwilling 

to cross over 

they should attempt, 

12 prohibere 

possit. 

Ubi ea 

dies 

(them) to prohibit 

he may be able. 

When that 

day 

13 quam constituerat cum 

legatis venit, 

et 

which he had agreed on with 

the legates came, 

and 

14 legati ad 

eum reverterunt, negat 

se 

the legates to 

him returned, he denies himself 


the passage with- 
out his permis- 
sion, he might 
the more easily 
oppose them. 
When the day 
which he had ap- 
pointed for meet- 
ing the ambas- 
sadors came, and 
the ambassadors 
had returned to 


Line ii. invito, abl. sing. m. of the adj. invites, - a , •um; abl. absolute with the 

pron. si. The phrase si invito = lit. he himself (being) unwilling. transire, pres. 

inf. act. of trdnseo , -ire, -ivi (-ii), -item, 4, but somewhat irr. ; complementary inf. 
depending on condrenter. Consult A. & G. 271, and note; B. 181 ; G. 423; H. 533, 

l, 1. conarentur, 3d pers. plur. imperf. subjunctive of deponent verb editor, -dri, 

1 dtus , 1 ; subjunctive, because the conditional clause is an essential part of the sen- 
tence. Consult A. & G. 342 ; B. 235, rem. 1 ; G. 629; H. 529, II. Observe the shifting 
of the point of view as indicated by the imperf. tense. And observe also that cond- 
renter is subjunctive by attraction of mode, as if si edndrentur wer e = qui condrenter. 

Line 12. prohibere, pres. inf. act. of prohibeo , -ire, -ui, -item, 2 (pro + habere). 

pro hi hire = lit. to hold from ; supply eos as direct obj. possit, 3d pers. sing: 

pres, subjunctive of possum, posse, potui (potis + sum) ; subjunctive after the conj. quo , 
denoting purpose. See A. & G. 317, b\ B. 233, 1 ; G. 545, 2; H. 497, II, 2. Note care- 
fully that the historic presents disponit and communit take, as we have seen k in the 
preceding lines, the secondary sequence in the conditional clause, and the primary 
sequence in the purpose-clause; and consult A. & G. 287, e; B. 190, rkm. i; G. 51 1, 

hems, i and 2 ; H. 495, II. Ubi, conjunctive adv. here (qul + ending bi); see 

note on ubi, 1 . 4, Chap. V. ea, nom. sing. f. of the dem. pron. is, e a, id; it is an 

attributive of dies. dies, nom. sing, of dies, -ii, m. and f. in .the sing. ; always 

m. in the plur. ; it here denotes a fixed time ; hence it is in the f. For time referred 
to, see note on diem, 1 . 30, Chap. VII ; dies is subject-nom. of vinit. 

Line 13. quam, acc. sing. f. of the rel. pron. qui, quae, quod; it refers to dies , 

as its antecedent, but is the direct obj. of constituerat. constituerat, 3d pers. 

sing, pluperf. ind. of ednstitud, -ere, -stitui, -stitutum, 3 (con -f- statuere) ; its subject- 

nom. is a pron. implied in the ending, referring to Caesar. cum, prep, with the 

abl.; original form com; with the abl. it usually designates accompaniment, or 
the connection of one obj. with another. It is known here to be the prep., and not 
the conj. cum, not merely because it is followed by a noun in a case-form which may 
possibly be the abl., but because it occurs in a clause that has its own connective — 

ubi. legatis, abl. plur. of ligdtus, -i, m. (ligere, to delegate); abl. after prep, cum . 

venit, 3d pers. sing. perf. ind. act. of vettio, -ire, veni, ventum, 4 ; it agrees with 

its subject-nom. dies. Observe that vinit has long i in the penult; if it were the 
pres, tense, the e would be short. 

Line 14. legati, nom. plur. of ligdtus, -i, m. ; subj. of reverterunt. ad, prep. 

with the acc. eum, acc. sing. m. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id, used as a personal 

pron. of the 3d pers. ; it is the obj. of the prep. ad. reverterunt (re + vertere = 

lit. to turn back), 3d pers. plur. of reverto, - ere, - verti ; it agrees with its subject-nom. 


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54 


CAESAR S GALLIC WAR 


[CHAP. VIII. 


him, he told them 
that he could not, 
according to the 
usages and pre- 
cedents of the 
Roman people, 
give any one the 
right of way 
through the prov- 
ince ; and he ex- 
plicitly declared 
that, if they at- 
tempted to use 


more et 

exemplo 

populi 

Romani 15 

by the custom and 

example 

of the people Roman 

posse iter 

ulll 

per 

provinciam ie 

to be able a journey 

to any one 

through 

the province 

dare, et, si 

vim 

facere 

conentur, 17 

to give , and , if 

violence 

to make 

they attempt, 

prohibiturum 

ostendit. 

/ Helvetii ea le 


to be about to stop (them) he shorn . ' The Helvetii from this 


legdtd; a deponent form, rev er tor, -l, - versus , frequently occurs in the imperf. tenses. 

negat, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. of nego, -are , - dvl \ dtum , 1 (ne + aio). negat 

= lit. he denies , he says . . . not. The English idiom of negat se posse would be in- 
dicated by the Latin : dicit se non posse. se, acc. sing, of the reflexive pron. sul , 

sibi, se, se; se is subject-acc. of posse. 

Line 15. more, abl. of mos , tnoris , m. ; abl. of accordance with. A. & G. 253, 
and note; B. 162; G. 397; H. 416. It will be observed that the first three ref- 
erences make this construction an abl. of specification ; while Professor Harkness 

makes it an abl. of cause. The true principle appears to be subjective cause. 

ezempl 5 , abl. sing, of exemplum , - l , n. ; connected by et with mdre, and in the same 

grammatical construction. populi, gen. sing, of populus, -z, m. ; it limits mdre et 

exemplo. Romani, gen. sing. m. of the adj. Komanus , - a , -um ; it is an attrib- 

utive of populi. Synonyms : populus = the people in their civil capacity ; plebs = the 
common people in distinction from the patricians ; whereas vulgus = the crowd, the 
rabble. 

Line 16. posse, pres. inf. of possum, potui (pot is + sum) ; its subject-acc. is the 

pron. se. iter. acc. sing, of iter , itineris , n. ; direct obj. of dare. ulll, dat. 

sing. m. of the aaj. ullus, - a , -um, gen. ulllus ; used here substantively = ctiiquam; 
indirect obj. of dare. Note that ullus and quisquam are chiefly used in negative 

sentences. per, prep, with the acc. provinciam, acc. sing, of provincia , 

•ae, {. ; provincia?n is the obj. of the prep. per. 

Line 17. dare, pres. inf. act. of do, dare, dedl, datum, 1 ; complementary inf.; it 

depends on posse. See A. & G. 271, and note; B. 181 ; G. 423; H. 533, I, 2. 

et, conj. ; connects negat with ostendit. si, conditional conj. See note on si, 

1. 10, above. vim, acc. sing, of vis, vis (digammated from gk. fs); vim is the 

direct obj. of facere. facere, pres. inf. act. of facio, -ere, feci , factum, 3 ; com- 
plementary inf., and depends on conentur. See note on transire, 1 . 11, above. 

cdnentur, 3d pers. plur. pres, subjunctive of conor, -drl, -dtus, deponent, 1 ; it agrees 
with a pron. implied in the ending, referring to the Helvetii. cdnentur is in the sub- 
junctive mode, because the conditional clause is an integral part of the sentence. 
See note on condrentur, 1 . 11, above. 

Line 18. prohibiturum (esse), fut. inf. act. of prohibeo, -ere, -ul, - itum , 2; its 
subject-acc. is the pron. se, to be supplied, referring to Caesar ; supply also eos, as 

direct obj. ostendit, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. of ostendo, -ere, -tendl, - tentum , 3 

(ob 4* tendere) ; ostendere = to stretch out; hence, to expose to view, to show . ostendit 


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LINES 19-22.] 


BOOK I. 


55 


19 spe deiecti, navibus iunctis ratibusque 

hope cast down , boats being joined together, rafts and 


20 compluribus factis, alii vadis Rhodanl, 

very many being made, others by the fords oftlieBhone , 


21 qua minima 

where least 

22 nonnumquam 

sometimes 


altitudo 

the depth 

interdiu, 

by day, 


fluminis erat, 

of the river was, 

saepius noctu, 

oftener by night , 


force, he would 
resist them/’ The 
Helvetii, disap- 
pointed in this 
hope, tried, some- 
times by day, oft- 
ener by night, to 
see whether they 
could force a pas- 
sage ; some, on 
a bridge formed 
by uniting boats 
and numerous 


agrees with a subject-nom. implied in the ending, referring to Caesar. Helvetii, 

nom. plur. of the adj. Helve tins, -a, -um, used as a substantive ; it is subject-nom. 
of destiterunt ', 1 . 26, below. The drdtid recta of lines 14-18 is: ego, more et exemplo 
popull RdmanI, non possum iter fill! per provinciam dare et, si vim facere cdndbimini , 

frohibebo. ea, abl. sing. f. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id; it is an attributive of the 

noun spe. Note the long vowel d in the ultima of the abl., and compare it with the 
short a in the nom. f., as seen in ea, 1. 12, above. 

Line 19. spe, abl. sing, of spes, spcT, f. ; abl. of separation after deiecti. A. & G. 

243; B. 160; G. 390, I, 2, and note 3; II. 414, I. deiecti, nom. plur. of the perf. 

pass, participle delectus , -a, - um of the verb deicio, - ere , -ieci, - iectum , 3 (de -f* iacere) ; 
hence deicere = lit. to hurl down, deiecti as a participle agrees with the noun Hel- 
vetii. navibus, abl. plur. of ndvis, - is , f. ; abl. absolute with the participle iunctis , 

denoting the means. See A. & G. 255 ; B. 192 ; G. 410; II. 431. iunctis, abl. 

plur. f. of the perf. pass, participle iunctus , -a, - um of the verb iungo , - ere , iunxi, 

iunctum, 3; abl. absolute with the noun navibus. ratibusque (ratibus 4* que). 

ratibus, abl. plur. of ratis, -is, f. ; abl. absolute with factis . 

Line 20 . compluribus, abl. plur. f. of the adj. complures, - a (com, intensive -f* 

plus). compliiribus is an attributive of ratibus. factis, abl. plur. of the perf. 

pass, participle f actus, -a, -um, of the verb facio, -ere, feci, factum, 3; it is in the abl. 
absolute with the noun ratibus, denoting the means. The boats thus joined formed 

a species of bridge. alii, nom. plur. m. of the adjective-pron. alius, -a -um, used 

substantively, and in apposition with Helvetii. In translating, supply another alii 

before ratibus, with which the alii of the text is contrasted. vadis, abl. plur. of 

the noun vadum, -i, n. ; abl. of means. Rhodanl, gen. sing, of Rhodanus , -i, m. : 

it limits vadis. 

Line 21. qua, adv. =7 vhere; may, however, be taken as a rel. adj. by supply- 
ing via , which latter would be an abl. of the way by which. minima, nom. sing. 

f. of the superl. adj. minimus, -a, -um ; the adj. is thus compared: pan>us, minor, 
minimus; predicate-adj. after erat. — altitudo, -inis, f. (alius, high or low, accord- 
ing to the d quo of the mental conception), altitudo is subject-nom. of erat. 

fluminis, gen. sing, of Jlftmen, -inis, n. ; it limits altiiudd. erat, 3d pers. sing. 

imperf. ind. of sum, esse, f ui, f uturus. 

Line 22. nbnnumquam, negative adv. (non -f- num[n]quam) = lit. not never, i.e. 
sometimes ; as in English, two negatives in Latin are equivalent to a positive. Con- 


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56 


CAESAIt’s gallic war 


[CHAP. IX. 


rafts; others, at 
the fords of the 
Rhone where the 
depth of the river 
was least; but, on 
being repulsed by 
the strength of 
our fortifications 
and the onsets 
and the missiles of 
our soldiers, they 
desisted from the 
attempt. 


si perrumpere possent, 

whether to break through they might be able , 

operis munitione et militum 

by the work's intrenchment and the soldiers' 

et telis repulsl hoc 

and weapons being repulsed , from this 

destiterunt. 

desisted. 


c5natl, 23 
attempting , 

concursu 24 
attack 

conatu 25 
attempt 

26 


suit A. & G. 150, and a; B. 117. 10; G. 449, 4; H. 553, 1. interdiu, adv. (inter 

+ diu). Observe that diu is an old form of die, used only in connection with noctu. 

saepius, adv., comparative of saepe, superl. saepissime. noctu, adv. ; 

strictly an old form of the abl. of tiox. Note that the forms nox, node and noctu 
all occur as adverbs. In such use of the abl., compare gk. gen. vvkt 6 s, denoting 
time within which. 

Line 23. si, conj., usually means if , but here it = whether. perrumpere, 

pres. inf. act. of perrumpo , -ere, - ritpi , - ruptum , 3 (per -f" rumpere) ; complementary 
inf., depending on possent. Consult A. & G. 271, and note; B. 181 ; G. 423; H. 533, 

I, 2. possent, 3d pers. plur. imperf. subjunctive of possum , posse , point (potis-f- 

sum); it agrees with a subj. implied in the ending, referring to Helvetii; it is in 
the subjunctive, because an indirect question. Consult A. & G. 334,/; B. 242, 2 ; 

G. 460, b; II. 529, II, 1, note 1. conatl, nom. plur. m. of the perf. pass, participle 

condtus, - a , -um of the deponent verb editor , -dri, -dtus, 1 ; condti as a participle agrees 
with Helvetii , 1 . 18, above; but might be translated as if it were cdndti sunt. 

Line 24. operis, gen. sing, of opus , operis , n. ; it limits munitione. muni- 

tione, abl. sing, of munitio , -dnis, f. ; abl. of means. Observe that operis munitione 
= lit. by the fortification of the work , i.e. by the fortified works — the redoubts and the 

moat. et, conj., connects munitione and concursu. militum, gen. plur. of 

miles , -itis, m.; it limits concursu. concursu, abl. sing, of concursus , -us, m. (con 

+ cursus=a running together) ; concursu is also an abl. of means. 

Line 25. tells, abl. plur. of noun telum, -i, n. ; abl. of means after repulst. For 

synonyms, see note on annis, 1 . 13, Chap. IV. repulsl, nom. plur. of the perf. 

pass, participle repulsus, -a, -um of the verb repello, -ere, reppuli or repuli, repulsum , 3. 
Note that in this long and somewhat involved sentence deiecti, condfi and repulsi are 
all participles, and limit Helvetii, at the beginning of the sentence. In the transla- 
tion it will be the better way to render some of the participles as if they were prin- 
cipal verbs, supplying conjunctions where needed, in order to make good English. 

hoc, abl. sing. m. of the dem. pron. hie, haec, hoc; hoc limits condtii . 

conatu, abl. of the noun condtus, -its, m. ; abl. of separation. See grammatical 
references to spe, 1. 19, above. 

Line 26. destiterunt, 3d pers. plur. perf. ind. act. of desisio, -ere, -stiti, -stitum, 3 
(de + sistere, lit. to stand off), destiterunt agrees with Helvetii as its subject-nom., 
t 18, above. 


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LINES 1-4.] 


LOOK I. 


57 


1 IX. Relinquebatur una per Sequan 5 s 

There was left one , through the'Sequani, 

2 via, qua Sequanls invitis propter 

way by which , the Sequani being unwilling , on account of 

3 angustias ire non poterant. His cum 

the narrow pass to go not they were able. Them r since 

4 sua sponte persuadere non possent, 

by their own will to persuade , not they were able , 


IX. The route 
through the Se- 
quani alone re- 
mained, by which, 
without their per- 
mission, the Hel- 
vetii could not 
go, on account of 
the narrow pass. 
Since, by their 
own influence, 
they could not 
prevail on them, 


Line i. Relinquebatur, 3d pers. sing, imperf. ind. pass, of relinqud , - ere , diqui t 

dictum, 3 (re + linquere) ; it agrees with its subject-nom. via. una, nom. sing. f. 

of the adj. unus , - a , -urn; una is an attributive of via. For grammatical references 

as to the peculiarities of this adj., see note on utiam, 1 . 2, Chap. I. per, prep. 

with the acc. Sequanos, acc. plur. of the adj. Sequanus , - a , -um, used substan- 

tively here, and is the obj. of the prep. per. Observe that the phrase per Sequanos 
is an adjectival modifier of via. As to this way, see lines 2 and 3, Chap. VI. 

Line 2. via, -ae, nom. sing, f., subj. of relinquebatur (digammated from t in ire). 
Synonyms : via = the ordinary travelled way, compare gk. 656 s ; whereas iter , in a 
concrete sense = the way direct to a particular point, whether travelled or not. But 
both via and iter are sometimes used in an abstract sense without any particular 

difference in meaning, and = a journey , a march. qua, abl. sing. f. of the rel. 

pron. qui, quae , quod; it agrees with via , to be supplied ; and via supplied is in the 
abl. of the way by which. See A. & G. 258,^; B. 170, rem. 4; G. 389; H. 425, 

II, 1 , 1 ). vid is, in fact, an abl. of means as well as place. Sequanls, abl. plur 

of Sequani , - drum , m. ; abl. absolute with the adj. invitis , denoting condition. See 

A. & G. 255, a , and d. 4 ; B. 192, rem. i ; G. 409; H. 431, 4. invitis, abl. plur. 

m. of the adj. invitus , -a, -urn (derivation dubious); abl. absolute with the noun 
Sequanis. propter, prep, with the acc. (prope + ter) ; sometimes an adv. 

Line 3. angustias, acc. plur. of the noun angustiae , -drum, f. ; sometimes used 
in the sing., angusiia, - ae , f. (angustus from angere , to press together). Observe that 
propter with the acc. here denotes the objective cause. See A. & G. 245, b\ B. 165, 

REM. 4; G. 408, note 3; H. 416, I, 2). ire, pres. inf. act. of ed, ire, ivi (ii), Hum, 

irr. ; complementary inf. depending on poterant. Consult A. & G. 271, and note; 

B. 1 81 ; G. 423 ; II. 533, I, 2. non (ne + unum, apocopated) ; observe its normal 

Latin position, immediately before the word it modifies. poterant, 3d pers. plur. 

imperf. ind. of possum , posse, potui (potis + sum) ; it agrees with a pron. implied in 

its ending as its subject-nom., referring to Helvetii. His, dat. plur. of the dem. 

pron. hie, haec , hoc , used as a personal pron. of the 3d pers.; dat. after persuadere . 

A. & G. 227 ; B. 142 ; G. 346; H. 385, II. cum, conj., denoting here both time 

and cause ; also written quurn , quom and (rarely) qum (an old adverbial acc. n. of 
qui). It is known to be the conj. and not the prep., because it is seen to introduce 
a dependent clause which requires a connective. Observe that particular emphasis 
is put upon the pron. his by its position before cum; that, sometimes, several words 
precede the conj. when the subordinate precedes the main clause. 

Line 4.. sua, abl. sing. f. of the poss. adj. pron. suus y - a , -urn; it is an attributive 
of sponte . sponte, abl. sing, of a supposed theme spons t spontis t f. ; used only in 


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58 


caesar’s gallic war 


[CHAP. IX. 


they sent ambas- 
sadors to Dum- 
norix, the Aedu- 
an, that, through 
his mediation, 
they might ob- 
tain from the Se- 
quani their re- 
quest. Dumno- 
rix through his 


legatos 

deputies 


ad Dumnorigem 

to Dumnorix , 


Aeduum mittunt, s 

the Aeduan, they send , 


ut, eo deprecatdre, a Sequanis 6 

that , . he being the intercessor , from the Sequani (this 


impetrarent. Dumnorix gratia 7 

privilege) they might obtain . Dumnorix through his popularity 


the gen. and abl. ; spotite is in the abl. of means. The phrase sud sponte here = by 
their influence , a rare meaning of the phrase, but classical ; usually it = of their own 
accord . Synonyms : sponte usually = an act of the will, whose impulse is choice, in 
opposition to fate or chance ; whereas voluntds = an act of the will, whose impulse 

is a background of willingness, good-will (velle, to wish). persuadere, pres. inf. 

act. of persuaded , -ere, - suasi , - sudsurn , 2 ; complementary inf., depending on possent. 

See grammatical references to ire, 1 . 3, above. n 5 n, adv. negative (contracted 

from ne + oenum or unum); there is an archaic form nenum . Observe its normal 
position immediately before the word it modifies ; it is very often made emphatic 
by being put in an abnormal position. possent, 3d pers. plur. imperf. sub- 

junctive of possum , posse , potui (potis + sum) ; subjunctive after cum causal. A. & G. 
326; B. 198, c , and 223; G. 586; H. 517. 

Line 5. legatos, acc. plur. of legdtus , -* (< legere , to despatch); direct obj. of 

mittunt . ad, prep, with the acc. ; the usual construction after a verb of motion. 

Dumnorigem, acc. sing, of Dumnorix , - igis , m. ; the obj. of the prep, ad . For 

historical description, see note on Dumnorigi , 1 . 20, Chap. III. Aeduum, acc. 

sing. m. of the adj. Aeduus , - a , -um ; but here used as a noun in apposition with 

Dumnorigem . mittunt, 3d pers. plur. pres. ind. act. of initio, -ere, mist , mis sum, 3; 

historical pres. ; its subject-nom. is the pron. ei , i.e. Helvetii '. 

Line 6. ut, telic conj., original form uti. eo, abl. sing. m. of the dem. pron. 

is, ea , id, used as a personal pron. of the 3d person ; it refers to Dumnorigem . 

deprecatdre, abl. of deprecdtor , - oris , m. (de -f- precarl = to pray against); abl. ab- 
solute with the pron. eo. Observe that here we have a noun and pron. in this con- 
struction ; in 1 . 2, above, we have a noun and an adj. ; in Chap. VI, end, we have 
two nouns in the abl. absolute construction. Observe, further, that the abl. absolute 
construction here denotes the means ; i.e. ed deprecdtore = lit. he being the intercessor 
= by his intercession. Observe again that nouns in dor appended to the first verb- 

stem denote the agent or doer. a, prep, with the abl. (a used before consonants 

only, ab before vowels or consonants). Sequanis, abl. plur. of Sequani , -drum , m. ; 

abl. after the prep, d , denoting the source . A. & G. 244, i; B. 120. 2 ; G. 417, I ; 
H. 413. 

Line 7. impetrarent, 3d pers. plur. imperf. subjunctive act. of impetro, -dre, 
-avi, - a turn , 1 ; its subject-nom. is a pron. implied in the ending; i.e. ei, referring to 
Helvetii. As this verb is transitive, supply voluntdtem as direct obj. impetrarent 
is subjunctive, because it is in a purpose-clause after ut; the clause expresses the 

purpose of mittunt. Dumnorix, -igis, m., subject-nom. of poterat; see note on 

Dumnorigem , 1 . 5, above. gratia, abl. sing, of gratia , -ae, f. ; abl. of cause. 

A. & G. 245 ; B. 165 ; G. 408 ; II. 416. 


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LINES 8-11.] 


BOOK I. 


59 


8 et largltione apud Sequanos plurimum 

and liberality among the Sequani very much 

9 poterat et Helvetils erat amicus, quod 

was able , and to the Helvetii was friendly , because 

10 ex ea clvitate Orgetorigis filiam in 

from that state Orgetorix's daughter into 

11 matrimonium duxerat ; et cupiditate 

marriage he had led; and through lust 


grace and gifts 
had very great 
influence with 
the Sequani, and 
besides he was 
friendly to the 
Helvetii, because 
from that state 
he had taken in 
marriage Orge- 
torix ’s daughter; 
and too, influ- 
enced by an ex- 


Line 8. largltione, abl. sing, of largitid, -onis, f. (largire, to give bountifully); 

connected by et with grdtid, and in the same grammatical construction. apud, 

prep, with the acc. = at, by, among. Sequanos, acc. plur. of the adj. Sequani+s , 

-a, - um , used as a subst. ; it is the obj. of the prep. apud. For description of this 

clan, see note on Sequanis , 1 . 25, Chap. I. plurimum, adverbial acc. n. of the 

superl. degree of adj . plurimus, -a, -um ; positive degree multum , comparative plus ; 
cognate acc. See A. & G. 238, b; B. 150, rem. 2 ; G. 333, 2 ; H. 371, II, (2). 

Line 9. poterat, 3d pers. sing, imperf. ind. of possum , posse , potui (potis + sum); 
it agrees with its subject-nom. Dumnorix. Observe that poterat here is a verb of 

complete predication, and = valebat. See note on possent, 1 . 4, above. et, cop. 

conj., connects poterat with erat. Helvetils, dat. of the adj. Helvetius , -a, -um, 

used as a subst. ; dat. after the adj. amicus. Consult A. & G. 234, a\ B. 144; G. 359; 

H. 391, I. For description of the clan, see note on Helvetii, 1 . 16, Chap. I. 

erat, 3d pers. sing, imperf. ind. of sum , esse, fui , futurus ; connected by et with 

poterat, and in the same grammatical construction. amicus, nom. sing. m. of 

the adj. amicus, -a -um ; sometimes used as a noun; and may be here rendered 

as such ; but it is here, strictly, an adj., and as such is followed by the dat. 

quod, conj. 

Line 10. ex, prep, with the abl. (e before consonants, ex before vowels and con- 
sonants). ea, abl. sing. f. of the dem. pron. is, ca, id; it is an attributive of 

civitdte . Clvitate, abl. sing, of civitas, - atis , f. {elves'). By metonymy ex ed 

civitdte is put for ex civibus civitatis. Note that Caesar by the use of the prep, ex 
indicates that he took his wife from within the borders of that state; if he had 
used the prep, ab, he would indicate that he took his wife from the border-line of 

the state, not from within it. Orgetorigis, gen. sing, of Orgetorix, - igis , m. ; as a 

gen, it limits filiam. For description, see note on Orgetorix, 1 . 2, Chap. II. 

filiam, acc. sing, of the noun filia, -ae ; direct obj. of duxerat. Observe that the 

dat. and abl. plur. of filia ends in -dbus ; so also dea, a goddess. in, prep, with 

the acc. or abl. ; here it takes the acc., and = (after the verb of motion duxerat) in 
or into ; i.e. he led her to his house. The phrase diicere in matrunonium is descrip- 
tive of the man’s act. The woman is said to vail herself for her husband : niibere 
se vird. 

Line ii. matrim 5 nium (matri + monium — motherhood), acc. sing, of mdtri- 

monium, -i, n. ; acc. after the prep. in. duxerat, 3d pers. sing, pluperf. ind. act. 

of diico , -ere, duxi, ductum, 3 ; it agrees with a pron. implied in the ending, referring 
to Dumnorix, et, cop. conj.; it connects the sentences. cupiditate, abl. 


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60 


CAESAR’S GALLIC WAR 


[CHAP. IX. 


cessive zeal for 
royal power, he 
was plotting a 
revolution in his 
own state, and 
wished to have 
as many states 
as possible at- 
tached to him 
for his kindness. 
Accordingly, he 
undertook the 


regnl adductus, novls 

of sovereignty being led, of new 

et quam plurimas 

and as much as the most 

beneficio habere obstrictas 

favor to have put under obligation 

rem suscipit et 

the affair he undertakes and 


rebus studebat 12 
things was desirous, 

civitates suo 13 
states by his 

volebat. Itaque 14 

lie wished . Therefore 

a Sequanis is 
from the Sequani 


sing, of cupid itds, - tdtis , f. ( cupidus , desirous) ; abl. of subjective cause after adductus . 
Consult A. & G. 245, and 2, b; B. 165, and rem. 4; G. 408, and note 2 ; H. 416, 
and note 1. 

Line 12. regnl, gen. sing, of the noun regnum , n. (rex); it limits cupiditdte . 

adductus, perf. pass, participle of the verb addiico, - ere, - duxi , - ductum , 3 

(adducere — lit. to draw to); adductus , as a participle, agrees with the subj. of the 

proposition in which it stands, i.e. with Dumnorix understood. novis, dat. 

plur. f. of the adj. novus , -a, um ; it is an attributive of rebus. rebus, dat. plur. 

of the noun res , rei, f. ; it is in the dat. after the verb studebat. Consult A. & G. 

227, and foot-note; B. 142; G. 346; H. 385, 1. studebat, 3d pers. sing, imperf. 

ind. act. of studed, - ere , -/«, 2 (rare perf. studivi , kindred with gk. airovld^iv, to 
hasten). 

Line 13. et, cop. conj., connects studebat and volebat. quam, adv., modifies 

plurimds. Note that quam is here a correlative to tam understood. The complete 
expression is: tam multds quam plurimds civitates. Compare note on quam, 1 . 4, 

Chap. III. plurimas, acc. plur. f. of the superl. adj . pltirimus, -a, -um; positive 

multus, comparative plus, plurimds modifies civitates. civitates, acc. plur. of 

noun civitas,-dtis, f. ; direct obj. of habere. su 5 , abl. sing. n. of the poss. reflexive 

pron. suus, - a , -um; it agrees with beneficio , but refers to Dumnorix. 

Line 14. beneficio, abl. of the noun beneficium , -f, n. (bene + facere) ; hence the 

noun = lit. well-doing; abl. of cause. habere, pres. inf. act. of habed , -ere, - ui , 

•itum, 2 ; complementary inf. depending on volebat. A. & G. 271, and note; B. 181 ; 

G. 423; H. 533, I, 1. Obstrictas, perf. pass, participle, acc. plur. f. of the verb 

obstringo , -ere, - strinxi , - strictum , 3 ; obstrictds agrees with the noun civiidtes in 
gender, number and case ; but forms with habere a sort of periphrase nearly = 
obstrinxisse ; but the periphrase emphasizes the maintenance of the result. Consult 

A. & G. 292, c ; B. 191, 3, (d) ; G. 238; II. 388, 1, note. volebat, 3d pers. sing. 

imperf. ind. of the irr. verb void, velle, volui; it agrees with Dumnorix, to be sup- 
plied. Itaque (ita + que), conjunctive adv. Observe that when an enclitic is 

appended to the ultima of any dissyllabic or polysyllabic word, whether that ultima 
be naturally long or short, it takes the ictus. In the interest of uniform pronuncia- 
tion, there should be no difference of pronunciation on account of the different 
meanings of a word ; e.g. itaque (and ... so) should not be discriminated in pronun- 
ciation from itaque (therefore). Enclitics invariably lean upon the ultima of the 
word to which they are appended. 

Line 15. rem, acc. sing, of res, rei, f. ; the direct obj. of sUscipit. The matter 
alluded to here is the consent of the Sequani. suscipit, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. 


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LINES 16 - 19 .] 


BOOK I. 


61 


16 impetrat ut per fines suos 

obtains that through borders their 

n Helvetios ire patiantur, obsidesque uti 

the Helvetii to go they allow , hostages and , that 

is inter sese dent, perficit : Sequani, 

among themselves they give he effects : the Sequani , 

19 ne itinere Helvetios prohibeant ; 

that not from the route the Helvetii they will keep ; 


negotiation, and 
obtained from 
the Sequani per- 
mission for the 
Helvetii to go 
through the coun- 
try, and arranged 
that they should 
exchange hos- 
tages : the Se- 

quani, not to pre- 
vent the Helve- 
tii from making 


act. of suscipid, -ere, -cepi, - ceptum , 3 (sub + capere) ; hence suscipere = to take up, 
i.e. from beneath, suscipit agrees with Dumnorix understood as its subject-nom. 

et, cop. conj., connects suscipit with impetrat. a, prep, with the abl. 

Sequanis, abl. of Sequani ', - drum , m. ; abl. of the source after the prep. a. For 
grammatical references, see note on Sequanis , 1 . 6, above; for description of this 
clan, see note on Sequa?iis , 1 . 25, Chap. I. 

Line 16. impetrat, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. of impetro , 1 ; it agrees with its 
subject-nom. Dumnorix understood; its direct obj. here is the following «/-clause. 

ut, ecbatic conj. per, prep, with the acc .fines. fines, acc. plur. of the 

noun finis, -is, m. ; obj. of the prep. per. For synonyms, see note on agrum, 1 . 12, 

Chap. II. suos, acc. plur. of the poss. pron. suus, -a, -urn ; it agrees with fines, 

but refers to Sequanis. 

Line 17. HelvetiSs, acc. plur. of Helvetii , -drum, m. ; subject-acc. of the verb 

ire. For description of this clan, see note on Helvetii, 1 . 16, Chap. I. Ire, pres. 

inf. act. of eo, ire, ivi (it), itum ; it, with its subject-acc. Helvetios, depends on 

patiantur. patiantur, 3d pers. plur. pres, subjunctive of the deponent veib patior, 

-i, passus, 3; subjunctive of result after ut, as an object-clause. See A. & G. 332; 

B. 201; G. 553; II. 501, II. Obsidesque (obsides + que). obsides, acc. plur. of 

obses, - idis , m. and f. ; direct obj. of dent, que, enclitic conj., connects the clauses 
very closely. uti, the original form of the adv. and conj. ut; ecbatic conj. 

Line 18. inter, prep, with the acc. sese, acc. plur. of the reflexive pron. 

sui, sibi, se, se; reduplicated; the obj. of the prep, inter. The phrase inter sese 
denotes a reciprocal relation. See A. & G. 196,/; B. 78, rem. 4; G. 221 ; H. 448, 

note. dent, 3d pers. plur. pres, subjunctive act. of verb do, dare , dedi, datum, 1 

(a short before - re in the pres. inf. act. in a verb of the first conjugation by excep- 
tion); subjunctive of result after uti; an object-clause like ut . . . patiantur, lines 16 
and 17, above. See the grammatical references on patiantur. Note that the 

subj. of dent is a pronoun, referring to both Sequani and Helvetii. perficit, 

3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. of perficid, -ere, feci, factum, 3 ; it agrees with Dum- 
norix understood. Sequani, nom. plur. of the adj. Sequanus, -a, -urn, used sub- 

stantively, and subject-nom. of dant, to be supplied. The complete lacuna here is : 
obsides dant. 

Line 19. ne, conjunctive adv. = that not; telic; if the construction were 

ecbatic, ut non would be used. itinere, abl. sing, of the noun iter , ititteris, n. ; 

abl. of separation of prohibeant. See A. & G. 243; B. 160; G. 390, I, 2, and note 3; 

H. 414, I. Helvetios, acc. plur. of Helvetii, -drum, m. ; direct obj. of prohibeant. 

For description of the clan, see L 16, Chap. I. prohibeant, 3d pers. plur. pres. 





62 


caesaii’s gallic waU 


[CHAP. X. 


use of this route ; 
the Helvetii, to 
pass through the 
country without 
damage or out- 
rage. 


X. Word was 
brought to Cae- 
sar by his scouts 
that the Helvetii 
were purposing 
to march through 
the country of the 
Sequani and the 
Aedui to the bor- 


Helvetii, ut 

the Helvetii , that 


sine malefici 5 

without harm 


et iniuria 20 

and injury 


transeant. 


21 


they will cross. 



Caesari 
To Caesar 


renuntiatur, Helvetiis 

it is reported , to the Helvetii 


esse 1 

to be (it is) 


in animo, per agrum Sequanorum et 2 

in mind , through the territory of the Sequani and 

Aeduorum iter in Santonum fines 3 

of the Aedui a journey into the Santones' borders 


subjunctive act. of prohibeo , -ere, -ut, - itum , 2 ; it agrees with a pron. implied in the 
ending, referring to Sequani; it is subjunctive, because negative purpose after tie . 
Consult A. & G. 317; B. 200, and (b ) ; G. 545, 3 ; H. 497, II. 

Line 20. Helvetii, supply obsides dant from the preceding obsides inter sese dent; 

Helvetii is subject-nom. of dant understood. ut, telic conj. sine, prep, with 

the abl. maleficid. maleficid, abl. sing, of the noun maleficium , n. (malum 4" 

facere) ; hence maleficium — lit. evil-doing ; it is the obj. of the prep. sine. et, 

cop. conj.; it connects words of equal importance. iniuria, abl. sing, of the noun 

iniuria , -ae, f. (in, negative -f* ius) ; iniuria is connected with maleficid by the conj. et, 
and is in the same grammatical construction. 

Line 21. transeant, 3d pers. sing. pres, subjunctive of the verb trdnsed , -ire, 
-ivi ( -it), - itum , 4, irr. (trans+Ire) = lit. to go across; subjunctive of purpose after 
the conjunctive particle ut. Vide grammatical references to prohibeant , 1 . 19, above. 

Line i. Caesari, dat. sing, of the proper noun Caesar , -< aris , m. ; dat. of the 

indirect obj. after renuntidtur. A. & G. 225, 3, e; B. 140; G. 344; H. 384, I. 

renuntiatur, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. pass, of renun tio (- cio), -dre, - avi , -alum , 1 ; pass, 
parts: reniintior, -art, -dtus ; renuntidtur is here used impersonally and = lit. it is 
reported; or more exactly, its subject is the entire clause: Helvetiis esse in animo, 

per agrum . . . iter . . . facere. Helvetiis, dat. plur. of the adj. Helvetius , - a , -urn, 

used as a noun; dat. of possessor after esse. See A. & G. 231 ; B. 146; G. 349; H. 387. 

; esse, pres. inf. of the intrans. verb sum, esse, fui, futiirus ; it, too, is here used 

impersonally ; strictly, however, per agrum . . . iter . . . facere is its subject-acc. 

Line 2. in, prep, with the acc. and abl. ; here it takes the abl. animo. 

animo, abl. sing, of animus, -i, m. ; abl. after the prep. in. Synonyms: anima = the 
soul as the principle of animal life; animus — the human soul with all its faculties; 

while mens = the. soul as rational or reflective faculty. per, prep, with the acc. 

agrum, acc. sing, of ager, agri, m. ; the obj. of the prep .per. For synonyms, 

see note on agrum, 1 . 12, Chap. II. Sequanorum, gen. plur. of Sequani, -drum, m.; 

it limits agrum. For description of this clan, see note on Sequanis, 1 . 25, Chap. I. 

Line 3. Aeduorum, gen. plur. of Aedui, -drum, m. ; connected by the conj. et 
with Sequanorum , and in the same grammatical construction. For description, see 

note on Aedud, 1 . 20, Chap. III. iter, acc. sing, of the noun iter, itineris, n. ; 

direct obj. of facere. in, prep, with acc. and abl. ; here it takes the acc .fines. 


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LINES 4-7.] 


BOOK I. 


63 


4 facere, qul non 

to make , which not 


longe a Tolosatium 

far from the Tolosates 1 


6 flnibus absunt, 

borders are distant , 

6 prbvincia. Id 

the province. That , 


quae civitas est in 

which state is in 

si fieret, intellegebat 

if, should be done, he saw 


7 magno cum periculo provinciae futurum, 

great with, peril of the province (it) about to be 


ders of the San- 
tones, which were 
not very far from 
the frontier of the 
Tolosates, a peo- 
ple who were liv- 
ing in the prov- 
ince. Should this 
be done, Caesar 
perceived that it 
would be attend- 
ed with great dan- 


Santonum, gen. plur. of Santones , -um, m. ; gen. limiting fines. Sometimes 

the forms Santoni, - drum are given. The country of the Santones lay between the 

Loire and the Garonne. fines, acc. plur. of the noun finis , -is, m. ; the obj. of 

the prep. in. For the position of the obj. after a prep, if modified by a gen., etc., 
see A. & G. 344,^; B. 43 ; G. 413, rem. 3, and 678, rem. 4 ; H. 569, II, 3. 

Line 4. facere, pres. inf. act. of facid , facere , feci , factum , 3; it with its mod- 
ifiers is the subject-acc. of esse. qui, nom. plur. m. of the rel. qui, quae , quod; 

it refers to Santonum, as its antecedent, and is the subject-nom. of absunt. n5n, 

adv., qualifying adv. longe. longe (longus), comparative longius, superl. longis- 

sime ; it modifies absunt. a, prep, with the abl. (a before consonants, ab before 

either vowels or consonants). Tolosatium, gen. plur. of the proper noun 7 'old- 

sdtes, - -turn , m. ; it, as a gen., limits finibus. These were a people of Tolosa , modern 
Toulouse, in the department Haute-Garonne of modern France. 

Line 5. finibus, abl. plur. of finis, -is, m. ; abl. after the prep. d. absunt, 

3d pers. plur. of the intrans. verb absum , abesse, ab(a)fui, ab(a)futurus (ab + sum); 

it agrees with its subject-nom. qui. quae, rel. pron., nom. sing, f.; it logically 

refers to Tolosatium ; it grammatically agrees with civitds in gender, number and 

case ; in other words, it is subject-nom. of est. civitas, -atis, f. ; predicate-nom. 

after est. This species of attraction is a common Latin idiom. Consult A. & G. 

199; B. 129, rem. 5 ; G. 616, 2 ; H. 445, 4. est, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. of the 

intrans. verb sum, esse, fui, futurus; it agrees with its subject-nom. quae. in, 

prep, with the acc. and abl. ; here it takes the abl. 

Line 6. provincia, abl. of prdvincia, -ae, i . ; it is the obj. of the prep. in. The 
Romans had a military colony at Tolosa ; but it is not strictly accurate to say that 

the tribe of the Tolosates were in the province. Id, nom. sing. n. of the dem. 

pron. is, ea, id, used substantively, and subj. of the verb fieret. The id = the purpose 

of the Helvetii to settle among the Santones. si, conditional conj. ; archaic 

form set, sibilated from gk. el. — jAeret, 3d pers. sing, imperf. subjunctive of fid, 
fieri, f actus, used as pass, of faciojf 3; it agrees with its subject-nom. id; is in the 

subjunctive after si in the protasis. intellegebat, 3d pers. sing, imperf. ind. act. 

of intellego, -ere, -lexi, -ledum, 3 (inter + legere) = lit. to choose or select between; it 
agrees with a pron. implied in the ending as its subject-nom., referring to Caesar. 

Line 7. magnQ, abl. sing. n. of adj. mdgnus, -a, -um, comparative mdior, superl. 

mdximus; it is the attributive of perdculo. cum, prep, with the abl. 

perlculo, abl. of the noun periculum, -i, n. ; abl. after the prep. cum. Observe, as to 
the position of the prep., that a monosyllabic prep, is often thus placed. See A. & G. 
345, a\ B. 58. 2 ; G. 413, rem. 2. provinciae, gen. sing, of prdvincia , -ae, f. ; 


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64 


CAESAR’S GALLIC WAR 


[CHAP. X. 


ger to the prov- 
ince to have war- 
like men and en- 
emies of the Ro- 
man people as 
neighbors, in an 
open country and 
in a district espe- 
cially fruitful in 
grain. For these 
reasons he put 
Titus Labienus, 


ut homines bellic 5 sos, popull Romani s 

that men bellicose , of the people Roman 

inimlcos, locis patentibus maximeque 9 

enemies , in places lying open most and , 

frumentarils fmitimos haberet. Ob 10 

productive in grain as neighbors (it) would have . For 

eas causas el munitibni, quam fecerat, 11 

these reasons over that fortification which he had made , 


gen. objective, limiting periculd. Consult A. & G. 217; B. 131, rem. 2 ; G. 363, 2 ; 

H. 396, III. futurum (esse), fut. inf. of the intrans. verb sum , esse, fui, fut. 

participle futurus; it is used here impersonally; but strictly its subject-acc. is the 
result-clause ut . . . haberet Consult A. & G. 329, and note; B. 201, and rem. i, (r); 
G. 506; H. 501, I, 1. 

Line 8. ut, ecbatic conj. homines, acc. plur. of homo , -inis, m. and f . ; 

direct obj. of haberet, 1. io, below. Synonyms: homo = man in the generic sense, 
including woman ; whereas vir (digammated from the ck. pron. fs = he) denotes the 

male person, the man of valor, gk. &vi)p. bellicosds, acc. plur. m. of the adj. 

bellicdsus, -a, -um (bellicus, bellum -f- os us). Note that words ending in -dsus and 

-iisus denote fulness, bellicdsds is an attributive of homines . popull, gen. sing. 

of populus, - i , m. ; gen. objective after inimicds. Consult A. & G. 234, d, 1 ; B. 144, 
REM. 3; G. 359, REM. 1 ; H. 391, II, 4. For synonyms, see note on populum, 1. 17, 
Chap. VI. Rdmani, gen. sing. m. of the adj. Romanus , -a, -um; it is an attrib- 

utive of popuR. 

Line 9. inimlcos, acc. plur. m. of the adj. inimicus, -a -um (in, not-\- amicus, 
friendly); used here as a subst. in apposition with, and an explanatory modifier, of 

homtfies. Observe that, as an adj., inimicus takes the dat. locis, abl. plur. of 

locus, -i, m. in the sing., but m. or n. in the plur. ; i.e. either loci or loca. See note on 
loci, 1. 10, Chap. II. locis is locative abl. Consult A. & G. 258 ,/, 1 ; B. 170, rem. 3; 

G. 385, note 1 ; H. 425, II, 2. patentibus, abl. plur. of the pres, participle 

patens, used as an adj., of the verb pateo , -ere, -ut, no supine, 2 ; as an adj. it modifies 

locis. maximeque (maxime + que). mdxime is the superl. of the comparative 

maps; multum is sometimes used as the positive. mdxime modifies the adj. 
frumentdriis . Observe that adjectives in -us preceded by a vowel are usually com- 
pared by prefixing the adverbs magis, more, and mdxime, most. See A. & G. 89, d ; 
B. 74, 4; G. 87. 6; H. 170. 

Line io. frumentarils, abl. plur. of the adj . frumentdrius, -a, -um (frumentum , 
grain) ; connected by the enclitic conj. -que with patentibus, and in the same gram- 
matical construction. finitimos, acc. plur. m. of the adj. finitimus, -a, -um 

(finis, border); used here as a subst., and is predicate-acc. after haberet See 

A. & G. 239, I ; B. 151, (b) ; G. 340, (b), and rem. i ; H. 373, 1, and note 1. 

haberet, 3d pers. sing, imperf. subjunctive act. of habeo, -ere, -ui, - itum , 2 ; its sub- 

ject-nom. is provincia, to be supplied; subjunctive of result after ut, 1. 8, above. 

Ob, prep, with the acc. 

Line ii. eas, acc. plur. f. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id; it is an attributive of the 
noun causds . causas, acc. plur. of causa , -ae, f. ; obj. of the prep. ob. Observe 


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LINES 12, 13.] 


BOOK I. 


65 


12 T. Labienum legatum praefecit ; ipse in 

Titus Labienus, lieutenant , he placed; he himself into 

13 Italiam magnis itineribus contendit duasque 

Italy by great marches hastens , two and , 


his lieutenant, in 
command of the 
line of fortifica- 
tions that he 
had constructed, 
while he him- 


that the reference in the phrase ob eds causds is to the considerations specified in the 
preceding sentence ; and that ob with the acc. is used instead of the abl. of cause, 
because the object exciting the feeling is thus expressed. See A. & G. 245, 2, b ; 
B. 165, rkm. 4; G. 408, 3; H. 416, I, 2). Oratio recta of lines 6-10, above: Id si 
fiet magno cum perlculo provinciae erit ut . . . (provincia) k a beat. Observe that as 
this conditional sentence depends on intellegebat, a past tense, the periphrastic fut. is 
carried into the past. The fut. tense in the protasis becomes the imperf. subjunc- 
tive; and the pres, subjunctive in the result-clause is also changed to the imperf. 

subjunctive. Consult A. & G. 288,/; B. 196, (b); G. 248; II. 537, 3. ei, dat. f. 

of the dem. pron. is, ea, id; it is an attributive of munitioni. munition!, dat. 

sing, of mii nit id, -onis, f. ( munirc , to fortify); dat. after prae in praefecit. See 
A. & G. 228; B. 143; G. 347; II. 386. For description of this fortification, read 

again Chap. VIII. quam, acc. sing. f. of the rel. pron. qui , quae, quod; it refers 

to munitioni as its antecedent, but it is the direct obj. of fecerat. fecerat, 

3d pers. sing, pluperf. ind. act. of facio, -ere, feci, factum, 3; it agrees with a pron. 
implied in its ending as its subject-nom., referring to Caesar. 

Line 12. T., an abbreviation for Titum , acc. sing, of Titus, -i, m. ; praenomen 

of Labienum , and in the same grammatical construction. Labienum, acc. sing, of 

Labienus, -i, m. (cognomen) ; direct obj. of praefecit. Observe that trans. compounds 
have the direct obj. as well as the dat. depending on the prep, in the compound. See 
A. & G. 228, note 1, end; B. 143, end; G. 347, immediately after the list of pre- 
positions; H. 386, 1. Titus Attius Labienus was Caesar’s most trusted legatus in 
the Gallic War. He subsequently, however, in the Civil War sided with Pompey, 
and was slain at Munda, 45 B.c. Among Caesar’s other legates in the Gallic War 
were Sablnus, C. Trebonius and Quintus Cicero. The reader will observe that 
legdtus is a word of somewhat flexible meaning. At one time legdtus = a leader of 
an army-corps ; at another it = an ambassador. The context must give the clew to 
its meaning. legatum, acc. sing, of legdtus, -i, m. ; predicate-acc. See gram- 
matical references to finitimos , 1. 10, above. praefecit, 3d pers. sing. perf. ind. 

act. of praeficio, -ere, -feci, -fectum , 3 ; it agrees with Caesar understood as subject- 

nom. ipse, intensive dem. pron. (is -f- pse) = self; it refers to Caesar, and is 

subject-nom. of contendit. in, prep, with the acc. and abl.; here it takes. the acc. 

after a verb of motion. 

Line 13. Italiam, acc. sing, of Italia , -ae, {., and is the obj. of the prep. in. 
Sometimes in Caesar’s Commentaries in Italiam =in Galliam Cisalpinam , the plain 
of the Po, northern Italy. Cisalpine Gaul was one of the provinces given to Caesar 
by the senate and Roman people; the other provinces given him were Transalpine 
Gaul and Illyricum. magnis, abl. plur. n. of the adj. mdgnus , -a, -um ; com- 
parative ?ndior, superl. mdximus ; mdgnis modifies itineribus. itineribus, abl. 

plur. of iter, itineris , n. ; abl. of manner. See A. & G. 248; B. 168; G. 399; 
H. 419, III. The Roman army’s ordinary day’s march was fifteen miles; the extra- 
ordinary, twenty or twenty-five. contendit, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. of 

contendo f -ere, -tendi, - tentum , 3 ; it agrees with its subject-nom. ipse. For etymolog- 


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66 


caesar’s gallic war 


[CHAP. X. 


self hastened in- 
to Italy by 
forced marches, 
and there en- 
rolled two le- 
gions ; and led 
out of their win- 
ter-quarters the 
three legions that 
had been passing 
the winter near 
Aquileia, and 
marched quickly 


ibi 

legiones conscribit 

et 

tres, 

there , 

legions levies 

and 

three , 

circum 

Aquileiam 

hiemabant, 

around 

Aquileia 

were wintering 


quae u 

which 

ex is 

from 


hfliemis educit, et, 

10 inter-quarter 8 leads out , and 

iter in ulteriorem 

the route into ulterior 


qua proximumi6 

where nearest 

Galliam per 17 

Gaul through 


ical and different meaning, see note on contendunt y 1 . 18, Chap. I. dnasque 

(duas + que). duds , acc. plur. f. of cardinal num. duo , -ae , -o; it is an attributive of 
legiones. Note that of the cardinals up to centum , only unus y duo and ires are 
declined. 

Line 14. ibi, adv., modifies cdnscribit . Observe that ibi is formed thus: i + bi; 
i.e. by adding the locative case-form bi to i, the root of is; hence ibi = in that place , 

there . legiones, acc. plur. of legio, -onis y f. ; direct obj. of cdnscribit . As to the 

Roman legion, consult the article under Legion in any of the encyclopedias. 

cdnscribit, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. of couscri^d, -ere , -scrip si, -scriptum y 3 ; con- 
nected by the enclitic -que with contendit , and in the same grammatical construction. 

tres, num. adj. cardinal, acc. plur. ; it modifies legiones understood, which latter, 

as understood, is the direct obj. of educit. These three legions were the seventh, 

eighth and ninth. quae, nom. plur. f. of the rel. pron. qui y quae, quod ; it refers 

to legiones understood, and is subject-nom. of hiemabant. 

Line 15. circum, prep, and adv.; here a prep, with the acc. Aquileiam, 

acc. sing, of Aquileia , -ae y f. ; the obj. of the prep, circum . Aquileia was a colony 

in Venetia, at the head of the Adriatic gulf, not far from the modern Trieste. 

hiemabant, 3d pers. plur. imperf. ind. act. of hiemo , -are, -dvi, - dtum , 1 {hiems ; com- 
pare ok. ; it agrees with its subject-nom quae. ex, prep, with the 

abl. {e before consonants only, ex before vowels and consonants). 

Line 16. Inberms, abl. plur. n. of the adj. htbernus , -a , -uni ; supply castris , of 

which hibernis is an attributive. educit, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. of educo y 

-ere y - diixi , - ductum , 3 (e -f-ducere); educit agrees with its subj. implied in the end- 
ing, referring to Caesar. et, cop. conj., connects the verbs educit and contendit y 

I . 19, below. Caesar led these legions up the Po valley by way of Turin and Mount 

G^nevre through to the Rhone. qua, adv., strictly an abl. f. of the rel. pron. 

gut , quae , quod ; 'supply vid. Consult A. & G. 148, e; B. 117. 6, end; G. 91, 2, (e); 

II. 304, II, 2, and foot-note 10. proximum, nom. sing. n. of the adj. proximus y 

-a y - um : comparative propior y no positive; proximum is predicate-adj. after erat; 
it = lit. nearest. 

Line 17. iter, nom. sing. n. ; subj. of erat. For synonyms, see note on itinera , 1 . 1, 
Chap. VI. in, prep, with the acc. and abl. ; here it takes the acc. ulterio- 

rem, acc. sing. f. of the comparative ulterior , -us; no positive; superl. ultimus; 

ulteriorem is an attributive of Galliam. Galliam, acc. sing, of Gallia y -ae y f. ; it 

is the obj. of the prep. in. Observe that ulterior Gallia = Gallia Tidnsalpiya, with 
Rome as the d quo terminus. per, prep, with the acc. 


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LINES 18-21.] 


BOOK I. 


67 


is Alpes erat, 

cum 

his quinque 

legionibus 

the Alps was, 

with 

these Jive 


legions 

19 ire contendit. 

Ibi 

Ceutrones 

et 

Graioceli 

to go hastens . 

There 

the Ceutrones 

and 

the Graioceli 


20 et Caturiges, locls superioribus occupatis, 

and the Caturiges , places higher having been seized, 


21 itinere exercitum prohibere conantur. 

from the route the army to prohibit attempt. 


with these five 
legions by the 
shortest route 
through the Alps 
into farther Gaul. 
On this march the 
Ceutrones, the 
Graioceli and the 
Caturiges seized 
the higher pla- 
ces and attempt- 
ed to keep our 


Line i 8. Alpes, acc. plur. of Alpes, - turn , f . ; sometimes used in the sing. 
Alpis, - is ; Alpes is here the obj. of the prep. per. The derivation of Alpes , 
GK. "AXireis from the Latin adj. albus , white, because of the perpetual snow on their 

summits, is plausible. erat, 3d pers. sing, imperf. ind. of sum , esse, f ui, f uturus ; 

it agrees with its subject-nom. iter. cum, prep, with the abl. his. his, abl. 

plur. f. of the dem. pron. hie, haec, hoc ; it is an attributive of legidnibus. Observe 
that his denotes that the legions have just been mentioned. Consult A. & G. 102, a 

and/; B. 84, 1; G. 305; H. 450, 1. qulnque, num. adj. cardinal; it modifies 

legidnibus. legidnibus, abl. plur. of the noun legio, -dnis, f. ; abl. of accompani- 

ment. See A. & G. 248, a ; B. 168, rem. 4; G. 392 ; H. 419, I. 

Line 19. ire, pres. inf. act. of ed, ire, ivi (ii), itum ; complementary inf. A. & G. 

271, and note; B. 181 ; G. 423; H. 533, I, 1. contendit, 3d pers. sing. pres. 

ind. act. of contendo, -ere, -tendi, - tentum , 3 ; it agrees with a pron. implied in its 
ending as its subject-nom., referring to Caesar. For composition and various mean- 
ings, see note on contendunt , 1. 18, Chap. I. Ibi, adv. — there ; it points to the 

region of modern Savoy and Provence, the home of the Alpine clans Ceutrones , 

Caturiges and Grdioceli. Ceutrones, -um, nom. plur. m., subj. of conantur. 

Graioceli, -orum, nom. plur. m., connected by et with Ceutrones , and in the same 
grammatical construction. 

Line 20. Caturiges, -um, nom. plur. m., connected by et with Grdiocelt, and 

disposed of in the same way. locls, abl. plur. of locus , m., plur. loci, m., or 

loca, n. See note on loci, 1. 10, Chap. II. locis is in the abl. absolute with the perf. 
pass, participle occupdtis. superioribus, abl. plur. of the comparative adj. supe- 

rior, -us ; superl. supremus or summus. A positive posterus is used generally as a 

noun in the plur. meaning posterity, superioribus modifies locis. OCCUpatis, abl. 

plur. of the perf. pass, participle occupdtus, -a, -um of the verb occupo, -are, -dvi, 
-atum, 1 (ob + capere, lit. = to lay hold of) ; hence occupdre = to seize, to occupy 
a thing, occupdtis is in th.e abl. absolute with the noun locis. See A. & G. 255; 
B. 192 ; G. 409; H. 431. 

Line 21. itinere, abl. sing, of the noun iter, itineris, n. ; abl. of separation after 

prohibere . See A. & G. 243; B. 160; G. 390, 2; II. 414, I. exercitum, acc. sing. 

of exercitus, -us, m. ; direct obj. of prohibere. For synonyms, see note on exercitil, 

1. 31, Chap. III. prohibere, pres. inf. act. of prohibeo, -ere, -ui, -itum, 2 (pro-|- 

habere), lit. — to hold off or from; prohibere is a complementary inf. depending on 

conantur . A. & G. 271, and note; B. 181 ; G. 423 ; H. 533, I, 1. conantur, 

3d pers. plur. pres. ind. of the deponent verb conor -dri, - dtus , 1 ; it agrees with its 
subjects Ceutrones and Graioceli and Caturiges. 


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68 


caesar’s gallic war 


tCHAP. X. 


army from the 
road. After rout- 
ing these people 
in several skir- 
mishes, Caesar 
reached the fron- 
tier of the Vocon- 
tii in the farther 
province on the 
seventh day from 
Ocelum, which is 
the furthermost 


Compluribus his proeliis pulsis, ab 22 

In very many , these, battles, having been routed, from 

Ocelo, quod est citerioris provinciae 22 

Ocelum, which is of the citerior province 

extremum, in fines Vocontiorum 24 

the farthest (town), to the borders of the Vocontii 

ulterioris provinciae die septimo 21 

of the ulterior province, on day the seventh 


Line 22. Compluribus, abl. plur. n. of complures , -plura (- ia ) (con, intensive + 

plus) ; it agrees with proeliis. his, abl. plur. m. of the dem. pron. hie, haec , hoc , 

used substantively as a personal pron. of the 3d pers. ; abl. absolute with the perf. 

pass, participle pulsis. proeliis, abl. plur. of proelium , -i, n. ; locative abl., really 

an abl. of means. But see A. & G. 254, a ; B. 170, REM. 4 ; G. 389 ; H. 425, II, 1, 1). 
Note the synchysis or confusion in the order of the words : his, which is connected 
with pulsis in the abl. absolute construction, being inserted between proeliis and its 

attributive compluribus. pulsis, abl. plur. of the perf. pass, participle pulsus, -a, 

um of the verb pello, -ere, pepuli , pulsurn, 3 ; abl. absolute with the pron. his. 

ab, prep, with the abl. (d before consonants, ab before vowels or consonants). 

Line 23. Ocelo, abl. sing, of Ocelum, -i, n. Ocelum was an Alpine town in 

Gallia citerior , southwest of Turin. quod, nom. sing. n. of the rel. pron. gut, 

quae , quod; it relates to Oceld as its antecedent, but is subject-nom. of est. est, 

3d pers. sing. pres. ind. of the intrans. verb sum, esse,fui,futurus; it agrees with its 

subject-nom. quod. citerioris, gen. sing. f. of the adj. citerior, -us, comparative 

degree; superl. citimus . citerioris is an attributive of provinciae. For the list of 
five every-day adjectives that want the positive, see A. & G. 91, a; B. 74, I ; G. 87. 8; 

H. 166. prSvinciae, gen. sing, of prdvincia , -ae, f. ; it limits oppidum , to be 

supplied. 

Line 24. extremum, nom. sing. n. of the adj. extremus, -a, -um; it modifies 
oppidum understood, which latter is the predicate-noun after est. extremum is the 
superl. degree of the positive exterus, comparative exterior, superl. extremus or 
extimus. Consult A. & G. 91, b; B. 72, 4 ; ,G. 87, 2 and 7 ; H. 163, 3. Ocelum was 
the extreme western town in Gallia Cisalpina, from Rome as the terminus d quo. 

in, prep, with the acc. or abl. ; here it takes the acc. fines, acc. plur. of 

the noun finis, -is, m. ; it is the obj. of the prep. in. For synonyms, see note on 

agrum , 1 . 12, Chap. II. Vocontiorum, gen. plur. of Vocontii, -drum, m.; it limits, 

as a gen., fines. The Vocontii were a people of Gaul, living east of the Rhine river, 
and about a hundred miles from its mouth. Their principal town was Dea, now Die. 

Line 25. ulterioris, gen. sing. f. of the comparative adj. ulterior, -us, superl. 
ultimus; it wants the positive. But the comparative and superl. are from the adv. 
ultrd, beyond. See grammatical references to citerioris, 1 . 23, above; ulterioris 

modifies prdvinciae. provinciae, gen. sing, of prdvincia, -ae, f. ; it, as a gen., 

limits Vicontiorum. The ulterior province is the Roman province or Gallia Trdns - 

alpina. die, abl. sing. m. of dies, diei; abl. of time when. See A. & G. 256, I ; 

B. 171 ; G. 393; H. 429. septimo, abl. sing, of the ordinal num. adj. septimus 9 

-a, -um ; it agrees with the noun die. 


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LINES 26-29.1 


BOOK I. 


69 


26 pervenit ; 

he arrives; 


inde in 

thence into 


Allobrogum fines, 

the Allobroges ’ territory , 


27 ab Allobrogibus in Segusiavos 

from the Allobroges into the Segusiavi 

28 exercitum ducit. Hi sunt extra 

the army he leads . These are outside 

29 provinciam trans Rhodanum primi. 

of the province, across the Rhone, the first (people). 


town from Rome 
inthehitherprov- 
ince. Thence he 
led his army into 
the country of the 
Allobroges, and 
from the Allo- 
broges to the 
country of the Se- 
gusiavi. These 
are the first peo- 
ple beyond the 
province across 
the Rhone. 


Line 26. pervenit, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. of pervenio , -ire, -vent, - venturn , 4 
(per + venire), pervenire = lit. to come through, pervenit is an historical pres.; it 

agrees with Caesar understood as its subject-nom. inde (derived from is + 

adverbial termination de) ; hence = lit. froi?i that place . in, prep, with the acc. 

and abl. ; here it takes the acc. Allobrogum, gen. plur. of the proper noun 

Allobroges , - um , m.; as a gen. it limits fines. Observe that Allobrogum is embodied 
in the phrase, and consult A. & G. 344,^; B. 43; G. 413, rem. 3, and 678, Rem. 4; 

H. 569, II, 3. fines, acc. plur. of the noun finis, -is, m. ; obj. of the prep. in. 

But note that the phrase in Atlobrogu?n fines is an adverbial modifier of ducit, which 
with its direct obj. is to be supplied from the following line; in other words, with 
this terminus ad quern phrase supply exercitum ducit. As to the Allobroges, see 
note on Allobrogum , 1 . 10, Chap. VI. 

Line 27. ab, prep, with the abl. (d before consonants, ab before vowels or con- 
sonants, abs before pron. te and the enclitic conj. - que ). Observe the omission of the 
cop. conj. between the clauses (asyndeton); and consult A. & G. 346, c\ B. 123, 

REM. 6; G. 474, NOTE; H. 636, I, 1. Allobrogibus, abl. plur. of Allobroges, -um ; 

abl. after the prep. ab. in, prep, with the acc. or abl. ; here it takes the acc. 

after a verb of motion, and = into. Segusiavos, acc. plur. of Segusiavi, -drum, m . ; 

obj. of the prep. in. The Segusid 7 >i were a clan whose territory lay west of the 
Rhone, and whose principal town was Lugdunu?n, the modern Lyons. 

Line 28. exercitum, acc. sing, of exercitus, -iis, m. ; direct obj. of ducit. For 

synonyms, see note on exercilu , 1 . 31, Chap. III. ducit, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. 

act. of duco, -ere, diixi, ductum , 3 ; it agrees with its subject-nom. Caesar, to be sup- 
plied. Hi, nom. plur. m. of the dem. pron. hie , haec, hoc; used substantively; 

expressed for emphasis, and also to indicate that the reference is to the last men- 
tioned people. Consult A. & G. 102, a and/; B. 84, 1; G. 305; II. 450, 1. Hi is 

the subject-nom. of sunt. sunt, 3d pers. plur. pres. ind. of the neuter or intrans. 

verb siim , esse, fui, futurus ; it agrees with its subject-nom. Hi. extra, prep. 

with the acc. ; sometimes an adv. (contracted from exterd, abl. of the adj. exter). 

Line 29. provinciam, acc. sing, of the noun prdvincia, -ae, f. ; it is the obj. of 

the prep, extrd. trans, prep, with the acc. Rhodanum, acc. sing, of Rhoda - 

nus, -t, m. ; obj. of the prep, trdns. Caesar’s purpose was to confront the Helvetii, 
who were advancing westward, and had already reached the territory of the Aedui. 

trdns Rhodanum = towards the west, as the Rhone at Lyons turns to the south. 

primi, nom. plur. m. of the adj. primus , -a, -um; supply populi, as predicate-nom. 
after sunt , with which primi agrees. 


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70 


caesar’s gallic war 


[CHAP. XI. 


XI. The Hel- 
vetii had already 
led their forces 
through the nar- 
row pass and the 
country of the 
Sequani, and had 
arrived at the 
borders of the 
Aedui, and were 
ravaging their 


XI. Helvetia iam per angustias et 1 
The Ilelvetii now through the narrow pa88 and 
fines Sequanorum suas copias traduxerant 2 
the territory of the Sequani their forces had led 

et in Aeduorum fines pervenerant 3 
and into the Aeduan territory had arrived 
eorumque agros populabantur. Aedui, 4 

of them and , the fields were laying waste. The Aedui, 


Line i. Helvetii, nom. plur. m. of the adj. Helvetius, -a, - um , used as a subst., 
and subj. of trdduxerant . For description of the clan, see note on Helvetii, 1 . 16, 

Chap. I. iam, adv. = now , of any action pres., past or fut. ; whereas nunc 

emphasizes the present time. per, prep, with the acc. angustiSs, acc. plur. 

of noun angustiae , - drum , f. ; it is the obj. of the prep. per. The pass referred to is 
the Pas de PEcluse. 

Line 2. fines, acc. plur. of noun finis , -is, m.; it is connected by the conj. et 
with angustias , and is in the same grammatical construction. For synonyms, see 

note on agrum , 1 . 12, Chap. II. Sequanorum, gen. plur. of Sequani, -drum, m. ; 

it limits fines . For description, see note on Sequanis, 1 . 25, Chap. I. suas, acc. 

plur. f. of the poss. and direct-reflexive pron. suus , -a, -um ; it agrees with cdpids , but 

refers to the subj. Ilelvetii. copias, acc. plur. of the noun copia, -ae, f. ; direct 

obj. of trdduxerant. Observe that copia in the sing. = plenty ; in the plur., resources 

or troops. traduxerant, 3d pers. plur. pluperf. ind. act. of trdduco, -ere, - duxt , 

-ductum, 3 (trans + ducere) ; it agrees with its subject-nom. Helvetii 

Line 3. in, prep, with the acc. or abl. ; here it takes the acc.; after verbs of 

motion in with the acc. = into. See note on in, 1. 1 , end, Chap. I. Aeduorum, 

gen. plur. of Aedui, -drum, m.; as a gen. it limits fines. For its position, between 
the prep, and its obj., see A. & G. 344,^; B. 43; G. 413, rem. 3, and 678, rem. 4 ; 
H. 569, II, 3. fines, acc. plur. of finis , -is, m. ; obj. of the prep. in. per- 

venerant, 3d pers. plur. pluperf. ind. act. of pervenio, -ire, -veni, - ventum , 4 (per-(- 
venlre) ; connected by the conj. et with trdduxerant, and in the same grammatical 
construction. 

Line 4. eorumque (edrum + que). eorum, gen. plur. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id, 
used as a personal pron. of the 3d pers. eorum refers to Aedudrum, but limits agros. 

que, enclitic conj. ; connects very closely the clauses. agros, acc. plur. of the 

noun ager, agri, m. ; direct obj. of the deponent verb populabantur. For synonyms, 

see note on agrum, 1. 12 , Chap. II. populabantur, 3d pers. plur. imperf. ind. of 

populor , -art, -dtus, 1 (derived from populus), hence populdri = to spread out in a 
multitude over a place ; and so, transf. = to ravage, etc. Observe that the act. form 
populo, -dre is sometimes used, populabantur is connected by the enclitic conj. -que 
with pervenerant, and also agrees with Helvetii, as its subject-nom. The Helvetii 

were devasting the fields of the Aedui, because the latter were allies of Rome. 

Aedui, nom. plur. of the adj. Aeduus, -a, -um, used as a subst.; subj. of mittunt, 1. 6, 
below. Compare gk. ’'ES ovot, and A tdovoi, and especially 'ESovcts, of the paraphrast ; 
and observe the aspirate, from which comes the form Hedui , occurring in some 
editions. For description of this clan, see note on Aeduo, 1. 20, Chap. III. Note 
the emphatic position of Aedui, as it precedes the conj. cum . 


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LINES 6-8.] 


BOOK I. 


71 


b cum se suaque ab els defendere 

since themselves their own and , from them to defend 


e n5n possent, legat5s 

not were able, delegates 

7 rogatum auxilium : 

to solicit aid : 


ad Caesarem mittunt 

to Caesar send 


Ita se omni 

So themselves at every 


8 tempore de populo Romano meritos esse, 

time from the people Roman to have deserved , 


fields. The Ae- 
dui, inasmuch as 
they could not de- 
fend themselves 
and their proper- 
ty, sent ambassa- 
dors to Caesar to 
ask for help, who 
said: they had, on 
every occasion, 
so served the 
interests of the 


Line 5. cum, conj., denoting here both time and cause. se, acc. plur. of 

the reflexive pron. sul , sibi, se, se, the same case-forms occurring in both sing, and 
plur. ; the number to be determined by the context ; here se is direct obj. of 

defendere . suaque (sua + que). sua, acc. plur. n. of poss. pron. suus , - a , -um , 

used substantively, or the English word things may be supplied. Consult A. & G. 
189, b; B. 59, REM.; G. 204, note 2; H. 441. sua is connected with the pron. se 

by the enclitic conj. - que , and is also a direct obj. of defendere . ab, prep, with 

the abl. (ab before vowels or consonants, d before consonants only). eis, abl. 

plur. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id, used as a personal pron. of the 3d pers. ; it is the 

obj. of the prep, ab; it refers to the Helvetii. defendere, pres. inf. act. of 

defendo, -ere, -fetidi , fensutn , 3 (de + fendere, a prim, word, used only in compounds) ; 
hence defendere = to ward off \ difendere is here a complementary inf., depending 
on possent. See A. & G. 271, and note; B. 181 ; G. 423; H. 533, I, 2. 

Line 6. n6n, adv. (ne+oenum orunum); observe. its natural Latin position: 
immediately before the word it modifies. possent, 3d pers. plur. imperf. sub- 

junctive of possum, posse, potui (potis, able- |-sum); its subject-nom. is ei understood, 
referring to the Aedui; subjunctive after cum denoting both time and cause. A. & G. 

326; B. 223; G. 586; H. 517. legatOS, acc. plur. of legdtus, -i, m. (legere, to 

despatch) ; direct obj. of mittunt. ad, prep, with the acc., used after a verb of 

motion. Caesarem, acc. sing, of Caesar, -art’s, m. ; obj. of the prep. ad. 

mittunt, 3d pers. plur. pres. ind. act. of mittere, mist, missum, 3 ; it agrees with 
Aedui, 1 . 4, above. 

Line 7. rogatum, former supine of the verb rogo, -dre, -dvi, -dtum , 1, denoting 
purpose. Consult A. & G. 302 ; B. 186(A); G. 435 ; II. 546. Observe that the 

supine in -um is used after verbs of motion. auxilium, acc. of auxilium, -i, n. ; 

direct obj. of the supine rogdtum. Observe that supines in -um are followed by the 

same case as their verbs. Ita, adv. (radical i, whence is + ta) ; correlate of the 

conj. ut, 1. 9, below. se, acc. plur. of the reflexive pron. sui , sibi, se, se ; subject- 

acc. of meritos esse. Observe that ita se introduces the indirect form of discourse 
here, which, as principal clause, depends on dicentes, to be supplied from mittunt 
rogdtum . omni, abl. sing. n. of the adj. omnis , -e; it is an attributive of tempore. 

Line 8. tempore, abl. sing, of tempus, -oris, n. ; abl. of time when . Consult 
A. & G. 256, 1 ; B. 1 71 ; G. 393 ; H. 429. For derivation, see note on tempore, 1 . 21, 

Chap. III. de, prep, with the abl. populo, abl. sing, of the noun populus, 

-i, m. ; obj. of the prep. de. Romano, abl. sing. m. of the adj. Romdnus, -a, -um; 

it is an attributive of populo. meritos esse, perf. inf. of the deponent verb 

mereor , mereri, meritus , 2 ; it agrees with its subject-acc. se, 1 . 7, above. Observe 


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72 


[CHAP. XI. 


caesar’s gallic war 


Roman people, 
that their fields 
ought not to be 
laid waste, their 
children led in- 
to captivity, and 
their towns taken 
by storm almost 
within sight of 
our army. At 
the same time 
the Ambarri, in- 


ut paene 

in 

conspectu exercitus nostri 9 

that almost 

in 

sight 

of army our , 

agri vastari, 

liberi eorum 

in servitutem 10 

fields to be laid waste, 

children of them 

into slavery 

abducl, 

oppida 

expugniiri 

non debuerint. 11 

to be led, 

towns 

to be stormed 

not ought. 

Eodem 

tempore 

Ambarri, 

necessaril et 12 

At the same 

time 

the Ambarri, 

close friends and 


that the participial form of this compound is in the acc. plur. m., agreeing thus with 
its subject-acc. in gender, number and case. 

Line 9. ut, ecbatic conj. here. paene, adv., comparative wanting, superl. 

paenissime ; this adv. here seems to modify the phrase in cdnspectii . in, prep. 

with the acc. or abl. ; here it takes the abl. cdnspectii, abl. sing, of the noun 

conspectus , -us, m. ; it is the obj. of the prep. in. Synonyms : conspectus = the sight 
of; adspectus = the act of seeing; in other words : conspectus has a passive meaning, 
adspectus, an active. exercitus, gen. sing, of exercitus, -us, m. ; it limits cdn- 
spectii. For synonyms, see note on exercitu , 1 . 31, Chap. III. nostri, gen. sing. 

m. of the poss. pron. noster, -tra, -trum ; it is an attributive of exercitus. Caesar, as 
the reporter of the Aeduan ambassadors* words, should have written tut or vestrt, 
i.e. your army, the Roman army. Possibly, however, as the Aedui were the allies 
of the Romans, they might call the Roman army our army. 

Line 10. agri, nom. plur. of the noun ager, agri, m. ; subj. of debuerint, 1 . 11, 

below. vastari, pres. inf. pass, of ids to, -dre, -avi, -dtum, 1 ; complementary, 

depending on debuerint, 1. 11, below. liberi, nom. plur. of the adj. liber, -era, 

-erum, used substantively; subject-nom. of debuerint, to be supplied. Observe that 

liberi = children, in contrast with servi ', the domestics. edrum, gen. plur. of the 

dem. pron. is, e a, id, used as a personal pron. of the 3d pers.; as a gen. it limits 

liberi. in, prep, with the acc. or abl. ; here it takes the acc. servitutem, 

acc. sing, of the noun servitus, - utis , i. (servus) ; it is the obj. of the prep. in. 

Line ii. abducl, pres. inf. pass, of abduco, -ere, -dtixi, -ductum, 3; complement- 
ary inf., depending on debuerint understood. Oppida, nom. plur. of oppidum, -i, n. ; 

subj. of debuerint understood. expugnari, pres. inf. pass, of expugno, -dre, - avi , 

-dtum, 1 ; complementary inf., depending on debuerint understood. non, adv. 

neg., modifying debuerint. Note that not* debuerint are expressed only with the first 
dependent clause, and that they are to be supplied with the remaining dependent 

clauses. debuerint, 3d pers. plur. perf. subjunctive of debed, -ere, -ui, - itum , 2 (de 

+ habere) ; hence debere = to have from a person, and so owe him something. 
debuerint is subjunctive of result after ut, referring to ita. A. & G. 319, 1, and rem. ; 
B. 201, (b), and rem. i, (a); G. 552 ; H. 500, II. As to tense-sequence, see A. & G. 
287, c ; B. 190, REM. i ; G. 513 ; H. 495, VI. Ordtio recta of lines 7-1 1 : Ita nos . . . 
a meriti sumus, . . . exercitus Rdmdni agri vastari, liberi nostri . . . debuerint. 

Line 12. Eodem, abl. sing. n. of idem, eadem, idem (from root i, whence is + 

the suffix dem) ; iterative pron. ; it modifies tempore. tempore, abl. of tempus , 

-oris, n. ; abl. of time when or at which ; see note on tempore, 1. 8, above. 

Ambarri, -drum, nom. plur. m. (compare ok. oi 'A/i/ 3 <fppoi = according to some, 
dfjLfp 9 "Apapiv). These people were clients of the Aedui, and occupied the territory 


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LINES 13-16.] 


BOOK I. 


73 


13 consanguine! 

relations 


Aeduorum, 

of the Aedui , 


Caesarem 

Caesar 


certiorem 

more certain 


14 faciunt, sese depopulates agris 

make , themselves , having been laid waste (their) fields , 


is non facile ab oppidls vim hostium 

not easily from the towns the force of the enemy 


•timate friends 
and relatives of 
the Aedui, in- 
formed Caesar 
that, since their 
fields had been 
devastated, they 
were with diffi- 
culty keeping the 


between the Arar (Sa6ne) and the Rhone. Many editions read here Aedui Ambarri 
or Haedui Ambarrt. See note on Aedui, 1. 4, above. Ambarrt is subject-nom. of 

faciunt , 1 . 14, below. necessarily nom. plur. of the adj, necessdrius , - a , -urn, used 

as a noun, in apposition with Ambarrt. necessdrii = those friends or clients to whom 
offices of kindness are necessarily due. 

Line 13. consanguine!, nom. plur. of the adj. consanguineus, -a, -um (con + san- 
guineus, sanguis); hence = lit. blood-relations; connected by the conj. et with neces - 

sdrii , and in the same grammatical construction. Aeduorum, gen. plur. of 

Aedui, -drum, m. ; it limits, as a gen., necessdrii et consanguinei. As to the Aeduan 

clan, see note on Aeduo, 1. 20, Chap. III. Caesarem, acc. sing, of Caesar, -art's, m. ; 

direct obj. of faciunt. certiorem, acc. sing. m. of the adj. certior, -us, comparative 

degree of certus , a participle by metathesis for cretus from the verb certid, -ere, crezi, 
cretum, 3 ; superl. certissimus. Observe that the adj. as predicate is in the same 
case as the direct obj. A complete analysis requires the copula esse between Caesarem 
and certiorem. certiorem is predicate-acc. Consult A. & G. 239, a, and note i ; 
B. 1 51, (b); G. 340; H. 373, 1, and note 2. Observe that the phrase aliquem facere 
certiorem is followed by the acc. with the inf., or by a relative-clause. Sometimes, 
however, the phrase is used absolutely. 

Line 14. faciunt, 3d pers. plur. of facio, -ere, feci, factum , 3 ; it agrees with its 

subject-nom. Ambarri, 1. 12, above. sese, acc. plur. of the reflexive pron. sui, 

sibi, se, se, reduplicated sese; it is subject-acc. of prohibere. Observe that the tenses 
are the historic pres. If the participial phrase be taken as a preliminary, and not as 
a coordinate expression, the necessity of rendering the inf. prohibere, as if it depended 

on posse, will not be felt. depopulatis, perf. participle of the deponent verb 

depopulor, -dri, -dtus, 1. Sometimes the perf. participle of a deponent verb has a 
pass, signification; abl. absolute with agris, denoting cause. Consult A. & G. 135, b\ 

B. 109, 2; G. 220, note 1 ; H. 231, 2. agris, abl. plur. of the noun ager , agii, m.; 

abl. absolute with the participle depopulatis. See A. & G. 255 ; B. 192 ; G. 409; H. 431. 
Between the villages there were, usually, long stretches of forests and fields, which 
were some sort of defense. The Helvetii were laying these waste; hence it was 
difficult to keep the enemy from the towns. 

Line 15. non, adv. (n5n -f - iinum) ; modifies the adv. facile. facile, adv. 

( facilis ). See A. & G. 148, d; B. 117. 6; G. 91, (r); II. 304, I, 3, 1) ; facile modifies 
prohibere . ab, prep, with the abl. (d before consonants, ab before vowels or con- 
sonants). Oppidls, abl. plur. of oppidum, -i, n. ; it is the obj. of the prep. ab. 

vim, acc. sing, of the noun vis, vis, f. ; direct obj. of prohibere. hostium, gen. 

plur. of hostis, -is, m. and f. ; it limits vim. Synonyms : hosiis = lit. a stranger; 
hence, because of distrust of strangers, an enemy; oftener hostes , plur., than hostis; 
it generally denotes a public enemy; whereas inimicus — a private foe. Ordtio 
recta of lines 14-16 : nos depopulatis agris non facile ab oppidls vim hostium 
prohibemus . 


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74 


[CRAP. XI. 


Caesar’s gallic war 


violence of the 
enemy from their 
towns. The Allo- 
broges, also, who 
had villages and 
possessions across 
the Rhone, fled 
to Caesar and in- 
formed him that 
they had nothing 
left except their 
country’s soil. 


prohibere. 
to restrain. 


Item Allobroges, qul trims ie 

Likewise the Allobroges , who across 


Rhodanum vicos possessionesque habebant, 17 

the Rhone villages possessions and , had, 

fuga se ad Caesarem recipiunt et is 

inflight themselves to Caesar betake and 


demonstrant, sibi praeter agrl solum 19 

show , to themselves except of land the soil , 


Line 16. prohibere, pres inf. act. of prohibed , -ire, - ui -Hunt, 2 ; complementary 
inf. depending on posse understood ; or sese . . . prohibere may be taken as an acc. 
and infinitive-clause depending immediately on Caesarem ' certiorem faciunt. See 

observation on prohibere , 1 . 14, above. Item, adv. (formed from the radical i 

as seen in pron. is * 4 " adverbial accusative-suffix tem ; = in that way, also). For 

synonyms, see note on itemque , 1 . 20, Chap. III. Allobroges, nom. plur. of 

Allobrox , -ogis, m. ; but in Caesar in the plur. Allobroges , -gum, m. ; subject-nom. of 
recipiunt and demonstrant. The word Allobroges is said to mean highlanders . These 
people, who in Caesar’s time were living in Gallia Narbonensis, on the east side of 
the Rhone and to the north of what is now Savoy, had been already subdued by 
Caius Pomptinus, the praetor, and their territory, of course, was considered Roman. 

qul, nom. plur. of the rel. pron. qut, quae , quod ; it refers to Allobroges , but is 

subject-nom. of habebant. trans, prep, with the acc. ; used with verbs of motion. 

Line 17. Rhodanum, acc. sing, of Rhodanus, -1, m. ; it is the obj. of the prep. 

trdns. vicQs, acc. plur. of vicus, - i , m. (digammated from gk. ohos) ; direct obj. 

of habebant. possessionesque (possessions + que). possessions , acc. plur. of 

possessio, -dnis, f. ( possidere = to have and to hold) ; connected by the enclitic conj. 

7 que with vicos, and in the same grammatical construction. habebant, 3d pers. 

plur. imperf. ind. act. of habed, -ere , -ui, - itum , 2 ; it agrees with its subject-nom. 
Allobroges. 

Line 18. fuga, abl. sing, of the noun fuga, -ae, f. (compare gk. <f>vy ij); abl. of 
manner; compare vid and iniurid, and consult A. & G. 248, rem.; B. 168, rem. 2, (e) ; 
G. 399, note 1 ; II. 419, III, note 2. But fugd might be taken as an abl. of means. 

se, acc. plur. of the reflexive pron. sui, sibi, se, se; direct obj. of recipiunt. 

ad, prep, with the acc. denoting to or towards. Caesarem, acc. sing, of Caesar , 

-aris, m. ; it is the obj. of the prep, ad, after a verb of motion. recipiunt, 

3d pers. plur. pres. ind. act. of recipio, -ere, - cept , -ceptum, 3 (re + capere, to take back); 
it agrees with its subject-nom. Allobroges. 

Line 19. dembnstrant, 3d pers. plur. pres. ind. act. of demonstro, -dre, -dvt, 
-dtum, 1 (de, out + mSnstrare, to point); connected by the conj. et with recipiunt, and 

has the same grammatical construction. sibi, dat. plur. of reflexive pron. sui \ 

sibi, se, se, the same forms in the plur. ; dat. of possessor after esse. See A. & G. 

231 ; B. 146; G. 349; H. 387. praeter, adv. and prep. ; here prep, with the acc. 

agri, gen. sing, of the noun ager, agri, m. ; as a gen. it limits the noun solum . 

Note its position, and consult A. & G. 344, g; B. 43; G. 413, rem. 3, and 678, 

rem. 4 ; H. 569, II, 3. solum, acc. sing, of solum, -t, n.; obj. of the prep, praeter. 

solum is to be carefully discriminated from solum, adv. Observe the difference in 


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LINES 20 - 23 .] 


BOOK I. 


75 


20 nihil esse reliqui. Quibus rebus 

nothing to he (there is) of remainder. By which things 


a adductus 
led 

22 statuit, 
determined , 


Caesar non exspectandum sibi 

Caesar not it ought to be awaited by himself 

dum omnibus fortunls sociorum 

until all the fortunes of the allies 


23Consumptis in Santonos Helvetii pervenlrent. 

being destroyed, among the Santoni the Helvetii should arrive. 


Influenced by 
these representa- 
tions, Caesar did 
not think that he 
ought to wait un- 
til the Helvetii, 
after destroying 
all the resources 
of his allies, 
should reach the 
country of the 
Santoni. 


the length of the vowels in the penultimate syllables. The phrase praeter agri solum 
= freely, except the hare soil. 

Line 20. nihil, acc. sing, of the indecl. noun nihil , which is only used in the 
nom. and acc. cases ; nihil is subject-acc. of esse. Observe that the indecl. nihil = 
nihilum , -f, n., contracted from nil and nifum (ne+hilum = not the least); observe 

also that nihil is sometimes an adverbial acc. = an emphatic non. esse, pres. 

inf. act. of the intrans. verb sum , esse,fui , fut. participle futurus; esse is a verb of 

complete predication here, and agrees with its subject-acc. nihil. reliqui, gen. 

sing. n. of the adj. reliquus , -a, - um , used as a noun, and in the partitive gen. con- 
struction after nihil ; the phrase nihil reliqui = lit. nothing of remainder. For the 
partitive construction, consult A. & G. 216, 3, and rem. ; B. 134; G. 369, rem. 2; 
H. 397, 1. Oratio recta , lines 19 and 20: nobis praeter agrl solum nihil est reliqui. 

Quibus, acc. plur. f. of the rel. pron. qui , quae , quod , used here adjectively as 

an attributive of rebus. At the beginning of a sentence the rel. is rendered in the 
best manner by a dem. with a connective. Consult A. & G. 180,/; B. 129, rem. 9; 

G. 610 ; H. 453. rebus, abl. plur. of res , ret, f. (stem re, but vowel shortened in 

the gen. and dat. sing.) ; abl. of cause after the perf. pass, participle adductus. See 
A. & G. 245, and 2, b\ B. 165, and rem. 4; G. 408, and note 2; H. 416, and note i. 

Line 21. adductus, nom. sing. m. of the perf. pass, participle of the act. verb 
adduco, -ere, - duxi , - ductum , 3 (ad -f ducere) ; as a participle it agrees with the noun 

Caesar. Caesar, nom. of Caesar, - aris , m. ; subj. of statuit. non, negative 

adv. ; it modifies exspectandum (esse). exspectandum (esse), pres. inf. of the 

2d periphrastic conjugation of exspecto, - dre , -dvi, -dtum (ex + spectare = lit. to look 
out for); exspectandum (esse) is here used impersonally. See A. & G. 330, c; B. 185; 

G. 427, note 4 ; H. 234. sibi, dat. sing, of the reflexive pron. sui, sibi, se, se; 

it refers to Caesar, but is dat. of the agent after the gerundive. Consult A. & G. 
232; B. 148; G. 355; H. 388. 

Line 22. statuit, 3d pers. sing. perf. ind. act. of statud, -ere, -ut, - utum , 3 (derived 

from status and this from stdre); hence statuere — lit. to cause to stand. dum, 

conj. ; here = until. omnibus, abl. plur. f. of the adj. omnis, -e ; it is an attrib- 
utive of fortunis. fortunls, abl. plur. of fortuna , -ae, f. (compare fors, chance, 

from fero); abl. absolute with the participle cdnsumptts. sociorum, gen. plur. of 

socius , -i, m. ; poss. gen. limiting fortunis. 

Line 23. consumptis, perf. pass, participle consiimptus , -a, -um of the verb con- 
sumo, -ere, -sumpst, - sumptum , 3 (con + siimere) ; hence = lit. to take together, 
consumptis is in the abl. absolute with fortunis. See A. & G. 255 ; B. 192; G. 409; 

H. 431. in, prep, with the acc. or abl.; here it takes the acc. Santonos, 

acc. plur. of Santoni , -drum , m. (sometimes Santones , -um); Santonos is the obj. of 


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76 


caesar’s gallic war 


[CHAP. XIL 


XII. There is 
a river, Arar 
(Saone), which 
flows through 
the territories of 
the Aedui and 
the Sequani with 
such wonderful 
smoothness, that 
it cannot be de- 
termined by the 
eye in which di- 


XII. 


Flumen 

A river 


est Arar, quod per i 

is the Arar , which through 


fines Aeduorum et Sequanorum in 2 

the boundaries of the Aedui and the Sequani into 

Rhodanum Influit, incredibill lenitate, ita 3 
the Rhone inflows , of incredible smoothness , so 

ut oculis, in utram partem fluat, 4 

that with the eyes, in what direction it flows, 


the prep. in. For historic description, see note on Santonum , 1 . 3, Chap. X. 

Helvetil, nom. plur. m. of the adj. Helvetius , -a, - um , used substantively ; subj. of 

perz>enlrent . pervenlrent, 3d pers. plur. imperf. subjunctive act. of pervenio, - lre f 

-vent, - ventum , 4; subjunctive after dum, implying futurity. Consult A. & G. 328; 
B. 229, (2); G. 572 ; H. 519, II, 2. 

Line i. Flumen, predicate-nom. after est of flumen , - inis , n. est, 3d pers. 

sing, of the intrans. verb sum , esse,ful, fut. participle futurus; often a copula, as 

here. Arar, nom. sing, of Arar , -arts , m. ; subj. of est ; acc., usually, in Am, and 

abl. in -L See A. & G. 56, a, 1 , and 57, a, 1 ; B. 33, rem. 2 ; G. 57, REM. 2 ; H. 62, III, 1 . The 

river Arar is the modern Saone (English pron. Sone). quod, nom. sing. n. of the 

rel. pron. qul, quae , quod; it refers to the predicate-nom. flumen, and agrees with it 
in gender; in such construction, with nouns of different genders, the rel. may agree 

with either. For voucher, compare flumine Rhodano, qul , 1 . 16, Chap. II. per, 

prep, with the acc. 

Line 2. fines, acc. plur. of the noun finis , - is , m.; it is the obj. of the prep .per. 

For synonyms, see note on agrum, 1 . 12, Chap. II. Aeduorum, gen. plur. of 

Aedui, - drum , m. ; it limits fines . For further particulars, see note on Aedud, 1 . 20, 

Chap. III. Sequanorum, gen. plur. of Sequani, -drum, m. ; connected by the 

conj. et with Aedudrum , and in the same grammatical construction. For description 

of the clan, see note on Sequanls , 1 . 25, Chap. I. in, prep, with the acc. after 

Influit, a verb of motion. 

Line 3. Rhodanum, acc. sing, of Rhodanus,-l, m. ; obj. of the prep. in. Note 
the repetition of the prep, in with the acc. •after Influit, instead of the dat. construc- 
tion, and see A. & G. 228, c; B. 143, rem. i ; G. 347, rem. i ; II. 386, 3. influit, 

3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. of Influd , -ere, -fluxl,fluxum, 3; it agrees with its sub- 

ject-nom. quod. incredibill, abl. sing. f. of the adj. incredibilis, -e (in, negative -f- 

credibilis = lit. unworthy of belief ); incredibill is an attributive of lenitdte . 

lenitate, abl. sing, of lenitds, -dtis, f. ; abl. of manner. Consult A. & G. 248; B. 168; 
G. 399; H. 419, III. ita, adv., correlate of the conj. ut. 

Line 4. ut, ecbatic conj. oculis, abl. plur. of oculus, -l, m. ; abl. of means. 

See A. & G. 248, c; B. 167 ; G. 401 ; H. 420. in, prep, with the acc. or abl. ; here 

it takes the acc. with a verb of motion. utram, acc. sing. f. of the pron. uter , 

-tra, -trum, gen. utrlus = lit. which (of two) ; utram is an attributive of partem. For 

declension, see A. & G. 83; B. 56; G. 76; H. 151, and 1. partem, acc. sing, of 

the noun pars, partis, f. ; it is the obj. of the prep. in. For grammatical references, 

see note on in, 1 . 1, end, Chap. I. fluat, 3d pers. sing. pres, subjunctive act. of 

fluo, -ere, fltixl, fluxum, 3 ; subjunctive, because it is an indirect question . Consult 
A. & G 334 ; B. 242 ; G. 467 ; H. 529, I. 


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LIMES 6-8.] 


BOOK I. 


77 


6iiidicarf non possit. Id llelvetii ratibus 

to be judged is not able. This the llelvetii by rafts 

e ac lintribus iunctis transibant. Ubi 

and boats joined together were crossing. When 

t per exploratores Caesar certior factus est, 

through scouts Caesar more certain was made, 

8 tres iam partes copiarum Helvetios 

three already parts of forces the llelvetii 


rection it flows; 
at length it emp- 
ties into the 
Rhone. The Hel- 
vetii were cross- 
ing this stream on 
rafts and canoes 
joined. When 
Caesar was in- 
formed by scouts 
that the llelvetii 
had already led 


Line 5. iudicari, pres. inf. pass, of iiidicd , -are, -avi, -a turn, 1 ; pass, parts : 
iudicor, -cdri, -cdtus, 1 ; complementary inf., depending on possit. See A. & G. 271, 

and note; B. 181 ; G. 423; H. 533, I, 2. non, adv. (ne -f unum); observe its 

position : immediately before the word it modifies. possit, 3d pers. sing. pres. 

subjunctive of possum, posse, potui (potis -f- sum) ; subjunctive of result after ut, 
referring to the adv. ita. A. & G. 319, and rem. ; B. 201, and rem. i, (a)\ G. 552; 
H. 500, II. Observe that possit is used here impersonally ; but, strictly, the indirect 

question in iitram partem Jluat, as a noun-clause, is the subj. of possit. Id, acc. 

sing. n. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id, used substantively; it refers to fumen, and is 
the direct obj. of transibant; or id may be taken as an attributive of fumen under- 
stood, which latter would be the direct obj. Observe how emphatic id becomes by 

being placed at the beginning of the sentence. Helvetil, nom. plur. m. of the adj. 

Helvetius, -a, -um, used substantively; and is the subject-nom. of transibant. For 

description of the clan, see note on Helvetii, 1. 16, Chap. I. ratibus, abl. plur. of 

ratis , -is, f. ; abl. absolute with the participle iunctis, denoting means. A. & G. 255; 
B. 192; G. 409; H. 431. 

Line 6. ac, cop. conj. here; see note on atque, 1. 10, Chap. I. lintribus, 

abl. plur. of linter, - tris , f. ; connected by the conj. ac with ratibus, and in the same 

grammatical construction. iunctis, abl. plur. f. of the perf. pass, participle 

iunctus, -a, -um of the verb iungo, -ere, iiinxi , iunctum, 3 ; abl. absolute with ratibus 

dc lintribus . transibant, 3d pers. plur. imperf. ind. act. of transeo, -ire, -ivi (-//), 

-itum (trans + ire) ; it agrees with its subject-nom. llelvetii. Observe the force of 

the imperf. tense — continued action. Ubi, locative adv. (quo, old dat. of qui + bi) 

= where , but more frequent transf., of time = when. 

Line 7. per, prep, with the acc. exploratores, acc. plur. of expldrdtor , 

-oris, m. ; acc. after per, denoting the agent as means. Consult A. & G. 246, 

B. 166, REM. I ; G. 401 ; H. 415, I, 1, NOTE l. An expldrdtor (explorare, to recon- 
noitre) = a scout, a cavalryman sent to get information concerning the enemy ; 

whereas speculator (specula ri, to spy) = etymologically at least, a spy. Caesar, 

-aris, m., subject-nom. of factus est. certior, comparative adj. of positive certus, 

formed by metathesis from crctus , perf. pass, participle of cerno, -ere, crevi, -ere turn, 3; 
certior is predicate-adj. after the pass, factus est. See A. & G. 176, a ; B. 128; G. 205, 

206; H. 362, 2, 2), 438, 2. factus est, 3d pers. sing. perf. ind. pass, of fio, fieri , 

factus, 3 ; used as pass, of facio, -ere, feci, factum , 3. 

Line 8. tres, -ia, num. adj., acc. plur. f. ; it is an attributive of partes ; compare 

note on tres, 1. 2, Chap. I. iam, adv. ; it modifies trdduxisse. Observe that iam 

= now in reference to the past, pres, or future ; while nunc puts emphasis on 
the pres. — partes, acc. plur. of pars, partis , f. ; direct obj. of trdduxisse . 


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78 


CAESAR S GALLIC WAR 


[CHAP. Xlt. 


three quarters of 
their forces across 
this stream, but 
that nearly one 
quarter of them 
remained on this 
side,hewentforth 
out of his camp, 
during the third 
watch, with three 
legions, and over- 
took that divi- 


i(l flumen traduxisse, quartam fere partem 9 

across that river to have led , the fourth nearly part 

citra flumen Ararim reliquam esse, de 10 

on this side the river Arar left to be, from 

tertia vigilia cum legidnibus tribus e 11 

the third watch with legions three from 

castris profectus ad earn partem pervenit, 12 

the camp setting out to that part he came , 


cSpiarum, gen. plur. of copia , -ae , f. ; as a gen. it limits partis. Note that copia , in 

sing. = plenty ; in the plural, resources , troops. Helvetios, acc. plur. of Helve tit, 

^ drum , m. ; subject-acc. of trdduxisse. 

Line 9. id, acc. sing. n. of the dem. pron. is, ea , id; it is an attributive of 

flumen. flumen, acc. sing, of flumen , •inis, n. ; acc. depending on the prep, trdns 

in composition. Consult A. & G. 239, 2, b\ B. 152, REM. 2 ; G. 331, REM. 1 ; H. 376. 

traduxisse, perf. inf. act. of trdduco , -ere, -iluxt, -due turn, 3 (trans, across + 

ducere, to lead); its subject-acc. is Helvetios. quartam, acc. sing. f. of the ordinal 

adj. quartus , -a -urn ; it is an attributive of partem . fere, adv. ; it modifies the 

ordinal adj. quartam. partem, acc. sing, of pars , partis , f. ; subject-acc. of esse. 

Line 10. citra, adv., and prep, with the acc. = this side , i.e. toward Italy. 

flumen, acc. sing, of flumen, - inis , n. ; obj. of the prep, citrd. Ararim, acc. sing. 

of noun Arar, -aris , m. ; in apposition with flumen . As to the accusafive-ending -ini, 

see A. & G. 56, a and b ; B. 33, rem. 2 and 3; G. 57, REM. i; I£. 62, III, 1. 

reliquam, acc. sing, of the adj. reliquus, -a, -um ; predicate-acc. after esse. esse, 

pres. inf. of the intrans. verb sum, esse, ful, futurus. Observe that reliquus in the 

predicate after esse has the force of a participle ; here reliquam = relictam. 

da, prep, with the abl. ; de followed by tertid vigilid = in the course of ; see lexicon 
under de. This phrase appears to have the same meaning as tertid vigilid , — time 
within which, — which Caesar himself uses in Chap. XXXIII, Book II. 

Line ii. tertia, abl. sing. f. of the ordinal adj. tertius, -a,-um; it is an attrib- 
utive of vigilid. vigilia, abl. sing, of vigilia, -ae , f. ; it is the obj. of the prep. de. 

The night by the Romans was divided into four watches ; the third watch began at 

midnight. cum, prep, with the abl. legidnibus. legidnibus, abl. plur. of 

legio, -onis, i. (legere, to choose) ; hence legio = lit. a chosen number ; legidnibus is abl. 
of accompaniment with the prep. cum. For description of the Roman legion, see 

any good encyclopedia under Legion. tribus, abl. sing. f. of the num. adj. ires, 

tria. See note on tres, 1 . 2, Chap. I. tribus is an attributive of legidnibus. 

e, prep, with the abl. (e before consonants, ex before either vowels or consonants). 

Line 12. castris, abl. plur. of castrum,-i , n. ; it is the obj. of the prep. e. Ob- 
serve that castrum, sing. = a fort ; in the plur. castra =a camp ; i.e. the plur. denotes 
that several soldiers* huts or tents were located near each other. Among the Romans 
the camp was generally square ; sometimes, in imitation of the Greeks, circular ; it 
was surrounded by a ditch and rampart or wall ; it had front, back, and side gates. 

profectus, perf. participle of the deponent verb proficiscor, -ci, -fectus, 3 ; it 

agrees with a pron. understood, referring to Caesar, 1 . 7, above, which pron. is sub- 

ject-nom. of pervenit. ad, prep, with the acc. after a verb of motion. earn, 

acc. sing. f. of the dem. pron is, ea, id; it is the attributive of partem . partem, 


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LINES 13 — 16 .] 


BOOK I. 


79 


13 quae 

nondum 

flumen 

transierat. 

Eos 

which 

not yet 

the river 

had crossed. 

Them 

14 impeditos et inopinantes 

aggressus 

magnam 

impeded 

and 

unaware s 

he assailing 

a great , 

is eorum 

partem 

concidit ; 

reliqui 

sese 

of them , 

part 

cut to pieces 

; the rest 

themselves 

16 fugae 

mandarunt 

atque 

in proximas 

silvas 

to flight 

committed 

and 

in the nearest 

woods 


sion that had not 
yet crossed the 
river. Attacking 
these forces en- 
cumbered with 
baggage, and off 
their guard, he 
slaughtered a 
great part of 
them ; the rest 
fled, and hid 
in the nearest 


acc. sing, of pars , partis, f . ; it is the obj. of the prep. ad. • pervenit, 3d pers. 

sing, of peruenid , -ire, -vent, - veniiim , 4 ; it agrees with a subj. implied in the ending, 
referring to Caesar. 

Line 13. quae, nom. sing. f. of the rel. pron. qui, quae , quod ; it refers to partem 

as its antecedent, but is the subject-nom. of trdnsierat. nondum, adv. (non + 

dum); it modifies trdnsierat. flumen, acc. sing, of the noun fumen, -inis, n. ; 

direct obj. of trdnsierat. transierat, 3d pers. sing, pluperf. ind. act., for trdn- 

siverat; observe that v is syncopated without contraction. The reader will note that 
the reference is to that part of the enemy’s forces still on the east side of the Saone. 

Eos, acc. plur. m. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id , used as a personal pron. of the 

3d pers. ; acc. of the direct obj. after the deponent participle aggressus . 

Line 14. impeditos, acc. plur. m. of the perf. pass, participle impeditus, - a , - um 
of imped id, -ire, -ivi (-it), -it urn, 4 (in -f- pes, the foot in it); hence impedire = to 
entangle the feet. inopinantes, acc. plur. m. of the adj. inopindns, -antis ; con- 

nected by the conj. et with impeditds , and in the same grammatical construction. 
These modifiers of eos indicate that Caesar attacked them while impeded by their 

packs, or by the river, and also while off their guard. aggressus, perf. participle 

of the deponent verb ag{d)gredior, aggredi, aggressus (ad + gradi) ; aggressus , as a 

participle, agrees with is or ille , the omitted subject-nom. of concidit. magnam, 

acc. sing. f. of the adj. mdgnus , -a, - um , positive mdior, superl. mdximus ; mdgnam is 
an attributive of partem. 

Line 15. eorum, gen. plur. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id, used as a personal pron. 
of the 3d pers. ; as a gen. it limits parte?n. Observe the natural Latin order of the 
words, when the limited noun has an adj. with it: adj., gen., noun; observe also that 

some copies read here : mdgnam partem eorum. concidit, 3d pers. sing. perf. 

ind. act. of concido , -ere, concidi, concisum , 3 (con -f- caedere, to cut); it agrees with a 
subj. implied in the ending, referring to Caesar. This verb should be carefully dis- 
criminated from concido, -ere, -cidi, 3 (con + cadere, to fall). reliqui, nom. plur. 

m. of the adj. reliquus, -a, -um, used substantively; subj. of manddrunt and abdide- 
runt. Synonyms : ceten, , sometimes written caetert, nom. pi. of the adj. ceterus, -a, 
-i um (in Caesar only used in the plur.) = others, in opposition to those first men- 
tioned; compare gk. ol &W01; but alii mothers as merely differential from those 

mentioned ; and reliqui = the rest, the remainder that completes the whole. 

sese, acc. plur. of the reflexive pron. sui, sibi, se , se, reduplicated form ; direct obj. of 
manddrunt. 

Line 16. fugae, dat. of the noun fuga, -ae, f. ; indirect obj. mandarunt, 

3d pers. plur. perf. ind. act. of mando, 1 (manus + dare = to commit to one's hands) ; 
for manddzerunt; it agrees with its subject-nom. reliqui. As to syncopation and 


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80 


CAESAR S GALLIC WAR 


[CHAP. XII. 


woods. This can- 
ton was called 
Tigurinus ; for 
the entire Hel- 
vetian state is 
divided into four 
cantons. This sin- 
gle canton hav- 
ing left home, in 
the recollection 
of our fathers, (to 
engage in pred- 


abdiderunt. Is pagus appellabatur Tigurinus ; n 

hid. This district was called Tigurinus; 

nam omnis civitiis Helvetia in quattuor w 

for every state Helvetian into four 

pagos divisa est. Hie pagus unus, cum 19 

districts was divided. This district alone, when 


dome exisset patrum nostrorum 20 

\from home it had gone forth in fathers' our 


contraction, see A. & G. 128, a ; B. 251 ; G. 131, 1 ; H. 235. atque (ad + que), 

conj., usually adds a more important notion; see note on this particle, 1 . 10, Chap. I. 

in, prep, with either the acc. or abl. ; here it takes the acc. ; with this case it 

usually = to or into ; but by a difference of idiom after abdidere it = in the English 
idiom simply in with the acc.; that is, the construction after abdidere is as if it were 

a verb of motion. proximas, acc. plur. of the superl. degree proximus , -a, -um ; 

comparative propior ; positive wanting; proximds modifies silvds. silvas, acc. 

plur. of silva, -ae (sibilated from GK. vkij ) ; obj. of the prep. in. 

Line 17. abdiderunt, 3d pers. plur. perf. ind. act. of abdd , -ere, - didi , -ditum , 3 
(ab -f- dare) = lit. to give away, abdiderunt is connected by the conj. atque with 

manddrunt, and in the same grammatical construction. Is, nom. sing. m. of the 

dem. pron. is, ea , id; it is an attributive of pagus. pagus, -I, m. ; subject-nom. 

of ap{d)pelldbdtur. Observe (1) that is pagus refers to the fourth part mentioned in 

I. 9, above ; (2) that pdgus here = a division of the civitds. ap(d)pellabatur, 

3d pers. sing, imperf. ind. pass, of appelld, -dre, -dvi, - dtum , 1. Tigurinus, -I, m.; 

predicate-noun after the pass. verb. Tigurinus was, probably, the district round 
about the modem Zurich in Switzerland. 

Line 18. nam, conj., introduces an objective reason; etiint, a subjective. — 

omnis, nom. sing. f. of the adj. omnis, - e ; it is an attributive of civitds . cfvitas, 

-atis, f. {elves), subject-nom. of divisa est. Helvetia, nom. sing. f. of the adj. 

Helvetius, -a, -um ; it, too, is an attributive of civitds. in, prep, with the acc. or 

abl. ; here it takes the acc. quattuor, indecl. num. adj. ; here, of course, in the 

acc. plur., modifying pdgos. 

Line 19. pagos, acc. plur. of pdgus, -/, m. ; obj. of the prep. in. divisa est, 

3d pers. sing. perf. ind. pass, of dividd , -ere, divisi, divisum, 3 ; or divisa may. be 

taken as a predi cate-ad j. after est. See note on divisa est , 1 . 1, Chap. I. HIc, 

nom. sing. m. of the dem. pron. ; it is an attributive of pdgus ; hie indicates that the 
obj. is near in space: the hie pagus explains the is pdgus of 1. 17, above, conceived 
to be near; whereas the is pdgus designates the object quartam partem, 1. 9, above, 

conceived to be remote. pagus, -1, m.; subject-nom. of interfecerat, 1. 21, below. 

unus, num. adj., gen. iinius , dat. uni; an attributive of pdgus; it her e — alone, 

peculiar. Observe that pdgus here is put by metonymy for the people of the canton. 

cum, conj., temporal ; known to be such, because it is seen, at a glance, to 

introduce a clause subordinate to the main proposition. 

Line 20. domo, abl. sing, of domus, -us, or -i locative; abl. denoting whence the 
motion proceeds after exisset. Consult A. & G. 258, 2, a; B. 175; G. 390, 2; H. 412, 

II, 1. exisset, 3d pers. sing, pluperf. subjunctive act. of exed, -ire, - ivi (-ii), -itum, 

for the syncopated and contracted form exivisset; as to the form, see A. & G. 128, 


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LINES 21-24.] 


BOOK L 


81 


21 memoria, L. Cassium consulein interfecerat 

memory , Lucius Cassitis , the consul , had slain 

22 et eius exercitum sub iugum miserat. 

and his army under the yoke had sent . 

23 Ita slve casu slve consilio deorum 

So , whether by chance or by design of the gods 

24 immortalium, quae pars clvitatis Helvetiae 

immortal , wftaf part of the state Helvetian 


a, 2; B. 251 ; G. 131, 1 ; H. 235, 1 ; as to the subjunctive mode after cum temporal, 

see A. & G. 325 ; B. 222 ; G. 585 ; H. 521, II, 2. patrum, gen. plur. of the noun 

pater, patris , m. ; as a gen. it limits memoria . nostrdrum, gen. plur. of the poss. 

pron. noster, -t ra, - trum ; it is an attributive of patrum. 

Line 21. memoria, abl. sing, of memoria , -ae, f.; abl. of time when. See A. & G. 

256, 1 ; B. 17 1 ; G. 393; H. 429. L., an abbreviation for the acc. sing, of Lucius , 

-i, m., a Roman praenomen. Cassium, acc. sing, of Cassius , m. ; the nomen, 

the name of the gens; Cassium is here an appositive. The allusion is to Lucius 

Cassius Longinus, consul 107 B.C.; he was slain by the Tigurini. cdnsulem, acc. 

sing, of consul , -ulis, m. ; direct obj. of interfecerat. interfecerat, 3d pers. sing. 

pluperf. ind. of interficio , -ere, -feci, -fectum, 3 (inter -f facere) = lit. to put between , to 
make away with ; hence to destroy, interfecerat agrees with its subj . pdgus. 

Line 22. et, cop. conj. ; connects interfecerat with miserat. eius, gen. sing. 

m. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id, used as a personal pron. of the 3d pers. ; it refers to 

Cassium, but, as a gen., limits exercitum. exercitum, acc. sing, of exercitus , 

-us, m. ; direct obj. of miserat. For synonyms, see note on exercitu, 1. 31, Chap. III. 

sub, prep, with the acc. or abl. ; here it takes the acc. sub when followed by 

the acc. denotes motion to, when followed by the abl. it denotes rest in, a place. 

iugum, acc. sing, of iugum, -i, n. ; it is the obj. of the prep. sub. miserat, 

3d pers. sing, pluperf. ind. act. of mitto, -ere, -mist, - missum , 3 ; connected by et with 
interfecerat, and in the same grammatical construction. 

Line 23. Ita, adv. (radical i, whence is + ta). slve (si -f- ve), conj.; sive 

. . . sive = whether ... or. casu, abl. sing, of cdsus, -us, m. (cadere, to fall) ; 

abl. of cause. Consult A. & G. 245; B. 165; G. 408; H. 416. consilio, abl. 

sing, of consilium , -i, n. ; connected by sive with cdsu, and in the same grammatical 

construction. deorum, gen. plur. of detts, -i, m. ; as a gen. it limits consilio. For 

declension of deus , which is irr. in the plur., see A. & G. 40 ,/; B. 24, rem. 3; G. 33, 
rem. 6; H. 51, 6. 

Line 24. immortalium, gen. plur. m. of the adj. immortdlis, -le (in, negative -\- 

mortalis). quae, nom. sing. f. of the rel. pron. qui, quae, quod, used here adjec- 

tively, agreeing with the noun pars , which is logically its antecedent. pars, 

nom. sing, of pars, partis, i . ; subj. of intulerat. Observe carefully that the relative 
clause precedes the antecedent clause; that in such constructions the antecedent 
noun appears in the relative clause, a species of attraction, quae pars . . . ea = 
ea pars . . . quae. Consult A. & G. 200, b, note, example 2; B. 129, rem. i, (a); 

G. 620; H. 445, 9. ciyitatis, gen. sing, of civitds, -dtis, f. (di es) ; as a gen. it 

limits pars. Helvetiae, gen. sing. f. of the adj. Helvetius, -a, -um; it is an 

attributive of civitdtis • 


atory war,) had 
ambushed Luci- 
us Cassius, the 
consul; he was 
slain, and his 
army was sent 
under the yoke. 
Thus, whether by 
chance or by the 
purposeof the im- 
mortal gods, that 
part of the Helve- 


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82 


caesar’s gallic war 


[CHAP. XII. 


tian state, which 
had brought sig- 
nal calamity on 
the Roman peo- 
ple, was the first 
to suffer punish- 
ment. In this 
affair, Caesar not 
only avenged the 
wrongs of the 
state, but even 
his own private 


Inslgnem calainitatem popul5 

a remarkable calamity upon the people 

intulerat, ea princeps poenas 

had brought , that (part) the firsts punishment 

Qua in re Caesar non 

Which in, affair Caesar not 

publicas, sed etiam prlvatas 

public , but also private 


Romans 25 
Roman 

persolvit. 26 
suffered. 

solum 27 
only 

iniurias 28 
wrongs 


Line 25. inslgnem, acc. sing. f. of the adj. tnstgnis, - e (in + signum, compare 
gk. die ib v) ; hence insignis = lit. inmarked, distinguished by a mark, tnstgnem mod- 
ifies calamitdtem . calamitatem, acc. sing, of the noun calamitds , -dtis, f.; direct 

obj. of intulerat. populo, dat. sing, of populus, -t, m. ; indirect obj. of intulerat. 

The rigidly exact statement is : calamitdtem is the direct obj. of tulerat , the latter 

part of the compound, and populo is the dat. after in, the former part of it. 

Rdmln 5 , dat. sing. m. of the adj. Romanus, -a, -urn ; Romano is an attributive of 
populo. For synonyms of populus, see note on populum , 1 . 17, Chap. VI. 

Line 26. intulerat, 3d pers. sing, pluperf. ind. act. of tnfero, -ferre , intuit , 

il(n)ldtum; it agrees with its subject-nom. pars. ea, nom. sing. f. of the dem. 

pron. is, ea, id; ea is an attributive of pars , to be supplied ; which pars is subject- 

nom. of persolvit. princeps, adj. (primus -f- capere, to take the first place); here 

the adj. = the adv. prinum. For the adverbial use of the adj., see A. & G. 191 ; 
B. 117. 6; G. 325, rkm. 6; H. 443. princeps, however, might be taken here as a 

subst. and an appositive, and =as m the first one. poenas, acc. plur. of poena, -ae, f. 

(gk. ttoiv/j) =z juit- noney, fine), poenas is the direct obj. of persolvit. persolvit, 

3d pers. sing. perf. ind. act. of persolvd, -ere, - solvi ', - solutum , 3 (per 4- solvere); hence 
persolvere = lit. to discharge completely. Among the ancients, punishment was a fine 
or penalty to be paid, and not suffering to be inflicted except as an incident of the 
difficulty of raising the wherewith to pay the fine. 

Line 27. Qua, abl. sing. f. of the rel. pron. qut, quae, quod ; used here adjec- 
tively, agreeing with re. As to the use and translation of the relative, at the begin- 
ning of a sentence, see A. & G. 180,/; B. 129, rem. 9; G. 610; H. 453. in, 

prep, with the acc. or abl. ; here it takes the abl. Note the position of the prep, in : 
between a modifier and a noun; modified monosyllabic prepositions are frequently 

thus placed. re, abl. sing, of the noun res, ret, f. ; it is the obj. of the prep. in. 

Cas3ir, -aris, m. ; subject-nom. of ultus est. non, adv., modifies the adv. solum . 

solum, adv. (solus, only) ; it modifies the adj. publieds. Observe that in the 

adv. the penult is long ; while in the noun solum, soil, the penult is short. 

Line 28. publicas, acc. plur. of the adj. publicus, - a , - um (contraction for popu- 
lous from popultis). publieds modifies inurids. sed, conj., adversative; stronger 

than autem. etiam, adv. (et + iam). Observe that the phrases non solum . . . 

sed etiam are the equivalents of two copulatives; but when thus used, prominence is 
given to the second word or clause ; that non modo or non tantum sometimes take 
the place of non solum ; and verum etiam sometimes take the place of sed etiam, with 

no particular difference of meaning. privatas, acc. plur. f. of the adj. prtvdtus, 

1 a , -um (really a participial adj. of prtvo, - are % - dvi % -a turn, 1); prtvdtds is an attrib- 


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LINES 29 - 32 .] 


BOOK I. 


83 


29 ultus est ; quod eius soceri 

avenged; because his father-in-law (was) 

30 L. Pis 5 nis avum, L. Plsonem legatum, 

Lucius Piso , (whose) grandfather Lucius Piso , the lieutenant , 

31 Tigurinl eodem proelio quo Cassium 

the Tigurini in the same battle as Cassius 

32 interfecerant. 

had slain . 


wrongs; because 
the Tigurini, in 
the same battle 
in which they 
had slain Cas- 
sius, had also 
slain his lieuten- 
ant Lucius Piso, 
grandfather of 
Lucius Piso, 
Caesar’s father- 
in-law. 


1 XIII. 


Hoc proelio 

This battle 


facto, 

being done , 


reliquas 

the remaining 


XIII. When 
this battle was 
ended, Caesar 


utive of iniurias. iniurias, acc. plur. of itiiiiria , -ae, f. (iniurius, in -f- ius) ; 

direct obj. of ultus est. 

Line 29. ultus est, 3d pers. sing. perf. ind. of the deponent ulclscor , ultu s, 3; 

it agrees with its subject-nom. Caesar. quod, conj. = because. eius, gen. 

sing. m. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id, used as a personal pron. of the 3d pers. ; it is an 

attributive of soceri, but refers’ to Caesar. soceri, gen. sing, of socer , soceri , m. ; 

as a gen. it limits avum. 

Line 30. L., an abbreviation of I.iicii, gen. sing, of Lucius, -i, m., the prae- 

nomen of Pisonis. Pisdnis, gen. sing, of Piso, -dais, m. Pisonis is in apposition 

with soceri. The allusion is to Lucius Calpurnius Piso, whose daughter Calpurnia 
Caesar married in 59 b.c. Calpurnia was the great-granddaughter of the defeated 

lieutenant. avum, acc. sing, of avus , -/, m. ; direct obj. of interfecerant. 

L., abbreviation for Lucium , praenomen. Pisdnem, acc. sing, of Piso, - onis , m. ; 

appositive of avum. legatum, acc. sing, of legdtus, -i, m. (lege re, to delegate); in 

apposition with L. Pisdnem. 

Line 31. Tigurini, nom. plur. of Tigttrinus,-i ', m. ; subj. of interfecerant. See 

note on Tigurinus , 1 . 17, above. eddem, abl. sing. n. of dem. pron. idem, eadem, 

idem ; it is an attributive of proelio. proelio, abl. sing. n. of proelium, -i, n. ; 

locative abl. viewed as means. A. & G. 258,/, 1 ; B. 170, REM. 4; G. 389; II. 425, 

ll, 1, 1). quo, abl. sing. n. of the rel. pron. qui, quae, quod ; it refers to proelio 

as its antecedent, and agrees with proelid understood, which latter is to be conceived 
to be in the locative abl. like the abl. proelid expressed in the text. Cassium, 

acc. sing* of Cassius, -i, m. ; direct obj. of interfecerant , to be supplied. For historical 
explanation, see note on L. Cassium, 1 . 21, above. 

Line 32. interfecerant, 3d pers. plur. pluperf. ind.' act. of the verb interficid, 
-ere, feci, -fee turn , 3 (inter + facere); it agrees with its subject-nom. Tigurini. 

Line i. H5c, abl. sing. n. of the dem. pron. hie, haec, hoc ; it is an attributive 

of proelid. proelio, abl. sing, of the noun proelium, -i, n. (pro + Ire, i.e. to go 

forth or advance in a hostile manner); proelid is abl. absolute with the perf. pass, 
participle faetd, denoting time when. See A. & G. 255; B. 192; G. 409; H. 431. 

faetd, abl. sing. n. of the perf. pass, participle f actus, -a, -urn of fid, fieri, 

f actus, used as the pass, of facio, -ere, feci, factum, 3; abl. absolute with the noun 
proelid. reliquas, acc. plur. f. of the adj. reliquus, -a, -um ; it modifies copids. 


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84 


[CHAP. XIII. 


Caesar’s gallic war 


had a bridge built 
over the Arar, 
and thus he led 
his army across, 
in order that he 
might overtake 
the rest of the 
Helvetian forces. 
The Helve tii 
were alarmed at 
his sudden ap- 
proach, and when 


copias Helvetidrum ut c5nsequl posset, 2 

forces of the Helvetii that to overtake he might he able , 

pontem in Aran faciendum curat atque 3 

a bridge on the Arar to be made he cares for and 

ita exercitum traducit. Helvetii repentino 4 
so the army he leads across. The Helvetii at the sudden 

eius adventu commoti, cum id, quod 5 

of him coming agitated , when that, which 


Synonyms: reliqui = the rest ', the remainder that completes the whole; whereas ceteri 
(caeteri) =the others in opposition to those first mentioned; compare GK. dXXot; and 
alii — others as merely differentiated from those mentioned. 

Line 2. copias, acc. plur. of cdpia , -ae, f.; direct obj. of consequi. Observe that 

cdpia in the sing. = plenty ; in the plur., resources , troops. Helvetidrum, gen. 

plur. of Helvetii , - drum , m. ; it limits copids. ut, telic conj.; it generally stands 

at the head of its clause ; its normal position in this case is immediately before 
reliquds ; observe how the group of words immediately preceding it are made 

emphatic by its abnormal position. cdnsequi, pres. inf. of the deponent verb 

consequor , - sequi ', sccutus (con, intensive + sequl ; compare the GK. £ire<r 0 eu) ; consequt 

is a complementary inf. See A. & G. 271 ; B. 181 ; G. 423; H. 533, I, 2. posset, 

3d pers. sing, imperf. subjunctive of possum , posse , potui (potis + sum); subjunctive 
of purpose after ut. Consult A. & G. 317, 1 ; B. 200, (£) ; G. 545, 1 ; H. 497, II. 

Line 3. pontem, acc. sing, of the noun pons, pontis, m.; acc. with the gerundive 

denoting purpose. in, prep, with the acc. or abl. ; here it takes the abl. 

Aran, abl. sing, of the noun Arar, -aris , m. (the Saone); it has the acc. -im or -em, 
abl. -/ or - e ; Arart is the obj. of the prep, in, which here — on. The bridge built on 

the Arar was, probably, a pontoon bridge. faciendum, acc. of the gerundive 

faciendus , -a, -urn of fid, fieri , f actus, 3 ; the gerundive with the obj. is used to 
denote purpose. See A. & G. 294, d\ B. 184, rem. 4, III, (a); G. 430; H. 544, note 2. 

curat, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. of curd, - dre , -dvo, - atum , 1 ; it agrees with its 

subj. implied in the ending, referring to Caesar. atque, conj.; it adds, usually, 

a more important notion ; see note on this particle, 1 . 10, Chap. I. 

Line 4. ita, adv. (radical i, whence is + ta) ; hence = in this manner, thus. 

exercitum, acc. sing, of exercitus, -us, m.; direct obj. of trddiicit. For synonyms, see 

note on exercitu, 1 . 31, Chap. III. traducit, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. of trd- 

ducd , -ere, -duxi, -due turn, 3 (trans + ducere) ; it is connected by atque with curat, and 

is in the same grammatical construction. Helvetii, nom. plur. of Helvetii, -drum, 

m. ; subj. of mittunt, 1. 9, below. repentind, abl. sing. m. of the adj. repenfinus , 

-a, -um ; it modifies adventu. 

Line 5. eius, gen. sing, of the dem. pron. is, ea, id, used as a personal pron. of 

the 3d pers. ; as a gen. it limits adventu. adventu, abl. sing, of the noun adven- 

tus, -us, m. ; abl. of cause after commdti. * See A. & G. 245, and 2, b; B. 165, and 

rem. 4; G. 408, and note 2 ; H. 416, and note i. commoti, nom. plur. of the 

perf. pass, participle commdtus, -a, -um of the verb commoneo, -ere, -movi, -motum, 2 ; 
it agrees with Helvetii. cum, conj., temporal. id, acc. sing. n. of the dem. 


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LINES 6-0.] 


BOOK I. 


85 


6 ipsl diebus 

themselves in days 

7 cSnfecerant, ut 
had accomplished , that 


vlginti aegerrime 

twenty with very great trouble 

flumen translrent, ilium 

the river they miyht cross , him , 


s uno die fecisse intellegerent, legat5s ad 

in one day to have done , they perceived , delegates to 

o eum mittunt ; cuius legationis Divic5 

him they send; of which delegation Divico 


they saw that he 
had actualized in 
a single day what 
they had, with 
the greatest dif- 
ficulty, accom- 
plished in twenty 
days, namely, the 
crossing of the 
river, they sent 
ambassadors to 
him. Of this 


pron. is, ea , id, used as a personal pron. of the 3d pers., and the direct obj. of fecisse , 

1. 8, below. quod, acc. sing. n. of the rel. pron. gut, quae , qupd; it refers to id 

as its antecedent, but is the direct obj. of confecerant. Observe that the reference, 
logically, is to the noun-clause ut flumen trdnsirent, which is in apposition with id; 
that, when the reference is thus to a group of words, id quod or quae res is used 
instead of the simple quod. Consult A. & G. 200, e; B. 129, rem. 8; G. 614, REM. 2 ; 

H. 445 , 7. 

Line 6. ipsi, nom. plur. of the intensive dem. pron. ipse , - sa , - sum ; it refers to 

Helvetii; is expressed for emphasis, and is the subject-nom. of confecerant. 

diebus, abl. plur. of dies , -el, m. and f. in the sing. ; always m. in the plur. ; abl. of 

time within which . A. & G. 256, 1 ; B. 171 ; G. 393; H. 429. Vlginti, num. adj. 

cardinal, modifies diebus. aegerrime, adv., superl. degree ; positive degree aegre. 

comparative aegrius . aegre = vix, gk. p6\ is. aegerrime modifies confecerant. 

Line 7. confecerant, 3d pers. plur. pluperf. ind. act. of conficio , -ere, feet, 

fectum , 3 ; it agrees with its subject-nom. ipsi. ut, ecbatic conj. flumen, 

acc. sing, of the noun flumen, - inis , n. (fluere , to flow) ; hence the noun = a flowing; 

direct obj. of trdnsirent. transirent, 3d pers. plur. imperf. Subjunctive of trdnseo, 

-ire, -ivi (-«), - itum ; it agrees with a subject implied in the ending, referring to Hel- 
vetii; it is in the subjunctive mode, because it is in a subst.-clause of result, refer- 
ring to the pron. id, and with which it is, grammatically, in apposition. Consult 

A. & G. 332,/; B. 201, rem. 1, ( b); G. 553, 1, and 557; H. 501, II, 1, and III. 

ilium, acc. sing. m. of the dem. pron. ille, -la, -lud, gen. Hints, dat. illt. ilium is the 
subject-acc. of fecisse; it refers to Caesar; it is expressed to indicate the contrast 
between Caesar and the Ilelvetii; compare ipsi, preceding line. 

Line 8. uno, abl. sing, m.of the num. adj. unus, -a, -um, gen. unius, dat. uni ; it 
modifies die. die, abl. sing, of dies, diei; abl. of time in which. See note and gram- 
matical references on diebus , 1. 6, above. fgeisse, perf.. inf. act. of f act'd, -ere, 

feci, factum, 3; it agrees with its subject-acc. ilium ; and the acc. and inf. depend on 

intellegerent. intellegerent, 3d pers. plur. imperf. subjunctive act. of intellego , 

-ere, -lexi, -lectum, 3 (inter + legere) ; hence interlegere = lit. to select between. Note 
that this verb is often written intelligo. intellegerent is in the subjunctive after cum, 

temporal, 1 . 5, above. Consult A. & G. 325; B. 222; G. 585; H. 521, II, 2. 

legatfis, acc. plur. of legdtus , -i, m. (legere, to despatch) ; direct obj. of mittunt. 

ad, prep, with the acc. 

Line 9. eum, acc. sing. m. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id, used as a personal pron. 
of the 3d pers. ; it is the obj. of the prep, ad; it refers to Caesar. Observe that the 
prep, with the acc. is used with verbs of motion. mittunt, 3d pers. plur. pres. 


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86 


CAESAK’s GALLIC WAR 


[CHAP. XIII. 


embassy Divico, 
who had been the 
leader of the II el- 
vetii in the war 
with Cassius, was 
the chief. He 
thus addressed 
Caesar : If the 

Roman people 


prlnceps fuit, qui 

chief was, who 

Helvetiorum fuerat. 
of the Ilelvetii had been . 

egit : Si pacem 

treated : If peace 


bello Cassiano dux 10 

in the war with Cassius leader 

Is ita cum Caesare 11 

He thus with Caesar 

populus Romanus cum 12 

the people Roman with 


ind. act. of rnittd, - ere , mist, mis sum , 3 ; historical pres. ; it agrees with the subject- 
nom. Helvetiiy expressed in 1 . 4, above. The reader will note that Caesar uses the 
historic present, here and elsewhere, frequently, while the sequence of the tenses in 

the subordinate clauses is secondary. cuius, gen. sing. f. of the rel. pron. qui \ 

quae, quod ; as a rel., it refers to legatos , but is here used adjectively, and agrees in 
gender, number and case with legdtionis. The reader will recall that a rel. pron. at 
the beginning of a sentence is, often, best rendered into English by a dem. pron. 
with the conj. and or hut. Consult A. & G. 180,/; B. 129, rem. 9; G. 610; H. 453. 

legationis, gen. sing, of the noun legatio, - onis , f. ; it limits princeps , which is 

here used as a predicate-noun after fuit. Divico, -onis, m., proper noun, subject- 

110m. of fuit. Divico was an influential chief among the Ilelvetii. 

Line 10. princeps, -ipis, usually an adj. ; here used substantively, and in the 

predicate. fuit, 3d pers. sing. perf. ind. of the irr. intrans. verb sum , esseyfuiy 

fut. participle futiirus; it is here the perf. indef. and the copula. qui, nom. 

sing. m. of the rel. pron. quiy quaey quod; it refers to Divicd as its antecedent, and is 

subject-nom. of fuerat. bello, abl. sing, of the noun belluniy n. ; locative abl. 

Consult A. & G. 258,/, 1 ; B. 170, rem. 4; G. 389; II. 425,’ II, 1, 1). As to the 

original form of belluniy consult note on this word, 1 . 15, Chap. I. CassianS, abl. 

sing. n. of the adj. Cassidnus t -a t - um ; it is an attributive of bello . The adj. is 
derived from the proper noun Cassius y and = of Cassiusy Cassianian . The allusion 
is to the battle in which Lucius Cassius was slain by the Tigurini. See note on 

Cassiuniy 1 . 20, Chap. VII. dux, ducis, m. and f. (compare ducere t to lead); 

predicate-noun after fuerat. 

Line i i. Helvetiorum, gen. plur. of Helvetiiy -drumy m. ; poss. gen., limiting dux. 

fuerat, 3d pers. sing, pluperf. ind. of sum, esse f fuiy futiirus; it agrees with its 

subject-nom. qui. Is, nom. sing. m. of the dem. pron. is , ea t id; it is here used 

as a personal pron. of the 3d pers. ; it refers to Divicd; it is subject-nom. of egit; 

expressed for emphasis, but is the weakest of all the dem. pronouns. ita, adv. 

(radical /, whence is + ending ta) = lit. in this manner; as an adv. ita modifies egit, 

but refers to .what follows. cum, prep, with the abl. Caesare, abl. sing, of 

Caesar y - aris t m. ; it is the obj. of the prep. cum. 

Line 12. egit, 3d pers. sing. perf. ind. act. of ago, - ere, egi t actum y 3; it agrees 
with its subject-nom. is; i.e. Divicd. The reader will observe that the remainder of 
this chapter is in the ordtio obliqua. Consult A. & G. 336, 1, 2, to 340; B. 244, 245, 

entire; G. 650-61 ; H. 520-30. SI (archaic form sei % sibilated from the gk. cl) t 

conditional particle, introducing the protasis of the sentence. pacem, acc. 

sing, of the noun pdx, pdcis y f. (compare pdcdre y to pacify); direct obj. of faceret. 

populus, nom. sing, of populus f -/, m. ; subject-nom. of faceret. For synonyms, 

see note on populusy 1 . 17, Chap. VI. ROmanus, nom. sing. m. of the adj. 

Romdnusy -a y -um ; it is the attributive of populus. cum, prep, with the abl. 

Helvetiis . Instead of cum Helvetiis , nobtscum might be used in the direct form. 


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LIKES i 3 -ic.] 


HOOK t. 


8 1 


13 Helvetia? faceret, in earn partem 

the Helvetii would make , in that part 

14 ituros atque ibi futuros Helvetios, 

to be about to go and there to be about to be the Helvetii , 

is ubi eos Caesar c 5 nstituisset atque esse 

where them Caesar had determined , and to be 

16 voluisset ; sin bello persequi perseveraret, 

had wished; but if with war to follow up he persevered, 


would make peace 
with the Helve- 
tii, they would go 
in such direction, 
and remain in 
such a place as 
Caesar would ap- 
point or wish ; 
but if he per- 
sisted in pursu- 
ing them with 
war, let him re- 


Line 13. Helve tils, abl. plur. of the adj. Helvetius , -a, -um, used substantively; 
abl. after the prep, cum . For historical information, see note on Helvetii , 1 . 16, 

Chap. I. faceret, 3d pers. sing, imperf. subjunctive act. of facid , -ere, feci , 

factum , 3 ; it agrees with its subject-nom./0/w//Ar Romanus ; it is in the subjunctive, 
because it represents the fut. ind. in the more vivid conditional form after si in the 
drdtio recta. Consult A. & G. 336, 2; B. 245, (£); G. 650; H. 524; it is in the imperf. 
tense, because the secondary sequence is required after the secondary egit, on which 
the entire speech, logically, depends. Mark now that the protasis, as the subordinate 

clause, is always in the subjunctive in the drdtio obliqua . in, prep, with the acc. 

or abl., but with difference of signification ; here it takes the acc. For meaning of 

in with the acc., see note on in, 1 . 1, end, Chap. I. earn, acc. sing. f. of the dem. 

pron. is, ea, id; it is an attributive of partem. -partem, acc. sing, of pars , 

partis, f. ; it is the obj. of the prep. in. 

Line 14. ituros (esse), fut. inf. act. of eo, ire, ivi(ii), itum; its subject-acc. is 
Helvetios. Observe that ituros (esse) is for ibunt of direct discourse ; and consult 

A. & G. 336, 2 ; B. 245, 1, («); G. 527; II. 523, I. atque (ad -f- que), conj. ; see 

note on this particle, 1 . 10, Chap. I ; it connects ituros (esse) and futuros (esse). 

ibi, adv. (from the radical /, whence is + locative ending bi) ; hence = in that place, 
there, ibi modifies futuros (esse). futuros (esse), fut. inf. of sum, esse,fui; con- 

nected by the conj. atque with ituros (esse), and in the same grammatical construc- 
tion. futuros (esse) is for erunt of direct discourse. Helvetios, acc. plur. of the 

adj. Helvetius , -a, - uni , used substantively, and is subject-acc. of both ituros (esse) 
and futuros (esse). 

Line 15. ubi (quo + locative ending bi) = of place, where; of time, when; here 

as correlative of ibi it = where. As an adv. it modifies coustituisset. e 5 s, acc. 

plur. m. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id, used as a personal pron. of the 3d pers.; it is the 

direct obj. of coustituisset; it refers to the Helvetii. Caesar, -aris, m., subject- 

nom. of coustituisset . constituisset, 3d pers. sing, pluperf. subjunctive of con- 

st itud, -ere, - stitui , - stitutum , 3; it agrees with its subject-nom. Caesar, and is in the 
subjunctive mode, because it is in a dependent clause in oratio obliqua. This pluperf. 

subjunctive is for the fut. perf. constitueris in the oratio recta. atque, see note 

on this particle, 1. 14, above. esse, pres. inf. of the intrans. verb sum, perf. ind. 

fui, fut. participle futurus ; its subject-acc. is eos, to be supplied; the infinitive-clause 
eos esse is the direct obj. of voluisset. 

Line 16. voluisset, 3d pers. sing, pluperf. subjunctive of volo, velle, volui; con- 
nected by the conj. atque with coustituisset, and in the subjunctive mode for the same 
reason. sin (si -f- ne, apocopated) = but if. belld, abl. of bellum , -*, n. ; abl. 


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88 


[Chap. xm. 


Caesar’s gallic war 


member both the 
ancient disaster 
to the Roman 
people, and the 
former valor of 
the Helvetii. As 
to his having sud- 
denly attacked 
the people of 
a single canton, 
while those who 
had crossed the 


reminlsceretur et veteris incommodi populi vt 

he should remember both the old disaster of the people 


Romani et prlstinae virtutis Helvetiorum. is 

Roman and the former valor of the Helvetii. 


Quod 

improvise 

unum 

pagum 19 

As to the fact that he 

suddenly 

one 

canton 

adortus esset, 

cum 

ei, 

qui 

flumen 20 

had attacked, 

when 

those, 

who 

the river 


of means. A. & G. 248, c, 1 ; B. 167 ; G. 401 ; H. 420. persequi, pres. inf. of the 

deponent verb persequor , - sequi , - secutus, 3 ; complementary inf. Consult A. & G. 
271 ; B. 181 ; G. 423; H. 533, I, 1. perseveraret, 3d pers. sing, imperf. subjunc- 

tive of per sever O' -tire, -avt, - dtutn , 1 ; imperf. subjunctive in condition in ordtid 
obliqua for the fut., perseverdbis in oratio recta . Observe the difference of idiom. 
Latin : if he should persist to follow ; English : if he should persist in following . 

Line 17. reminlsceretur, 3d pers. sing, imperf. subjunctive of the deponent verb 
reminiscor , -i {mens, mind), 3 ; hortatory subjunctive for the imperative remitiiscere , 
of direct discourse. As to the hortatory subjunctive, consult A. & G. 266, e; B. 189, 
I, (£); G. 263, 2; H. 484, II. As to the subjunctive in indirect discourse, for the 

imperative in direct, consult A. & G. 339; B. 245, 2; G. 652 ; H. 523, III. 

et . . . et = both . . . and. veteris, gen. sing. n. of the adj. vetus, veteris; 

comparative veterior; superl. veterrimus. incommodi, gen. sing, of the noun 

incommodum , -i, n. (in, negative -|- commodum) ; gen. after reminisceretur, a verb of 
remembering . Consult A. & G. 219; B. 135, (b); G. 376; II. 406, II. The allusion 

is to the defeat of Cassius. populi, gen. of populus , m. ; gen. objective ; it 

limits incommodi. For synonyms, see note on populum , 1 . 17, Chap. VI. 

Line 18. RSmanl, gen. sing. m. of the adj. Romanus , -a, - um ; it is an attrib- 
utive of populi. prlstinae, gen. sing. f. of the adj. pristinus , - a , -um (from 

obsolete pris, whence priscus and prior); it modifies virtutis. virtutis, gen. 

sing, of the noun virtus, - tutis , f. ; connected by the conj. et with incommodi, and in 

the same grammatical construction. Helvetiorum, gen. plur. of the adj. Helve - 

tius, -a, -um, used as a noun ; poss. gen. ; it limits virtutis. 

Line 19. Quod, acc. sing. n. of the rel. qui, quae , quod; acc. of specification = 
as to the fact that. Observe that the clause Quod . . . adortus esset is an adverbial 

modifier of the principal clause in the sentence. imprdvlsd, adv. ; really an abl. 

of the adj. imprdvisus, -a, -um, used as an adv. ; it modifies adortus esset. unum, 

acc. sing. m. of the adj. unus, -a -um; it is an attributive of pdgum. pagum, 

acc. of pdgus, -i, m.; direct obj. of deponent adortus esset. Ordtid recta of lines 12-18: 
SI pacem populus Romanus cum Helvetils faciet, in earn partem ibunt atque ibi 
erunt Helvetii, ubi eos tu constitueris atque esse volueris ; sin bello persequi per- 
severdbis, reminiscere et veteris incommodi populi Romani, et prlstinae virtutis 
Helvetiorum. 

Line 20. adortus esset, 3d pers. sing, pluperf. subjunctive of adorior, -orirt, 
•ortus, 4, deponent ; subjunctive, because it is a verb in a subordinate clause in the 
ordtid obliqua . The form in ordtid recta is adortus es. For quod = as to the fact that 
with the subjunctive, see A. & G. 333, a, and 341, a, and rem. ; B. 123, rem. 21, and 
198, rem. 1 j G. 525, 2 and 3; H. 516, II, and especially the note. cum, conj., 


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LINES 21-23J 


BOOK I. 


89 


21 transTssent, suis auxilium feiTe non 

had crossed, to their ( friends ) aid to bring not 

22 possent, ne ob earn rem aut suae 

were able, not on account of that thing either to his own, 

83 magno opere virtuti tribueret aut ipsos 

with great labor, valor should he ascribe, or themselves 


river could not 
bring aid to their 
friends, let him 
not on this ac- 
count attribute 
too much to his 
own valor, or de- 
spise them. For 


temporal. ei, nom. plur. m. of the dem. pron. is, ea , id, used substantively, and 

is the subject-nom. of possent. qui, nom. plur. m. of the rel. pron. qui, quae , quod ; 

it refers to ei as its antecedent, but is the subject-nom. of trdnsissent. flu men, 

acc. sing, of the noun Jlumen, - inis , n. ; direct obj. of trdnsissent \ 

Line 21. transissent, 3d pers. plur. pluperf. subjunctive of transeo, -ire, -ivi (-ii), 
-, itum ; syncopated and contracted for trdnsivissent. As to syncopation and contrac- 
tion, see A. & G. 128, 2; B. 251 ; G. 131, 1 ; H. 235. trdnsissent is subjunctive, 
because it is in a subordinate clause in the oratio obliqua. The proper form in the 

drdtid recta is the pluperf. ind. trdnsierant, syncopated for trdnsiverantt suis, 

dat. plur. m. of the poss. adjective-pron. suus, -a, -um ; in the m. plur. used substan- 
tively to designate persons; in the n. plur., to designate things . See A. & G. 190, a; 
B. 60, rem.; G. 204, note 1, b\ H. 441, 1. suis is dat. of the indirect obj. after 

ferre. auxilium, acc. sing, of auxilium, -i, n. ( augere , to increase); direct obj. 

of ferre. fjrre, pres. inf. of the verb fero, ferre, lull, latum ; ferre is a comple- 
mentary inf., depending on posseut '. non, adv. (ne unum, apocopated); observe 

its position : immediately before the word it modifies. 

Line 22. possent, 3d pers. plur. imperf. subjunctive of possum, posse, potui 
(potis-f- sum); it agrees with its subject-nom. ei; it is in the subjunctive, after cum , 

denoting both time and cause. ne, negative adv., the particle used with the 

hortatory subjunctive. Ob, prep, with the acc. = lit. to or tou>ard, compare 

GK. iirl; transf., it indicates the cause =for. earn, acc. sing. f. of the dem. 

pron. is, ea, id; it is an attributive of rem. rem, acc. sing, of the noun res, 

rei, i . ; stem re, which is shortened in the gen. and dat. sing. ; rem is the obj. of the 

prep. ob. aut . . . aut = either ... or. These particles, thus used, denote 

that the difference is exclusive; but see note on them, 1 . 19, Chap. I. suae, dat. 

sing. f. of the poss. pron. suus, -a, -um ; it refers to Caesar, the subj. of the proposi- 
tion, but agrees, in gender, number and case, with virtuti. 

Line 23. magno, abl. sing. n. of the adj. magnus, -a, -um ; comparative maior, 

superl. maximus ; mdgno modifies opere. opere, abl. sing, of opus, open's, n. ; 

with mdgno it is an abl. of manner = lit. with great labor; hence = ad \. greatly; the 

words as one word are frequently written mdgnopcre. virtuti, dat. of the noun 

virtiis, virtutis, f. ; dat. of the indirect obj. after tribueret; supply quicquam as direct 

obj. tribueret, 3d pers. sing, imperf. subjunctive act. of tribud, -ere, -ui, -utum, 3 

(compare tribus, a division); it agrees with a subj. implied in the ending, referring 
to Caesar. Observe that the subjunctive here in the dralio obliqua is the hortatory 
subjunctive for the 2d pers. sing, of the perf. subjunctive with ne in the direct form 
ne tribueris , which latter is for the imperative ; and indeed noli tribuere might be 
used in the direct form, as an elegant equivalent for ne tribueret of the indirect form. 

Consult A. & G. 269, a, 1 and 2 ; B. 189, rem. i; G. 270, 2 ; II. 489. aut, see 

note on this particle, preceding line. ipsos, acc. plur. m. of the dem. pron. 

ipse, -sa, -sum, gen. ipsius, dat. ip si (is -}- pse); ipse = self ; it belongs to the emphatic 
word, ipsos refers to the Helvetii, and is the direct obj. of despiceret. 


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90 


caesar’s gallic war 


[CHAP. XIII. 


the Helvetii had 
been so instruct- 
ed by their fa- 
thers and ances- 
tors, that they 
waged war rely- 
ing more on val- 
or than on arti- 
fice or stratagem. 
Wherefore, let 
him not cause 


despiceret. 

Se 

ita il 

patribus 24 

should he despise. 

Themselves so from 

the fathers 

maioribusque 

suls 

didicisse, 

ut magis 26 

ancestors and , 

their own 

to have learned , 

that more 


virtute contenderent quam dolo aut 26 

by valor they fought , than on treachery or 


Insidiis nitereutur. Quare ne committeret 27 
ambuscades they relied. Wherefore , not should he bring to pass 


Line 24. despiceret, 3d pers. sing, imperf. subjunctive act. of despicio , - ere , 
-spexiy - spectum , 3 (de -f- spicere) ; hence despicere = lit. to look down on one. The 
subjunctive hortatory is for the imperative, or its equivalent, in direct discourse. 

See note on tribuerety preceding line. Se, acc. plur. of the reflexive pron. sut , 

sibiy s?y se, same form in both numbers ; subject-acc. of didicisse. se is for nos in the 

dr at id recta. ita, adv. (radical /, whence is + ta) = in this wayy i.e. thus. 

a, prep, with the abl. (d before consonants, ab before vowels or consonants). 

patribus, abl. plur. of the noun pater y patrisy m. ; abl. of the source after the prep. S. 

Line 25. maioribusque (maioribus -f- que). maioribus, abl. plur. m. of the adj. 
nidiory -ins, used substantively; maioribus may, or may not, be followed by nd/ii ; it 
is connected_by the enclitic - que with patribus , and is in the same grammatical con- 
struction. Oratio recta of lines 19-24: Quod imprdvlso unum pagum adortus es t 
cum ei, qui flumen transierani, suls auxilium ferre non possent, ne ob hanc rem aut 

tuae magno opere virtutf tribuerisy aut nos despexeris. suls, abl. plur. of the 

poss. reflexive pron. suus t -a, -uni ; it is an attributive of patribus maioribusque. 

didicisse, perf. inf. act. of disco, -ere, didiciy 3. This inf. is for didicimus in the 

ordtio recta. ut, ecbatic conj. magis, adv., comparative degree ; positive 

multurn ; superl. maxime. 

Line 26. virtute, abl. sing, of virtus y -utis, f. ; abl. of means. contenderent, 

3d pers. plur. imperf. subjunctive of contenddy -ere, - tendi % -tentunty 3 ; subjunctive, 
because in a result-clause after ut y referring to the adv. ita. See A. & CL 319; 

B. 201.; G. 552; IL 500, II. quam, conj., following magis; after comparatives 

or words of comparison quam = than. dolo, abl. of the noun dolus , -/. dolo is 

an abl. of means. aut, see note on this particle, 1. 22, above. 

Line 27. insidiis, abl. plur. of instdiae, -druniy f. ; the sing, insuiiay -ae, {., is rare. 
insidiis is connected by the disjunctive conj. aut with dolo t and is in the abl. for the 
same reason. Observe that Latin dolus = gk . $6 \os ; compare gk . t 4 x v V ar| d English 
craft; hence dolus = originally, artifice. But in later usage, either with or without the 
attributive niali/Sy dolus — guile y deception ; whereas insidiae = lit. an ambush ; meta- 
phorically = stratagem. For the peculiarity of the grammatical construction of dolo 
and insidiis with uiterentury see A. & G. 254, B. 167, 5 ; G.401, REM. 6; H.425, II, 1, 1), 

and note. But this abl. is, in fact, an abl. of means or instrument. niterentur, 

3d pers. plur. imperf. subjunctive of the deponent verb uitor, uisus or nixus y 3; 
it is connected by the conj. quam with contendere nt, and in the subjunctive for the 

same reason. Quare, adv. (qua + re) = lit. by which thing. ne, see note on 

ne with tribuerety 1. 22, above. committeret, 3d pers. sing, imperf. subjunctive 

act.; subjunctive for imperative in direct discourse. For explanations and gram- 
matical references, see note on tribuerety 1. 23, above. 


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LINES 28 - 30 .] 


BOOK I. 


91 


28 ut is locus, ubi constitissent, ex calamitate 

that that place , where they had stood , from the loss 

29 populT Romani et intemecione exercitus 

of the people Roman and the utter destruction of an army 

30 nomen caperet, aut memoriam proderet. 

(its) name should take or the memory hand down . 


this place where 
they stood to 
take its name or 
transmit a tradi- 
tion from the de- 
feat of the Ro- 
man people and 
the destruction of 
an army. 


Line 28. ut, ecbatic conj. Observe that committere ut with the subjunctive follow- 
ing often form a periphrase for a simple verb. Consult A. &G. 332,*; B. 201, REM. i,(£); 

G. 533, I, 1 ; H. 501, II, 1, compare 498, II, note 2. is, nom. sing. m. of the dem. 

pron. is y ea t id; is is an attributive of locus . Observe that is is the weakest of all the 
Latin demonstratives, and that, accordingly, the Latin phrase is locus is scarcely 

more definite than the English the place. locus, nom. sing, of the noun, locus , -f, 

m. in the sing. ; m. or n. in the plur., but with difference of meaning. See note on 

lociy 1 . 10, Chap. II. locus is subject-nom. of caperet and proderety 1 . 30, below. 

ubi (qu 5 + bi) = of place, where ; transf. of time = when. cdnstitissent, 3d pers. 

plur. pluperf. subjunctive of cdnsisto , - ere , -stiff, 3 (con -|- sistere); subjunctive, 
because in a subordinate clause in the ordiio obliqua ; it is for the perf. ind. 
constitimus in the oratio recta. ex, prep, with the abl. (e before con- 
sonants, ex before vowels or consonants). calamitate, abl. sing, of cala- 

mitdsy -dtisy f. (derived, according to some, from calamus ); originally it designated 
mutilation of crops; hence calamitas — lossy misfortune, calamitdte is in the abl. 
after the prep, ex denoting cause. A. & G. 245; B. 120, 2; G. 408, note 3; 

H. 416, I, 1). 

Line 29. populi, gen. sing, of populusy -/, m. ; it, as a gen., limits calamitdte . 

For synonyms, see note on populus RomdnuSy 1 . 17, Chap. VI. Romani, gen. sing. 

of the adj. Rdmdnus , - a , -urn ; it is an attributive of populi. internecidne, abl. 

sing, of the noun internecidy - onis t i. (inter, intensive -f- necare) ; as necare=:to hilly 
internecare = to murder; hence internecio = utter destruction, internecidne is con- 
nected by et with calamitatcy and is in the same grammatical construction. 

exercitus, gen. sing, of the noun exercitusy -iiSy m. ; as a gen., exercitus limits inter- 
necidne. For synonyms, see note on exercitfiy 1 . 31, Chap. III. 

Line 30. nSmen, acc. sing, of the noun ndmen y -inis, n. (for gnomen from stem 

gndy gk. y vbtOy archaic Latin form gndsco). nomen is the direct obj. of caperet. 

caperet, 3d pers. sing, imperf. subjunctive of capio y - ere t c?pi y captuniy 3; it agrees 

with its subject-nom. locus ; it is subjunctive of result after ut. aut, see note on 

this particle, 1. 22, above. memoriam, acc. sing, of the noun memoriay -ae t i. 

(mem or) ; it is the direct obj. of prdderet. proderet, 3d pers. sing, imperf. sub- 

junctive of proddy -ere, -idty -ituniy 3 (pro -}- dare) ; connected by the conj. aut with 
caperety and in the same grammatical construction ; i.e. agrees with locus as its 
subject-nom., and is the subjunctive of result after ut. Ordtio recta of lines 24-30: 
Nos ita a patribus maioribusque nostris didicimusy ut magis virtute contenddmus quam 
dolo aut Insidiis nitdmur. Quare ne commiseris (noli committere), ut hie locus, ubi 
cdnstitimusy ex calamitate populi Romani et internecione exercitus nomen capiaty 
aut memoriam prodat. Observe that constitissenty 1 . 28, above, of the text, stands 
for the perf. ind. constitimus in the ordiio recta . See adortus esset y 1 . 20, above 
== adortus esy in direct discourse. 


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92 


caesar’s gallic war 


[CHAP. XIV. 


XIV. To these 
ambassadors 
Caesar replied 
thus: He had the 
less hesitation in 
regard to his con- 
duct, because he 
remembered the 
incidents which 
the Helvetian en- 
voys had men- 


XIV. His Caesar ita respondit : 1 

To these ( envoys ) Caesar thus replied : 

Eo sibi minus dubitationis dan, 2 

On this account to himself less of doubt to be given , 

quod eas res quas legatl Helvetia 3 

because those things which the envoys Helvetian 

commemorassent memoria teneret, atque 4 

had mentioned , in memory he held , and 


Line i. His, dat. plur. m. of the dem. pron. hie, haec , hoc; used as a personal 
pron. of the 3d pers. ; indirect obj. of the verb respondit; the allusion is to the 

ambassadors, of whom Divico was the leader and spokesman. Caesar, -aris, m.; 

subject-nom. of respondit ita, adv. (from radical i, whence is + ta) = lit. in this 

manner , i.e. thus. respondit, 3d pers. sing. perf. ind. act. of responded , -ere, 

-, spottdi - sponsum , 2 (re 4* spondere) = originally, to promise something in return for 
something; hence transf. = to answer, respondit agrees with its subject-nom. Caesar . 
The reader will observe that from this point the self-reported speech of Caesar con- 
tinues to esse facturum , 1. 34, below ; that it is reported just as formally as it would 
have been if it were a speech of another, and not Caesar’s. 

Line 2. Eo, abl. sing. n. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id; abl. of degree of difference 
after minus . Consult A. & G. 250, and note; B. 164, rem. i ; G. 403; H. 423. The 
older grammars explain this construction as an abl. of cause ; it appears to be the 

herald here of the following quod- clause. sibi, dat. sing. m. of the reflexive 

pron. sui , sibi, se , se, same form in both numbers ; dat. of the indirect obj. after the 

pass, verb dart. minus, acc. sing. n. of the comparative adj. minor , -us; positive 

parvus , superl. mittimus, minus is used substantively, and is the subject-acc. of the 

pass, inf! dart. dubitationis, gen. sing, of dubiiatio ', -otiis, f. ; partitive after 

minus. See A. & G. 216, 2 ; B. 134 ; G. 372 ; H. 397, 3. dari, pres. inf. pass, of 

the act. do, dare , dedi, datum , 3 ; pass, parts : dor, dari , datus. Observe that, by 
exception to the rule, a is short before -re in the pres. inf. act. dari agrees with its 
subject-acc. minus , used as a noun. Let the reader recall that in the ordtio obliqua 
the main clause of a declaratory sentence is put in the inf. with subject-acc. dari , 
accordingly, is for datur in oratio recta. 

Line 3. quod, conj. = because . quod , which is in fact an adverbial acc. sing. n. 
of qui, attained its causal meaning from the original signification of in what respect, 

in that. eas, acc. plur. f. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id; it is an attributive of res. 

res, acc. plur. of res, rei, f. ; the direct obj. of teneret. quas, acc. plur. f. of 

the rel. pron. qui, quae, quod ; it refers to res as its antecedent, but is the direct obj. 

of commemorassent. legatl, nom. plur. of the noun legdtus, -i, m. ( legere , to 

delegate) ; subject-nom. of commemorassent. Helvetia nom. plur. m. of the adj. 

Helvetius , -a, - ttm . Helvetii is an attributive of legati. 

Line 4. commemorassent, 3d pers. plur. pluperf. subjunctive of commemoro, 
-dre, -dvi, - dtum , 1, for the uncontracted form commemoravissent ; it agrees with its 
subject-nom. legati. As to syncopation and contraction, see A. & G. 128, 2 ; B. 251 ; 

G. 1 31, 1; H. 235. commemordssent is in the subjunctive, because it is in a sub- 
ordinate clause in oratio obliqua. Consult A. & G. 336, 2; B. 245, I, (b); G. 650; 

H. 524. memoria, abl. sing, of the noun memorir -ae, f. ; abl. of means, a 


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LINES 6-7.] 


BOOK L 


93 


6 eo gravius ferre, 

by so much the more heavily to bear (them), by 

e minus merits popull 

the lens according to the merit of the people 

7 accidissent ; qui si alicuius 

they had happened; who if of any 

species of locative. Consult A. & G. 248, c ; B. 167 ; G. 401 ; H. 420. teneret, 

3d pers. sing, imperf. subjunctive act. of teneo , -ere, - ui \ ten turn, 2 ; it agrees with a 
pron. as subj. implied in the ending, referring to Caesar ; it is in the subjunctive 

mode, because it is in the quod (a subordinate) clause in ordtio obliqua . atque 

(ad -f- que), conj. ; adds a more important notion, often = and also . 

Line 5. eo, abl. sing. n. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id, used substantively, or the 
noun thing may be supplied with which eo may agree ; abl. of degree of difference 
after the comparative gravius . Consult A. & G. 106, c; B. 164, rem. i ; G. 403; 

H. 423. gravius, adv., comparative degree; positive graviter (from the adj. 

gravis thus : stem gravi + ter) ; superl. gravissime. gravius as an adv. modifies 

ferre . ferre, pres. inf. act. of irr. verb fero, ferre , iuli , latum ; the subject-acc. 

of ferre is the pron. se, to be supplied, referring to Caesar. quo, abl. sing. n. of 

the rel. pron. qui, quae , quod ; abl. of degree of difference after minus. Observe that 
eo and quo, in this line, are used as correlatives, and that the literal translation of 
eo gravius ferre, quo minus is: by that he bears these things more heavily, by which 
the less, etc. ; rendered into English by the pronominal adv. the . . . the. Observe 
also that res is to be supplied from the preceding as the direct obj. of ferre. 

Line 6. minus, adv., comparative degree ; see note on minus, 1 . 2, above. 

minus modifies accidissent. meritd, abl. sing, of the noun meritum, -i, n. (from 

meritus, participle of merere, to merit), meritd is an abl. of in accordance with. See 

A. & G. 253, and note; B. 162 ; G. 397 ; H. 416. But see also note on more, 1 . 15, 

Chap. VIII. popull, gen. sing, of populus, -i, m.; it limits the noun meritd. For 

synonyms, see note on populum, 1 . 17, Chap. VI. Romani, gen. sing. m. of the 

adj. Romanus, - a , -um; it is an attributive of populi. Note that the adj. always 
follows the noun in this phrase. 

Line 7. accidissent, 3d pers. plur. pluperf. subjunctive act. of accido, -ere, - cidi , 
no supine, 3 (ad-j- cadere, to fall); subjunctive, because in a subordinate clause in 
ordtio obliqua. Ordtio recta of lines 2-7 : Hoc tnihi minus dubitationis datur , quod 
eas res quas vos, Helvetii legdti , commemordvistis memoria tened, atque hoc gravius fero , 

quo minus merito populi Romani acciderunt. qui, nom. sing. m. of the rel. pron. 

qui, quae, quod; subject-nom. of fuisset. qui here = populus Romanus. As to the 
proper translation of a rel. pron. beginning a sentence, consult A. & G. 180,/; 

B. 129, rem. 9; G. 610 ; H. 453. si, conditional conj. ; archaic form sei, sibilated 

from the gk. particle el. Observe that the normal position for a conj. is at the 
beginning of the clause, but it may sometimes follow a relative or emphatic word, or 

even words; see the position of ut, 1 . 2, Chap. XIII. alicuius, gen. sing. f. of 

the indef. pron. aliquis, aliqua (-ae), aliquid or -quod; the forms aliqui, -qua, - quod 
are adjectives; -quis, -quae, - quid are substantives, alicuius is an attributive of 

iniuriae. iniuriae, gen. sing, of iniuria, -ae, i. (in + ius) ; objective gen. after 

conscius. Consult A. & G. 218, a; B. 135, a ; G. 374; H. 399, 2. 


quo 
how much 

Romani 

Roman 

iniuriae 

wrong 


tioned, and was 
the more indig- 
nant at them, the 
less they had oc- 
curred in accord- 
ance with the de- 
serts of the Ro- 
man people. If 
they had been 


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94 


[CHAP. XIV. 


caesar’s gallic war 


conscious of any 
wrong against 
the Helvetii, it 
would not have 
been difficult to 
take precaution 
against them ; 
but they had 
been misled in 
this respect, be- 
cause they were 


sibi conscius fuisset, non fuisse 8 

to themselves conscious had been , not it was 

difficile cavere ; sed eo 9 

difficult to be cautious ; but on this account 

deceptum, quod neque 10 

(they) were deceived , because neither (anything) 

commissum a se intellegeret quare 11 

to have been done by themselves did they perceive why 


Line 8. sibi, dat. after cotiscius. See A. & G. 234; B. 144; G. 359; H. 391. 
Observe that the dat. is here expletive; it might have been omitted; but it is 

oftener expressed by classical writers in such constructions than omitted. 

conscius, nom. sing. m. of the adj. conscius , - a , -urn (con -|- scire) = lit. to know 
within; hence conscius = known to one's self, conscius is predicate-adj. after fuisset. 

fuisset, 3d pers. sing, pluperf. subjunctive of the intrans. verb sum , esse , fut, 

futurus ; subjunctive, because in the condition after si, protasis. Consult A. & G. 
304, a ; B. 204, 2; G. 590, and note 1; H. 507, III, and 51 1, I, remembering that 
the ind. in the conclusion in the ordtio recta becomes *the inf. in the ordtio obliqua. 

non, adv. (ne -+- oe[u]num, apocopated), non modifies fuisse. fuisse, perf. 

inf. of the irr. intrans. verb sum , esse, fui; it is for fuit in direct discourse, fuisse 
is here used impersonally, or rather the inf. cavere as a neuter noun is its subj., and 
difficile is predicate-adj. after fuisse. 

Line 9. difficile, acc. sing. 11, of the adj. difficilis , - e (dis + facilis). Observe the 
assimilation of s to f in the compound, and that the inseparable prep, has a priv- 
ative force ; hence difficilis = not easy to do or bear. cavere, pres. inf. of caved, 

-ere, cdvi, cautum , 2; it is subject-acc. of fuisse. Observe that if this were direct 

discourse, cavere would be the subject-nom. of fuit. sed, conj. ; the strongest of 

the adversatives. e6, abl. sing. n. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id, used substantively; 

eo is an abl. of cause. A. & G. 245 ; B. 165 ; G. 408; II. 416; it is, so to speak, the 
herald of the following quod- clause. 

Line 10. deceptum (esse), perf. inf. pass, of decipio , -ere, -cepi, -ceptum, 3 (de-f- 
capere); hence decipere = to snatch away the will-power, i.e. to deceive . Supply 
here populutn Kdmdnum as subject-acc. of deceptum (esse). quod, conj. ; ety- 

mologically an adverbial acc. sing. n. of qui, meaning in what respect, in that; 

hence as a conj. = because. neque (ne -f- que = and not, nor); but neque . . . 

neque = neither . . . nor. 

Line ii. commissum (esse), perf. inf. pass, of committd, -ere, -mist, -mis sum, 3; 

supply the indef. pron. aliquid as its subject-acc. a, prep., takes the abl. 

(d before consonants, ab before either vowels or consonants). se, abl. sing, of 

the reflexive pron. sui, sibi, se, se, same form in both sing, and plur. ; it refers to 
populum Kdmdnum, the omitted subject-acc. of deceptum (esse), but it is the obj. 
of the prep. a. Note particularly that the pron. se with the prep, d is abl. of 

the agent, and consult A. & G. 246; B. 166; G. 401 ; H. 415, I. intellegeret, 

3d pers. sing, imperf. subjunctive of in tel l ego, -ere, -lexi, - lectum , 3; subjunctive, 

because in a dependent clause in the oratid obliqua. quare (qua -f- re) = lit. by 

which thifig. 


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LINES 12-14.] 


BOOK I, 


95 


not aware of 
having done any- 
thing of which 
to be afraid, and 
they didnot think 
they ought, with- 
out cause, to be 
afraid. But if he 


Line 12. timeret, 3d pers. sing, imperf. subjunctive of timed , - ere , -ut, 2; sub- 
junctive, because the question is indirect. As an indirect question it would be in 
the subjunctive mode in direct discourse. See A. & G. 334; B. 242 ; G. 467 ; H. 529, 1. 
The subject-nom. of timeret is a pron. implied in the ending, referring to populum 
Romanum , the supplied subject-acc. of deception (esse). Synonyms : timere = to fear , 
as the result of some external cause ; metuere = to fear , because one reflects ; the 
fear is a rational impulse, the outcome of reflection on the consequences of limita- 
tions and dangers; whereas vereri — to fear , as an emotion arising from apprehen- 
sion of the venerable or apprehension of disgrace. neque, see note on neque , 

1. 10, above. sine, prep, with the abl. causa, abl. sing, of the noun causa t 

-ae, f.; it is the obj. of the prep. sine. timendum (esse), pres. inf. of the 2d per- 

iphrastic conjugation of timed (see the beginning of the line for principal parts); 
supply aliquid as subject-acc. just as aliquid was supplied before commission (esse); 
or regard the construction as impersonal, supplying d se as the abl. of the voluntary 
agent. 

Line 13. putaret, 3d pers. sing, imperf. subjunctive of puto , -dre, -dvi, - atum, 1. 
The subject-nom. is a pron. implied in the ending, referring to the Roman people. 
putaret is connected by the conj. neque to intellegeret, and is in the subjunctive mode 
for the same reason. Synonyms : opinare, puiare and reri = to think , as a mere sub- 
jective process ; whereas arbitrart, censere , iudicari = to think objectively, as when an 

arbiter , or censor , or judge gives an official opinion. Quod, strictly an adverbial 

acc. of qut, quae , quod = as to which; if it be taken as a relative, its antecedent is 
the previous sentence; in transitions, however, it = but or now. Consult A. & G. 

240, b\ B. 123, rem. 22, and 155; G. 333, 1, and 610, rem. 2 ; IL 453, 6. veteris, 

gen. f. of the adj. vetus , veteris; comparative vetior; superl. veterrimus. veteris 

is an attributive of contumeliae. contumeliae, gen. sing, of contumelia, -ae, f.; 

gen. after oblivisci, a verb of forgetting. Consult A. & G. 219; B. 135, (b)\ G. 376; 
H. 406, II. 

Line 14. oblivisci, pres. inf. of the deponent verb oblivtscor , -t, oblitus , 3; com- 
plementary inf. A. & G. 271 ; B. 181 ; G. 423; H. 533, 1, 1. Ordtio recta of lines 7-13: 
qui si alicuius iniuriae sibi conscius fuisset, non fuit difficile cavere; sed’ eo deceptus , 
quod neque commissum a se intellegebat quare timeret, neque sine causa timendum 

putdbat. vellet, 3d pers. sing, imperf. subjunctive of void, velle, volui, irr. verb ; 

it agrees with ipse, i.e. Caesar as its subject-nom. ; it is subjunctive, because in the 
condition after the conj. si. Consult grammatical references to fuisset, 1. 8, above. 

num, adv., interrogative particle; questions introduced with num imply a 

negative answer. See A. & G. 210, e, end; B. 81, 3; G. 456; IL 351, note 3. In 
direct questions, num is untranslatable ; in indirect questions it = whether. Consult 

A. & G. 210,/, rem., end ; B. 242, 1 ; G. 460, (a); H. 529, II, note 3. etiam 

(et -f- iam), conjunctive adv., serves to add a notion to that already expressed. 

recentium, gen. plur. of the adj. recens, recentis , abl. sing, regularly recenti (etymology 
dubious), recentium is an attributive of inifrridrum. 


12 timeret, neque sine causa timendum 

they should fear, nor without cause (anything) to be feared 

13 putaret. Quod si veteris contumeliae 

did they think. But if the ancient disgrace 

14 oblivisci vellet, num etiam recentium 

to forget he wished, also of recent 


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96 


CAESAR’S GALLIC WAR 


[CHAP. XIV. 


iniuriarum, quod eo invito iter 15 

wrong 8 , because , he (being) unwilling , a journey 

per provinciam per vim temptassent, ie 
through the province through violence they had attempted , 
quod Aeduos, quod Ambarros, quod 17 
because the Aedui, because the Ambarri, because 
Allobrogas vexassent, memoriam deponere is 
the Allobroges they had harassed, the memory to lay aside 

Line 15. iniuriarum, gen. plur. of inuria , - ae , f. ; it limits memoriam, 1 . 18, 

below. quod, conj. = that; it introduces the quod-c\a.use quod . . . temptdssent , 

which, as an explanatory noun-clause, is in apposition with iniuridrum ; so also the 

three immediately following $w<?</-clauses. eo, abl. sing. m. of the dem. pron. is, 

ea, id, used as a personal pron. of the 3d pers. ; it refers to Caesar, and is in the abl. 
absolute construction with invito. Observe that eo is m. here and in the abl. absolute, 
while eo, 1. 5, above, is n., and is the abl. of degree of difference, and that eo, 1. 9, 

above, is n., and an abl. of cause. invitS, abl. sing. m. of the adj. invitus, -a, -um ; 

abl. absolute with the pron. eo. iter, acc. sing, of iter, iiineris, n. ; direct obj. of 

temptdssent. For synonyms, see note on via , 1 . 2, Chap. IX. 

Line 16. per, prep, with the acc. provinciam, acc. sing, of the noun pro- 

vincia, -ae, f. ; it is the obj. of the prep. per. per, prep, like gk. did, denotes, lit., 

motion through space; then transf. it indicates the means or instrument through 

which anything is done, or the manner of the action. vim, acc. sing, of the 

noun vis, vis, f. ; obj. of the prep, per, denoting here the manner. Consult A. & G. 
153, under per, c and d\ B. 166, rem. i, end; G. 399, note i, end; H. 419, III, 

note 3. temptassent, 3d pers. plur. pluperf. subjunctive of temptd, -dre, -dvt, 

-dtum; it agrees with a pron. implied in the ending as its subject-nom., referring to 
the Helvetii. temptdssent is syncopated and contracted for temptdvissent. For the 
law thereof, see A. & G. 128, 2 ; B. 251 ; G. 131, 1 ; H. 235. Note carefully that a 
quod- clause is a clause expressing fact in direct discourse, and has the ind. mode ; 
that the quod-c\a.use here has the subjunctive, because the discourse is indirect. 
Consult A. & G. 333; B. 198 and 235, (b ) ; G. 524, and 525, 3; H. 516, II. Note 
again that in some of the lexicons temptd is written tentd (freq. of tends, compare 
GK. retvio = grasp at repeatedly) ; hence temptdre or tentdre — to grasp, feel, touch, test. 

Line 17. quod, conj. like quod, 1 . 15, above; it introduces the clause quod 

Aeduos vexdssent , which also is explanatory of iniiiridrutn. AeduQs, acc. plur. 

of the adj. Aeduus, -a, -um, used substantively, and is the direct obj. of vexdssent, to 

be supplied from a following clause. quod, observe again that each of these 

noun-clauses is explanatory of, and in apposition with iniuridrum , 1. 1 5, above. 

Ambarros, acc. plur. of Ambarri, -drum, m. ; direct obj. of vexdssent, to be supplied. 
These people are supposed to have been clients of the Aedui ; their territory was 

near the junction of the Saone and the Rhone. quod, see notes on the quod - 

clauses, immediately preceding. 

Line 18. Allobrogas, acc. plur. of the proper noun Allobroges, -um, m. Note 
that Allobrogas is the Greek acc. plur., with the short vowel a in the ultima, instead 
of the long vowel e, as seen in the I^tin form of the acc. plur. Allobroges . See 
declension of Greek nouns, A. & G. 64 ; B. 248 ; G. 66, and note 4 ; II. 68. Allobrogas 


wished to forget 
the old affront, 
could he also lay 
aside the remem- 
brance of recent 
wrongs ? that, 
against his will, 
they had force- 
fully attempted 
to march through 
our province? 


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LINES 19-21.] 


BOOK I. 


97 


» posse ? 

(himself) to be able t 


Quod 

As to what 


20 Insolenter 

insolently 

21 se 

themselves 


gloriarentur 

they gloried , 

impune 

with impunity 


sua 

in their 

quodque 

as to what and , 

iniurias 

wrongs 


victoria tam 

victory so 

tam diu 

so long 

tulisse 

to have borne , 


and had been har- 
assing the Aedui, 
the Ambarri and 
the Allobroges ? 
As to their boast- 
ing so insolently 
of their victory, 
and as to their 
wondering that 


is the direct obj. of vexdssent. As to the Aedui, see 1. 20, Chap. Ill ; the Ambarri, 

1. 12, Chap. XI; the Allobroges, 1. 10, Chap. VI. vexassent, 3d pers. plur. of 

vexo, -dre, -dvi , -dtum, 1, pluperf. subjunctive for the uncontracted form vexdvissent . 
See note on temptdssent , 1. 16, above; the subject-nom., of course, is Helvetii; sub- 
junctive for the same reason as temptdssent; see grammatical references to the latter 

word. memoriam, acc. sing, of memoria, ae, f. ; direct obj. of deponere. 

deponere, pres. inf. act. of depono, -ere, -posui, -po si turn, 3 ; complementary inf. See 

A. & G. 271 ; B. 181 ; G. 423 ; H. 533, I, 2. 

Line 19. posse, pres. inf. of possum, posse potui (potis + sum) ; its subject-acc. 
is the pron. se, i.e. Caesarem, to be supplied. Observe that the question is rhetorical, 
and the form of the indirect discourse is the inf. instead of the subjunctive. Con- 
sult A. & G. 338; B. 245, 3, rem. 1 ; G. 651, rem. 1 ; H. 523, II, 2. Quod, acc. 

sing, of the rel. pron. qui, quae , quod ; it differs from the preceding quods only in not 
having any noun to explain ; it is an adverbial accusative ; see A. & G. 333, a , 

B. 123, rem. 21 ; G. 525, 2; H. 516, II, and note, end. Observe critically the different 
uses of quod in lines 3, 10, 13, 15, 17 and 19. In lines 3 and 10 it is a mere clause- 
connective and — because; in lines 13, 15 and 17 it = «/, and = that; in 1. 19 it is an 

acc. of specification and = whereas. sua, abl. sing, of the poss. and reflexive 

pron. suus, -a, -urn; it refers to the Helvetii, but is an attributive of victdrid. 

victoria, abl. sing, of victoria , -ae, f.; abl. of cause. See A. & G. 245; B. 165; 
G. 408; H. 413. A. & G.’s grammar makes this construction after glorior a species 

of abl. locative; see A. & G. 254, b . tam, adv. ; it modifies insolenter. Ordtio 

recta of lines 13-19: Quod si veteris contumeliae obllvlscl void , num etiam recentium 
iniuriarum, quod me invltb iter per provinciam per vim tempidvistis, quod Aeduds, 
quod Ambarros, quod Allobrogas tiex dvistis, memoriam depbnere possum ? 

Line 20. insolenter, adv. (in, negative -f- solens = unwonted ); it modifies glorid- 

rentur. gloriarentur, 3d pers. plur. imperf. subjunctive of the deponent verb 

glorior, -dri, -dtus, 1 ; it agrees with Helvetii, to be supplied, as its subject-nom. 

quodque (quod + que), adverbial acc., see quod, preceding line. tam, adv., an 

accusative form analogous to adv. quam, a particle denoting comparison in degree = 
lit. in so far; tam modifies the adv. diu. diu, adv. (derived from dies); compar- 

ative degree diutius , superl. diutissime ; diu modifies tulisse. 

Line 21. s€, acc. plur. of the reflexive pron. sui, sibi , se, se, the same form in 

both numbers ; se is subject-acc. of tulisse. impune, adv. (in, negative poena, 

through the adj. impunis , -e); it, too, modifies tulisse. iniurias, acc. plur. of the 

noun inuria, -ae, f. ; it is the direct object of tulisse. tulisse, perf. inf. act. of 

fero, ferre, tuli, latum ; its subject-acc. is the pron. se. The acc.-clause : se impune 
iniurids tulisse = that they had inflicted wrongs with impunity, tulisse here appears 
to be used in the sense of intulisse . 


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98 


caesar’s gallic war 


[CHAP. XIV. 


they had com- 
mitted outrages 
so long without 
punishment tend- 
ed to the same re- 
sult. For the im- 
mortal gods are 
wont, at times, 
to grant a some- 
what lengthy im- 
punity to such as 


admlrarentur, eodem pertinere. 22 

they wondered , (these conceits) to the same thing to tend . 

Consuesse eiiim de5s immortales, quo 23 

To have been wont for , the gods immortal , that 

homines ex commutatione 24 


gravius 
the more heavily men 
rerum doleant, 
of things they may grieve, 


quos 

whom 


from a change 

pro scelere eorum 25 

for guilt their , 


Line. 22. admlrarentur, 3d pers. plur. imperf. subjunctive of the deponent verb 
admtror , -an, -dtus, i (ad -f- mirari = to wonder at); its subject-nom. is Ilelvetit , to be 
supplied ; it is in the subjunctive mode, because it is in a subordinate clause in the 
drdtid oblTqua. Observe that the two immediately preceding y/W-clauses are noun- 
clauses, and as such are subject-accusatives of pertinere. eodem, adv. (old dat. 

of idem -f loco) ; as an adv. it modifies pertinere. pertinere, pres. inf. of per tin eo, 

-ere, -ui, no supine, 2 ; its subject-accusatives are the two immediately preceding 
q /^/-clauses. The meaning appears to be that both the vanity and presumption of 
the Helvetians alike show their ignorance of the punishment that awaits them. 

Line 23. Consuesse, contracted perf. act. inf. for cdnsuevisse of the verb con - 
stiesco, -ere, -suevi, -suctum, 3. For the syncopation and contraction, see A. & G. 

128, 2; B. 251 ; G. 1 31, 1 ; II. 235. enim, conj., always postpositive, and denotes 

merely a subjective reason ; whereas natn indicates an objective reason. de5s, 

acc. plur. of deus, -i, m. deos is subject-acc. of the verb consuesse. For the declen- 
sion of deus, which is irregular in the plur., see A. & G. 40,/ ; B. 24, rem. 3 ; G. 33, 
rem. 6; H. 51, 6. With deus compare the gk. 0e6s, noticing especially that both 

words begin with a lingual mute. immortales, acc. plur. m. of the adj. immor- 

tdlis, -e (in, negative -+- mortalis) ; immortales is an attributive of the noun deos. 

quo, here a conj., and usually when an adj. of the comparative degree is in a clause; 
it = ut eo; consult A. & G. 317, b ; B. 200, (£); G. 545, 2 ; H. 497, II, 2. 

Line 24. gravius, adv. in the comparative degree ; positive graviter, superl. 

gravissime. gravius modifies doleant. homines, nom. plur. of the noun homo, 

-inis, m. and f. ; it is subject-nom. of doleant. Synonyms : homo is the generic term 
denoting man or woman, and is accordingly of the common gender; whereas vir 
(digammated from U) = a male person and, in a pregnant sense, a man of courage , 
a hero. ex, prep, with the abl. (e before consonants, ex before vowels or con- 
sonants). commutatione, abl. of commutdtio, -onis, f. (com, intensive -f- mu tare) ; 

it is the obj. of the prep. ex. 

Line 25. reram, gen. plur. of the noun res, ret, f. ; stem re, with vowel shortened 

in the gen. and dat. sing, rerum is objective gen. limiting commutatione. 

doleant, 3d pers. plur. pres, subjunctive of doled, -ere, -ut, -Hum, 2 ; its subject-nom. 

is homines; it is subjunctive of purpose after quo = ut eo. qu5s, acc. plur. of 

the rel. pron. qut, quae, quod ; it refers to his in the following clause, but is the direct 
obj. of ulcTscT. Observe that the relative clause here, as often, precedes the demon- 
strative; and consult A. & G. 201, c; B. 129, rem. i ; G. 620; H. 572, II, note. 

pr5, prep, with the abl.; compare gk. irpbs. scelere, abl. sing, of the noun scelus, 

-eris, n. ; abl. after pro. Synonyms: f acinus = any bold, daring crime ; jldgitium = 
an offense against one’s self — moral pollution ; whereas scelus = an offense against 


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LINES 2G-29.] 


BOOK I. 


99 


26 ulclscl velint, Ills secundiores interdum 

to punish , they wish, to them more favorable, sometimes 

27 res et diuturniorem impunitiitem concedere. 

things and a longer impunity to concede, 

28 Cum ea ita sint, tamen, si obsides 

Though these (things) thus are, yet if hostages 

29 ab els sibi dentur, utl ea, quae 

by them to himself are given, that those (things) which 


they purpose to 
punish for their 
guilt, that they 
may the more se- 
verely suffer from 
a change of fort- 
une. Although 
these things were 
so, yet if they 
would give him 
hostages, that he 


individuals or society — robbery , murder and sedition. e 5 rum, gen. plur. of the 

dem. pron. is, ea , id, used as a personal pron. of the 3d pers., like the English poss. 
case = their; as a gen. it limits scelere. 

Line 26. ulcisci, pres. inf. of the deponent verb ulciscor, -t, ultus, 3; comple- 
mentary inf. depending on velint. See A. & G. 271 ; B. 181 ; G. 423; II. 533, I, 1. 
yelint, 3d pers. plur. pres, subjunctive of the irr. verb void, velle, voluT; sub- 
junctive, because in a dependent clause in the drdtio obliqua. Observe that the 
primary sequence obtains in the rest of the speech, because, probably, general truths 

are, for the most part, stated. his, dat. plur. of the dem. pron. hie , haec, hoc , 

used substantively; indirect obj. after concedere. secundiores, acc. plur. f. of 

the comparative adj. secutidior, -us ; positive degree sccundus, -a, -urn (sequi, to 
follow); hence secundus == favorable, a notion derived from winds following ships to 

their destination, secundiores is an attributive of res. interdum, adv. (inter -f- 

dum); it modifies the verb concedere. Note its emphatic position. 

Line 27. res, acc. plur. of res, ret, f. ; direct obj. of concedere. Observe that the 

phrase secundiores res = lit. more favorable thitigs. diuturniorem, acc. sing. f. of 

the comparative degree of diuturnus (did) ; the superl. is not in use. diuturniorem 

is an attributive of impunitdtem. impunitatem, acc. sing, of the noun imptntiids, 

-dtis', f. ; it is connected by the conj. et with res, and is in the same grammatical con- 
struction. concedere, pres. inf. of concedo, -ere, - cessi , -ccssum, 3 (con, intensive 

-4-cedere) ; lit. = to go from ; then to go out of the way for one, to submit, yield, grant. 
Ordtid recta of lines 19-27: Quod vestrd victoria tarn Tnsolenter gldridmint, quodque 
tam diu vos impune iniurias tulisse admirdmint, eodem pertinet. Cdnsue7erituf enim 
dt immortales, quo gravius homines ex commutatidne rerum doleant, quds pro 
scelere eorum ulclscl volunt, his secundiores interdum res et diuturniorem im- 
punitatem concedere. 

Line 28. Cum, concessive conj., her ^ — although; known to be such, because it 

is followed by the correlative tamen. ea, nom. plur. n. of the dem. pron. is, ea, 

id, used substantively, and as a noun the subject-nom. of sint. The things referred 

to are the specifications in the last sentence. ita, adv., modifies sint. sint, 

3d pers. plur. pres, subjunctive of the intrans. verb sum , esse,fuT,futurus; it agrees 
with its subject-nom. ea; it is in the subjunctive after cum concessive. Consult 
A. & G. 326; B. 210; G. 587; H. 515, III. tamen (etymology dubious), con- 
junctive adv. Si (archaic form set, sibilated from gk. el), conditional conj. 

Obsides, nom. plur. of obses, - idis , m.. and f. ; subject-nom. of dentur. 

Line 29. ab, prep, with the abb (a before consonants, ab before vowels or con- 
sonants); compare gk. &it6 and English off. eis, abb plur. of the dem. pron. is, 

ea, id, used as a personal pron. of the 3d pers. ; abb of the agent after the pass, verb 


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100 


caesar’s gallic war 


[CHAP. XIV. 


might feel con- 
vinced that they 
would fulfill their 
promises; if they 
would give satis- 
faction to the 
Aedui for the 
wrongs they had 
inflicted on them 


polliceantur, facturos intellegat, 

they promise , (they) will do , he may know ; 


et si 30 

and if 


Aeduis de iniuriis, 

to the Aedui for wrongs 


quas ipsls 31 

which on themselves 


socilsque eorum intulerint, item si 32 

allies and , of them they have brought , also if 


dentur \ Consult A. & G. 246; B. 96, rem. i, and 166; G. 401 ; H. 415, 1 . sibi, dat. 

sing, of the reflexive pron. sui , stbi> se t se; it is dat. of the indirect obj. after dentur; 

it refers to Caesar. dentur, 3d pers. plur. pres, subjunctive passive of do, dare , 

dedty datum , 1 (a is short before - re in pres. inf. act., contrary to rule) ; pass, parts : 
dor % dari y datus; pres, subjunctive in the protasis after si t for the fut. in direct di&- 

course. uti, telic conj. ; the shorter ut is more common, though the form uti is 

not rare. ea, acc. plur. n. of the dem. pron. is, ea t id y used substantively, and as 

a noun the direct obj. of facturos (esse). quae, acc. plur. n. of the rel. pron. gut , 

guae, guod; it refers to ea as its antecedent, but it is the direct obj. of polliceantur. 

Line 30. polliceantur, 3d pers. plur. pres, subjunctive of the deponent verb 
polliceory -eriy - licitusy 2 (pote, neuter of potis, as an adv. -f- liceri) = lit. to bid largely ; 
hence to offer , promise, polliceantur agrees with a pron. implied in the ending as its 
subject-nom., referring to the Helvetii ; it is in the subjunctive, because it occurs in 
a subordinate clause in oratio obliqua. Synonyms: pollicert — to promise of one’s own 
free will; hence only used of “free and gracious promises”; whereas promittere = to 
give forthy and is the general word for promising, especially of promising that which 

has been requested. facturos (esse), fut. inf. of the intrans. verb sum, esse y fut y 

futurus; its subject-acc. is se understood, referring to the Helvetii. intellegat, 

3d pers. sing. pres, subjunctive act. of intellegdy -erey -lexiy -lectum y 3 (inter + legere, 
to choose between) ; hence intellegere = to choose betweeny to perceive y to know , etc. This 
verb is often spelled intelligo . intellegat is the subjunctive of purpose after utt. See 

A. & G. 317; B. 200; G. 544, I; H. 497, II. et, conj., connects the conditional 

clauses. si, see note on si t 1. 28, above. 

Line 31. Aeduis, dat. plur. of Aedui f -drumy m.; dat. after satisfacianty to be 
supplied from 1 . 33 , below. Consult in reference to this dat. A. & G. 227, e t 2 ; 

B. 142; G. 346; H. 384, II, 4, note 1. de, prep, with the abl. iniuriis, abl. 

of the noun iniuriay -ae t i . ; it is the obj. of the prep. de. quas, acc. plur. f. of 

the rel. pron. qui 9 quaey quod; it refers in gender and number to its antecedent 

iniuriis , but it is the direct obj. of intulerint. ipsis, dat. plur. of the intensive 

pron. ipsey - sa t -sum t gen. ipsiusy dat. ipsi; it refers to the Aedui ; it is the dat. after 
in in intulerint. See A. & G. 228; B. 143; G. 347; H. 386, and 1. 

Line 32. socilsque (sociis + que). sociisy dat. plur. of sociusy -/, m. ; connected 
closely with ipsis by the enclitic conj. - que y and in the same grammatical construc- 
tion. eorum, gen. plur. of the dem. pron. is t ea t id t used as a personal pron. of 

the 3d pers. ; the allusion is to their allies, i.e. the allies of the Aedui ; if suis had 

been used, the reference would have been to the allies of the Helvetii. intulerint, 

3d pers. plur. perf. subjunctive act. of infero y inferrey intuliy il(n)ldtum ; its subject- 
nom. is a pron. implied in the ending, referring to the Helvetii ; it is in the subjunc- 
tive, because it is in a subordinate clause in indirect discourse. item, adv. (from 


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LINES 33-35.] 


BOOK I, 


101 


33 Allobrogibus satisfaciant, sese cum els 

for the Allobroges they shall do enough , himself with them 


34 pacem esse facturum. 

peace to be about to make, 

35lta Helveti5s a 

So the Helvetii by 


Divicb respondit : 

Divico replied : 

maioribus suis 

ancestors their , 


and their allies; 
if, too, they would 
give satisfaction 
to the Allobroges, 
he would make 
peace with them. 
Divico replied : 
The Helvetii 
have been so 


radical whence is + tern) = lit. in this manner; hence thus, also; different from 

etiam (et + iam), which adds a notion = and also, si, conditional particle ; see 

note on si , 1 . 28, above. 

Line 33. Allobrogibus, dat. plur. of Allobroges , -urn, m., after satisfaciant; see 

grammatical references to Aeduis , 1 . 31, above. satisfaciant, 3d pers. plur. pres. 

subjunctive act. of satisfacio , -ere, feet, factum , 3 (satis + facere) ; hence satisfacere 
= lit. to do enough, satisfaciant is the pres, subjunctive after si in the protasis. 

This subjunctive is for the more vivid fut. ind. in the ordtio recta. sese, acc. 

sing, of the reduplicated reflexive pron. for the less emphatic se. This reflexive is 
declined thus : sui, sibi , se, se; the same form is used in both numbers ; whether the 
pron. is sing, or plur. must be determined from the context, sese is here the acc. 

sing., referring to Caesar, and subject-acc. of esse facturum (facturum esse). 

cum, prep, with the abl. ; it is known to be the prep., not merely because there is a 
possible abl. case after it ; so far as the form of the pron. eis goes, it might be the 
dat. ; but because it is seen at a glance that there is no finite verb either in the ind. 

or subjunctive with which cum as a conj. could form a subordinate clause. eis, 

abl. plur. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id, used as a personal pron. of the 3d pers. ; it is 
the obj. of the prep. cum. 

Line 34. pacem, acc. sing, of the noun pdx, pdcis, f. ; direct obj. of esse factu- 
rum (facturum esse). esse facturum, fut. inf. act. of facio, -ere, feci, factum , 3 ; 

its subject-acc. is the reduplicated personal pron. sese. Divico, -onis, m. ; subject- 

nom. of respondit. For description of Divico , see 1 . 9, Chap. XIII. respondit, 

3d pers. sing. perf. ind. act._of responded , -ere, respondi, responsum, 2 ; it agrees with 
its subject-nom. Divico. Ordtio recta of lines 28-34 : Cum' haec ita sint, tamen, si 
obsides d vobis mihi dabuntur, uti haec, quae pollicemini, facturos intellegam, et si 
AeduTs de iniurils, quas ipsls socilsque eorum intulistis, item si Allobrogibus satis- 
facietis, ego vobiscum pacem faciam. 

Line 35. Ita, adv. (from radical i, whence is + ta) = in this way, thus; cor- 
relative of the conj. uti, next line, below. HelvetiSs, acc. plur. of Helvetia 

-drum, m. ; subject-acc. of institiitds esse. For description of this people, see note on 

Helvetii, 1 . 16, Chap. I. a, prep, with the abl. (d before consonants only, at 

before vowels or consonants). maidribus, in form the abl. plur. of the compar- 

ative adj. mdior; the comparative and superl. are used as substantives, either with 
or without ndtu = greater in respect to birth, i.e. elder, ancestor. The superl. mdxi- 
mus is also thus used. The reader will observe that the positive mdgnus is derived 
from a radical mag, which is common to mdgtius and the gk. fityas. mdidribus as a 
noun is the obj. of the prep, d ; it is here, in fact, the abl. of the agent after the 

pass, verb institiitos esse. Consult A. & G. 246; B. 166; G. 401 : H. 415, I. 

suis, abl. plur. m. of the poss. and reflexive pron. suus, -a, -um; it refers to the Heir 
vetii, but is an attributive of mdidribus. 


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102 


caesar’s gallic war 


[CHAl*. XV. 


trained by their 
ancestors, that 
they were accus- 
tomed to receive, 
not to give hos- 
tages ; of this 
fact the Roman 
people were wit- 
nesses. After giv- 
ing this reply, he 
withdrew. 


institutes esse, utl olisitles 
to have been instructed , that hostages 
dare consuerint ; eius 
to give they have been wont; of that 
Romanum esse testem. 

Roman to be witness . 

dato discessit. 

having been given; he left . 


accipere, non 36 
to receive, not 


rei 

populum 37 

thing 

the people 

Hoc 

response 38 

This 

reply 


39 


Link 36. mstitutds esse, perf. inf. pass, of the act. instifuo , -ere, -stitul, -stitutum, 3 ; 
its subject-acc. is the noun Ilclvetios. Observe that the participial part of this inf. 

corresponds in case with the subject-acc. utl, ecbatic conj., the original form ; 

the more common form is ut; in use, like the cue. «s. obsides, acc. plur. of the 

noun obses , -idis, m. and f. ; the direct obj. of accipere . accipere, pres. inf. act. 

of accipio , -ere, -c?pl, - ceptum , 3 (ad + cape re) ; hence accipere — lit. to take to one's 

self, to receive, accipere is a complementary inf. non, negative adv. (ne + 

oenum [unum], apocopated) ; non modifies the inf. dare . 

Line 37. dare, pres. inf. act. of do, dare, dedt, datum, 1 (short a before -re, in 

pres. inf. act. by exception); inf. complementary; supply eos as direct obj. 

consuerint, 3d pers. plur. perf. subjunctive of cdnsuesco, -ere, -suevi, - suetum , 3 ; sub- 
junctive of result after the conj. uti. Consult A. & G. 319, 3, and rem. ; B. 201, 
rem. 1, (a) ; G. 552; H. 500, II. Observe that consuerint is syncopated and con- 
tracted for consueverint. See A. & G. 128, 2 ; B. 251 ; G. 131, 1 ; H. 235. eius, 

gen. sing. f. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id; it is an attributive of ret. rei, gen. sing. 

of res, rei, f. ; as a gen. it limits testem. populum, acc. sing, of the noun populus , 

-i, m. populum is subject-acc. of esse. For synonyms, see note on populum, 1 . 17, 
Chap. VI ; and observe, further, that gens and ndtio =a people in a physical sense 
without reference to civilization, gens being more compressive than ndtio; whereas 
civitds — a people in a political sense, a society formed by compact, civilized 
society. 

Line 38. Romanum, acc. sing. m. of the adj. Romdnus , -a, - um ; it is an attrib- 
utive of populum. esse, pres. inf. of the intrans. verb sum, esse, fui, futurus ; 

its subject-acc. is populum. testem, acc. sing, of the noun testis, -is, m. and f. ; 

predicate-acc. after esse. Observe that the construction from Divico respondit is that 
of indirect discourse, in which the main clauses are put in the inf. with subject-acc., 

while the subordinate clause takes the subjunctive. Hoc, abl. sing. n. of the 

dem. pron. hie, haec, hoc ; it is an attributive of responso. responso, abl. sing. 

of the noun responsum, -t, n. ; it is in the abl. absolute with dato, denoting time when. 
Consult A. & G. 255, d, 1 ; B. 172 ; G. 409, 410; H. 431, 2, 3). Ordtid recta of lines 
35-38 : Ita Ilelvetii a maioribus suis institutt sunt, uti obsides accipere, non dare 
ednsuerint ; hiiius rei populus Romdnus est testis. 

Line 39. datd, perf. pass, participle of the act. verb do, dare, dedt, datum; pass, 
parts : dor, dart, datus. The construction is explained by the remarks on responso. 

discessit, 3d pers. sing. perf. ind. act. of discedo, -ere, -cessi, -cessum (dis -{- 

cedere, to go apart), 3 ; it agrees with a pron. implied in the ending, referring to 
Divico, as the subject-nom. 


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LINES 1 - 4 .] 


BOOK I. 


103 


1 XV. 

2 movent. 
they move . 

s omnem 
all 

4 quem 

which 


Poster5 

die 

castra ex 

eo loco 

The next 

day 

the camp from 

that place 

Idem 

facit 

Caesar equitatumque 

The same does 

Caesar the cavalry and , 

ad 

numerum quattuor 

milium, 

to 

the number of four 

thousands , 


ex omnl provincia et Aeduls 

from all the province and the Aedui 


XV. On the 
following day the 
Helvetii moved 
their camp. Cae- 
sar did the same ; 
and sent in ad- 
vance all the ca- 
valry which he 
had collected 
from the entire 
province and the 


Line i. Posters, abl. sing. m. of the adj. posterns , - a , -um (post); comparative 
posterior^ superl. postremus or postumus ; postero is an attributive of the noun die. 

die, abl. sing, of dies, diei, m. or f. in the sing., always m. in the plur. ; abl. of 

time when . Consult A. & G. 256, 1 ; B f 171 ; G. 393; H. 429. castra, acc. plur. 

of noun castrum , -*, n. (sometimes, though rare, castra , -ae , f.); in the sing. == fortress; 
in the plural = several soldiers* tents or huts collected together, i.e. = a camp . 

castra in our text is the direct obj. of movent. ex, prep, with the abl. (e before 

consonants only, ex before vowels or consonants). eo, abl. sing. m. of the dem. 

pron. is, ea, id; ed is an attributive of loco. loco, abl. sing, of the noun locus , 

m. ; in the plur. loci or loca; compare note on loci, 1 . 10, Chap. II ; loco is the obj. 
of the prep. ex. The Helvetian camp was on the right bank of the Saone, a little 
south of Matisco. See Chap. XII, at the beginning, and also consult map. 

Line 2. movent, 3d pers. plur. pres. ind. act. of moved , -ere, movi, motum, 2 ; 

historical present ; supply Helvetii as its subject-nom. Idem, acc. sing. n. of the 

iterative pron. idem , eadem , idem ; it is here used substantively ; or after it supply the 

English word thing, idem is the direct obj. of facit. facit, 3d pers. sing. pres. 

ind. acc. of facio,-ere, feci, factum, 3; it agrees with its subject-nom. Caesar . 

Caesar, -aris, m. (caesarie, some say, i.e. from his dark hair); subject-nom. of facit. 

equitatumque (equitatum -f- que). equitdtum , acc. sing, of equit&tus, -us, m. 

(compare equitdre from equus); equitdtum is the direct obj. of praemittit, 1. 6, below. 
The body of cavalry consisted («) of a permanent force ; and (b) of a contingent fur- 
nished by the allies of Rome at the opening of the campagne. equites , the plur. of 
eques , a horseman, is frequently used in the same sense as equitdtus; see equitibus 
and equitum , lines 12 and 13, below; but equites is often, in classic writers, used to 
denote the equestrian order — the knights — an order among the Romans, holding 
a middle rank between senators and plebeians. After 102 b.c. the knights became 
the administrators of justice. 

Line 3. omnem, acc. sing. m. of the adj. omnis , - e ; it is an attributive of equi- 
tdtum. ad, prep, with the acc. numenim, acc. sing, of the noun numerus, 

-i, m.; it is the obj. of the prep. ad. quattuor, num. adj., cardinal, indecl., i.e. it 

is in any case, according to the requirements of the construction ; here it is in the 

gen. plur., modifying milium. milium, gen. plur. of the adj.. mille, indecl. in 

the sing.; in the plur., milia, - um , it is used as a noun. Consult A. & G. 94, e\ 
B. 64, REM. 9; G. 95, rem. 3; H. 178. milium, as a gen., limits mimcrum. But 
observe that the phrase ad numerum quattuor milium, as well as the following 
relative-clause are adjective-modifiers of equitdtum. 

Line 4. quern, acc. sing. m. of the rel. pron. qui, quae , quod ; it refers to equi- 
tdtum, but is the direct obj. of habebat. ex, prep, with the abl. ; see note on ex. 


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104 


caesar’s gallic war 


[CHAP. XV. 


Aedui and their 
allies to the num- 
ber of four thou- 
sand, to see in 
what direction 
the enemy were 
marching. And 
these forces press- 


atque eorum socils coactum habebat, 5 

and their allies having been collected he had , 


praemittit, qul videant, 

he sends forward, who might see , 

hostes iter faciant. 

the enemy a march are making . 


quas in partes 6 
what into parts 

Qul cupidius 7 
Who too eagerly 


1. 1, above. Omni, abl. sing. f. of the adj. omnis , -e, an /-stem, with the abl. 

regularly ending in -/; ornni is an attributive of provincid. provincia, abl. sing. 

of the noun provincia , -ae, f. ; it is the obj. of the prep. ex. Aeduis, abl. plur. of 

Aedui, - drum , m. ; connected by the conj. et with provincid , and in the abl. after the 
prep. ex. 

Line 5. atque (ad + que), differs from et in that it adds a notion = and also. 

eSrum, gen. plur. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id; used as a personal pron. of the 

3d pers. The allusion is to the allies of the Aedui. socils, abl. plur. of socius , 

-/, m. (compare sequl , to follow) ; connected by atque with Aeduis , and in the same 

grammatical construction. coactum, acc. sing. m. of the perf. pass, participle of 

cogd, -ere, - coegi , codctum , 3 (cum + agere); coactum , as a participle, agrees with the 
pron. quem; hence quem . . . codctum habebat ■=. lit. which having been collected he 
had. It is thus seen that the phrase codctum habebat = coegerat, nearly. Consult 
A. & G. 292, c ; B. 1 91, 3, (d); G. 238; H. 388, I, note; also compare note on habere 

obstrictds, 1 . 14, Chap. IX. habebat, 3d pers. sing, imperf. ind. act. of habed, -ere, 

-ui, - itum , 2. habebat agrees with a pron. implied in the ending as its subject-nom., 
referring to Caesar. 

Line 6. praemittit, 3d pers. sing, historical pres. ind. act. of praemitto, -ere, 
mist, missum, 3 ; connected by the conj. - que , appended to equitdtum, with facit , and 
has the same subject-nom., Caesar. Observe the force of the prae in composition = 

in advance. qul, nom. plur. m. of the rel. pron. qul, quae, quod; it refers to 

equitdtum as its antecedent, a noun which in idea is plur. ; qut here = ut et, and is 

the subject-nom. of videant. videant, 3d pers. plur. pres, subjunctive act. of 

video, -ere, vldl, visum, 2 (digammated from the gk. radical IS, as seen in the 2d aorist 
participle ISdv). videant is subjunctive of purpose after qul — ut el, and qul videant 
= in order that they might see. Consult A. & G. 31 7, 2 ; B. 233, and 1 ; G. 630 ; II. 497, 1 . 

quas, acc. plur. f. of the pron. qul, quae, quod; used here adjectively, agreeing 

with the noun partes. in, prep, with the acc. or abl. ; here it takes the acc. For 

its meaning with the acc., see note on in, 1 . 1, end, Chap. I. Observe that a mono- 
syllabic prep, is often placed between a noun and its modifier. Consult A. & G. 

345, a; B. 58. 2 ; G. 413, REM. I ; H. 569, II, 1. partes, acc. plur. of the noun 

pars, partis, f. partes is the obj. of the prep. in. 

Line 7. hostes, nom. plur. of the noun hostis, -is, m. and f. ; it is subject-nom. 

of faciant. iter, acc. sing, of the noun iter, itineris, n. ; iter is the direct obj. of 

faciant. faciant, 3d pers. plur. pres, subjunctive act. of facid, -ere, feci, factum, 3; 

it agrees with its subject-nom. hostes, and is subjunctive, because the question is 

indirect. Consult A. & G. 334 ; B. 242 ; G. 467 ; H. 529, I. Qui, nom. plur. of 

the rel. pron. qul, quae, quod; it refers to equitdtum, 1. 2, above, but is the subject- 
nom. of committunt, 1 . 10, below. Observe that qul here introduces an independent 
sentence, and = et hi or el. See A. & G. 180,/; B. 129, rem. 9; G. 610; H. 453. 
cupidius, adv., comparative degree of cupide, superl. cupidissime. The compar- 


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LINES 8-11.] 


BOOK I. 


105 


8 novissimum agmen insecuti alieno loco 

the newest 

line 

pursuing in a strange place 

9 cum 

equitatu 

Helvetiorum 

proelium 

with 

the cavalry 

of the Helvetii 

a battle 

10 committunt ; et 

paucl de nostris 

cadunt. 

join; 

and 

a few of our s 

fall. 

11 Quo 

proelio 

sublati Helvetii, 

quod 

By which 

battle 

being elated the Helvetii , 

because 


ing too eagerly 
the enemy’s rear, 
joined battle with 
the cavalry of the 
Helvetii in an un- 
favorable place, 
and a few of our 
soldiers fell. The 
Helvetii, elated 
at the issue of 
this skirmish, be- 


ad ve degree is here to be rendered too or rather . Consult A. & G. 93, a ; B. 163, 
REM. 6; G. 297, 2 ; H. 444, 1. 

Line 8. novissimum, acc. of the superl. degree of novus (kindred with the 

gk. vio s ) ; it is an attributive of the noun dgmen. agmen, acc. sing, of the noun 

dgmen , -inis, n. ; direct obj. of the participle insecuti. Observe that dgmen (agere) = 
an army in motion; whereas exercitus = a disciplined army , and acies — an army in 
battle array. Observe also that novissimum dgmen = the newest or nearest part of 
the army to a pursuing enemy, i.e. nearest in this case to the Roman cavalry; novis- 
simum dgmen therefore = the rear . msecuti, nom. plur. m. of the participle 

insecutus , -a, -um of the verb insequor, -sequi, - se cuius , deponent, 3 ; it agrees with 

qui , the subj. of the sentence. alieno, abl. sing. m. of the adjective pron. alienus , 

-a, -um (alius) = lit. another’s ; here it = unfavorable , opposed to suo or opportuno ; 

it is an attributive of locd. locd, abl. sing, of the noun locus , -i, m. ; locative abl. 

Consult A. & G. 258,/, 1 and 2; B. 176, note 2 ; G. 385, note i, middle; H. 425, II, 2. 

Line 9. cum, prep.; known to be such both from its position and the nature of 

the clause in which it stands ; cum takes the abl. equitatu, abl. of the noun 

equitatus, -us, m. ; abl. after cum; cum is thus used with words of contention. See 

A. & G. 248, b; B. 168 ; G. 399; II. 419, III, 1, 2). Helvetidrum, gen. plur. of 

Helvetii, -drum, m. ; it limits, as a gen., equitatu. As to this clan, see note on Hel- 
vetii, 1. 16, Chap. I. proelium, acc. sing, of the noun proelium, -i, n. (pro or prae 

4- Ire) = to go forward ; direct obj. of committunt . For synonyms, see note on proe- 
liis, 1. 18, Chap. I. 

Line 10. committunt, 3d pers. plur. historic pres. ind. act. of commitib, -ere, 
-misi, -mis sum, 3 (con + mittere) = lit. to bring together; transf. to arrange or com- 
mence a battle . committunt agrees with its subject-nom. qui, 1. 7, above. et, 

conj.j joins the sentences. paucl, nom. plur. m. of the adj. paucus, -a, -um, used 

substantively, and subject-nom. of the verb cadunt; as an adj. thus compared: com- 
parative paucior, superl. paucissimus. de, prep, with the abl. nostris, abl. 

plur. m. of the poss. adjective pron. noster, - tra , - trurn ; used substantively; or, if 
preferred, supply militibus . nostris is in the abl. with prep, de, instead of the parti- 
tive construction. Consult A. & G. 216, c ; B. 134, rem. 2 ; G. 372, rem. 2 ; II. 397, 

3, note 3. cadunt, 3d pers. plur. historic pres. ind. of cado, -ere, cecidi, cdsum , 3; 

it agrees with its subject-nom. pauci. 

Line ii. Quo, abl. sing. n. of the rel. pron. qui, quae, quod; it refers to proe- 
lium as its antecedent, and as an adj. it agrees with proelio. For exposition of the 
relative at the beginning of a sentence, see grammatical references to qui, 1. 7, above. 
proelio, abl. of the noun proelium, -i, n.; abl. of cause after the perf. pass, par- 
ticiple sublad. Consult A. & G. 245; B. 165; G. 408; H. 416. subliti, nom. 


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106 


CAESAR’S GALLIC WAR 


[CHAP. XV. 


cause they had 
put to route so 
large a number 
of horse with five 
hundred cavalry, 
began to make a 
bolder stand, and 
with their rear- 
guard to provoke 
our men to battle. 
But Caesar re- 


qumgentls equitibus tantam multitudinem 12 

with five hundred horsemen so great a multitude 

equitum propulerant, audacius subsistere 13 

of horsemen they had put to flight, more boldly to halt 

nonnunquam et novissimo agmine proelio 14 

sometimes and with the newest line by battle 

nostros lacessere coeperunt. Caesar suds 15 

ours to exasperate began . Caesar his own 


plur. m. of the perf. pass, participle snbldtns , -a, - um of the verb tolld, tollere, sustuli t 
sublatum ; it agrees with Helvetii. Observe that tolld has as its root to l, whence tuli, 
compare c;k. ro\p 6 uo, and = to lift up, hence to take heart, and rarely in the perf. pass. 

participle = elated . Helvetii, nom. plur. m. of the adj. Helvetius , -a, -urn, used 

substantively, and subject-nom. of coeperunt, 1. 15, below. As to this clan, see note 
on Helvetii , 1. 16, Chap. I. quod, conj. = because. 

Line 12. quingeniis, abl. plur. m. of the num. adj. quingenti, -ae, - a (qulnque-f- 
centum); it is an attributive of equitibus . Observe that hundreds are regularly 

declined like the plural of bonus. equitibus, abl. plur. of eques, - itis , m. ; abl. of 

means. See A. & G. 248, 8, c; B. 167; G. 401 ; II. 420. Compare note on equi- 

tdtum, 1. 2, above. tantam, acc. sing. f. of the adj. tantus, -a, -ton (tarn -}- tus) = 

so much , as compared with some standard either expressed or understood, tantam 

modifies multitudinem . multitudinem, acc. sing, of the noun multitudo, - inis , f. 

(multus) ; it is the direct obj. of propulerant. 

Line 13. equitum, gen. plur. of eques, -itis, m. ; it limits multitiidinem. See 
note on equitdtum, 1. 2, above. Observe that eques is a lingual-mute stem — equit ; 
the nom. is formed by adding s, thus : equit -\- s ; the lingual is suppressed, and the 
vowel preceding the formative s is changed to e. If the stem of eques were equiti, 

i.e. an /-stem, the gen. plur. would be equitium. propulerant, 3d pers. plur. 

pluperf. ind. act. of p rope lid, -ere, -puli, - pulsum , 3 (pro + pellere, to drive fomcard); 

it agrees with a pron. implied in the ending, referring to Helvetii. audacius, 

adv., comparative degree of audacier; superl. audacissime (adj. audax, bold), audd- 

cius modifies subsistere. subsistere, pres. inf. act. of subsisto, -ere, -stiti, 3 (sub + 

sistere) = lit. to stand a little, to halt; but subsistere == to remain, to subsist; it has the 
lit. meaning in our text, subsistere is a complementary inf., and depends on coepe- 
runt. See A. & G. 271 ; B. 181 ; G. 423 ; H. 533, I, 1. 

Line 14. nonnunquam (non + num[n]quam) = lit. not never , i.e. sometimes ; as 
in English, two negatives in Latin = a positive. See A. & G. 150, and a ; B. 117. 10; 

G. 449, 4; II. 553, I. et, cop. conj.; it here connects subsistere and lacessere. 

novissimo, abl. sing. n. of the adj. novissimus, -a, -um; superl. degree of the 

positive novus ; it modifies dgntine. agmine, abl. of dgmen, -inis, n. ; abl. of 

manner. See A. & G. 248; B. 168; G. 399; H. 419, III. proelio, abl. of the 

noun proelium , -i, n. ; abl. of means. A. & G. 248, c, 1 ; B. 167; G. 401 ; H. 420. 
A possible construction of proelio is the locative abl.; see II. 425, II, 1,2); but even 
thus the idea of means is dominant. 

Line 15. nostros, acc. plur. of the poss. adjective pron. noster, - tra , -trum; used 

substantively ; or, in analyzing, supply milites. lacessere, pres. inf. act. of lacesso , 

-ere, -ivi (-if), -itum, 3 ; complementary inf. ; depends on coeperunt. coeperunt, 


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LINES 1G-18.] 


BOOK I. 


107 


16 a proelio continebat 

from battle held in check 

17 in praesentia liostem 


ac 

and 


satis 


habebat I Strained his men 


enough he held (it to be) • . ^S^ting, 


raplnis, pabuliltionibus 

for the present the enemy from robberies , foragings 

is populatidnibusque prohibere. Ita dies 

devastations and , to restrain . Thus for days 


thinking it to 
be sufficient for 
the present to 
keep the enemy 
from rapine, for- 
aging and pil- 


3d pers. plur. of the defective preteritive verb coepi , coepisse, fut. participle coeptiirus , 
perf. pass, participle coeptus. coeperunt agrees with its subject*nom. llelvetn, 1. 11, 
above. As to inflection and use of this verb, see A. & G. 143, a ; B. 113; G. 175, 

5, a ; II. 297, I. and 1. Caesar, -aris, m. ; subject-nom. of continebat As to a 

possible derivation of Caesar, see note, 1 . 2, above. suds, acc. plur. m. of the 

poss. adjective pron. suns, -a, -urn ; used substantively; or homines , or ndlites may 
be supplied. The later grammarians, however, object to the supposition of an 
ellipsis. See A. & G. 197, d, and noth; II. 60, REM.; G. 204, notes i, (a), (b), and 2 ; 
H. 441, 1. But no rigid analysis can be made without such supposition, suds is the 
direct obj. of continebat. 

Line 16. a, prep, with the abl. (d before consonants only, ab before vowels or 

consonants). proelio, abl. of proelium, -i, n. ; abl. after the prep. d. For 

synonyms, see note on proeliis, 1 . 18 , Chap. I. continebat, 3d pers. sing, imperf. 

ind. act. of contined , -ere, -in, -ten turn, 2 (con -f tenere) = lit. to hold together, continebat 

agrees with its subject-nom. Caesar. ac, conj., contracted from atque ; see note 

on atque, 1 . 10, Chap. I. satis, adv. sometimes ; sometimes, as here, an indecl. 

adj.; here it is a predicate-adj. ; acc. after esse , to be supplied; of which esse , pro- 
hibere with its modifiers is the subject-acc. habebat, 3d pers. sing, imperf. ind. 

act. of habeo, -ere, -ui, -Hum, 2 ; it is connected by the conj. dc with continebat, and 
has the same subject-nom. The reader will bear in mind that habere = to have, in 
the widest sense, and that to have in one’s mind = to think. 

Line 17. in, prep, with either the acc. or abl., but with different significations; 

compare note on in, 1 . 1, Chap. I. praesentia, abl. sing, of the noun praesentia, 

-ae, f. (praesens, participial adj. of fraesum) = lit. that which is before one. prae- 

sentid is the obj. of the prep. in. hostem, acc. sing, of the noun hostis, -is, 

m. and f. ; it is the direct obj. of prohibere. Note that the plur. form is oftener 
used, in Caesar, than the sing. Synonyms: hostis, originally = a stranger; transf. 

a public enemy; whereas, in contrast, inimicus =a private foe. rap in IS, abl. 

plur. of the noun rapTna, -ae, f. (compare rapere, to pillage) ; abl. of separation after 

prohibere. Consult A. & G. 243; B. 160; G. 390, 2, and note 3, end; II. 414. 

pabulatidnibus, abl. plur. of the noun pabulatio , -dnis, f. ; in the same construction 
as rapinis, the conj. being omitted. 

Line 18. populatidnibusque (populationibus + que). populdtionibus, abl. plur. 
of the noun populdtio, -dnis, f. ; connected by the enclitic -que with pabulatidnibus, 
and in the same grammatical construction. Note that in a series either no conj. is 
used, or it is repeated between the words. But the enclitic -que, as shown in our 
text, may be appended to the last word of the series. See A. & G. 208, 3, and 346, c; 

B. 123, rems. 2 and 6 ; G. 474, note; II. 554, 6. prohibere, pres. inf. act. of the verb 

prohibeo, -ere, -ui, -Hum, 2 (pro -f- habere) ; hence prohibere = lit. to hold in front, 
i.e. to keep in check, restrain, prohibere , as we have seen, is the subject-acc. of esse, 
to be supplied, of which the adj. satis is predicate-acc. Ita, adv. (derived from 


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108 


CAESAR S GALLIC WAR 


[CHAP. XVI. 


laging. Both ar- 
mies marched for 
about fifteen days 
in such a manner, 
that not more 
than five or six 
miles* space in- 
tervened between 
the enemy’s rear- 
guard and our 
van. 


circiter quindecim iter fecerunt, utl w 

about fifteen a march they made , so that 


inter novissimum 
between the newest 
nostrum primum non 
our first , not 

senis mllibus passuum 

six thousands of paces 


hostium agmen et 20 

enemy's line and 

amplius quinis aut 21 

more than five or 

interesset. 22 

intervened . 


radical i, whence is -j- suffix ta) = lit. in this manner . ita modifies fecerunt 

dies, acc. plur. of the noun dies , -ei, m. and f. in the sing. ; always m. in the plur. 
dies is the acc. of extent of time. See A. & G. 256, 2 ; B. 153; G. 336; H. 379. 

Line 19. circiter, prep, and adv. ; here an adv., and modifies the num. adj. 

quindecim. circiter is derived from circus , whence circum. quindecim (quinque 

+ decern), an indecl. num. adj. ; it is an attributive of the noun dies. iter, acc. 

sing, of the noun iter, itineris , n. ; direct obj. of fecerunt. fecerunt, 3d pers. plur. 

perf. ind. act. of the verb facid , -ere, pci \ factum , 3 ; it agrees with the subject-nom. 

milites , to be supplied. uti, ecbatic conj., here for the more common and 

shorter ut. 

Line 20. inter, prep, with the acc. ; derived from in + the adverbial suffix ter; 

sometimes, though rarely and poetically, an adv. novissimum, acc. of superl. 

degree of the positive novus; see note on novissimum , 1. 8, above, novissimum 

modifies dgmen. hostium, gen. plur. of the noun hostis , -is, m. and f. ; an /-stem ; 

hostium limits the noun dgmen. For synonyms, see note on hostem , 1. 17, above. 

agmen, acc. sing, of the noun dgmen , -inis, n. ; obj. of the prep, inter. For 

derivation and synonyms, see note on dgmen , 1. 8, above. et, cop. conj., con- 

necting the phrases. 

Line 21. nostrum, acc. sing. n. of the poss. adjective pron. noster, - tra , -trum ; it is 

an attributive of primum , which latter is here used as a noun. primum, in form 

an acc. sing. n. of the adj. primus , -a , -um ; in use here it is a noun, connected by 
the conj. et with dgmen , and in the same grammatical construction ; in other words, 
primum is also the obj. of the prep, inter; or dgmen may be supplied and primum 
may be taken as an adjective-modifier of dgmen thus understood, and the latter 

would be the obj. of the prep, inter. nQn, negative adv. (ne + oenum [unum], 

apocopated), non modifies interesset. amplius, nom. n. of the comparative 

amplior , -us, used as a subst. ; positive amplus , superl. amplissimus. amplus as a 
noun is here the subject-nom. of interesset. quin is, abl. plur. n. of the distrib- 
utive num. adj. quint , - ae , -a; it is an attributive of milibus. aut, conj.; it 

usually excludes an alternative ; see note on aut, 1 . 19, Chap.- 1 . 

Line 22. senis, abl. plur. of the distributive adj. seni, -ae, -a; connected by the 
disjunctive conj. aut with quinis, and in the same grammatical construction, i.e. it, 
too, is an attributive of the noun milibus. Observe that the distributives indicate 

that the same interval was maintained each day. milibus, abl. plur. n. of the 

adj. milia, used substantively ; abl. after the comparative degree quam being omitted. 

Consult A. & G. 247; B. 163; G. 398; H. 417. passuum, gen. plur. of passus, 

-us, m.; partitive after milibus ; consult A. & G. 216, a, 2; B. 134; G. 370; H. 397, 2. 
For the exact literal and the best rendering into English of this construction, see 


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LINES 1-3.] 


BOOK I. 


109 


1 XVI. Interim cotidie Caesar Aeduos 

Meantime daily Caesar from the Aedui 

2 frumentum quod essent publice polliciti 

grain which they had officially promised 

a flagitare. Nam propter frfgora, 

to demand (beg an). For on account of the times of cold, 

note on passuum , 1. 25, Chap. I. interesset, 3d pers. sing, imperf. subjunctive 

of the verb intersum , •esse, fui , fut. participle -futurus ; it agrees with its subject- 
nom. amplius , an adj. used as a noun ; it is the subjunctive of result after the conj. 
utt. Observe (1) the composition of the verb (inter + esse) = lit. to be between ; then 
(«) impersonally it == it concerns ; (ti) there is a difference. But observe (2) that in 
the text the grammatical subject is the colorless adj .amplius, used substantively; 
while the logical subject of interesset is the entire complex phrase: non amplius 
quints aut sents milibus passuum. 

Line i. Interim, adv. (inter -J-im for eum) = interea (inter -|-ea) in significa- 
tion. COtidie, adv. (quot + die) = lit. every day. These adverbs modify the 

historical inf. flagitare , which, in use, is the main verb in the sentence. Caesar, 

-aris, m., subject-nom. of the historic vai. fldgitdre , which is said by the grammarians 

to be == fldgitdbat. Aeduds, acc. of the person of the noun Aedui , - drum , m., after 

fldgitdre. As to the Aedui, see note on Aeduo , 1. 20, Chap. III. 

Line 2. frumentum, acc. of the thing of the noun frumentum , -i, n., after fldgi- 
tdre, a verb of demanding which takes two accusatives. Consult A. & G. 239, c ; 

B. 1 51 ; G. 339 ; H. 374. quod, acc. sing. n. of the rel. pron. qui , quae , quod; it 

refers to frumentum as its antecedent, but is the direct obj. of the deponent verb 

essent polliciti. publice, adv. {public us, public). As to the formation of this 

adv. from the adj., see A. & G. 148, a ; B. 117. 5 ; G. 91, 2, (b ) ; H. 304, II, 2, end. 
Observe the emphatic position of the adv., between the parts of the compound 

formation of the pluperf. tense. essent polliciti (polliciti essent ), 3d pers. plur. 

pluperf. subjunctive of the deponent polliceor , -eri, - licitus , 2 ; it agrees with a pron. 
implied in the ending as its subject-nom., referring to Aeduds ; it is in the subjunc- 
tive, because in a quod - clause expressing a reason of the speaker’s own thoughts 
under other conditions — informal indirect discourse. See A. & G. 341, d, and rem.; 
B. 198, (b); G. 539, REM., and 628; H. 528, 1. Synonyms: promittere = to promise , 
as the general word, especially in response to a request ; polliceri = to promise , as a 
free and gracious act. 

Line 3. flagitare, historical pres. inf. of fldgito , -dre, -dvi, - dtum , 1. For its use 
in narrating vivid historic events, see A. & G. 275; B. 182 ; G. 647; H. 536, 1. Prob- 
ably in such use there is an ellipsis of coepit or coeperunt. Consult G. 647, note i. 
Synonyms : postulare = to demand , as a simple request ; poscere — to demand energetic- 
ally, because one has a consciousness of right ; whereas fldgitdre (strongest of all 

verbs of demanding) —to demand eagerly and importunately. Nam, conj.; it 

introduces an objective reason, while enim introduces a subjective, and is post- 
positive. propter, prep, with the acc. frigora, acc. plur. of frigus, -oris , n. 

(diagammated from j>lyos); it is the obj. of the prep, propter. The plur. her e = tht 
times of cold. See A. & G. 75, 3, c , end; G. 204, note 5. 


XVI. Mean- 
while Caesar 
kept daily de- 
manding from 
the Aedui the 
grain which they 
had promised in 
the name of the 
state. For on ac- 
count of the cold 


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110 


CAESAR’S GALLIC WAR 


[CHAP. XVI. 


weather, since 
Gaul lies toward 
the north — as we 
have before said 
— the standing 
grain was not 
only unripe in the 
fields, but not 
even a sufficient 
quantity of for- 


quod Gallia sub septentri5nibus, ut ant© 4 

because Gaul under the north , as before 

dictum est, posita est, non modo frumenta 5 
it has been said , was situated , not only the crops 
in agris matura non erant, sed ne 6 
in the fields ripe not were , but not 

pabull quidem satis magna copia 7 
of fodder even a sufficiently great abundance 


Line 4. quod, conj. = because ; note that the y/W-clause is explanatory of 
f rigor a. Gallia, nom. sing, of Gallia , -ac, f. ; subj. of posita est . Caesar is com- 
paring the climate of Gaul with that of Italy. sub (sibilated and -apocopated 

from the c,K. vtt 6 ); prep, with either the acc. or abl. ; here it takes the abl. 

septentridnibus, abl. plur. of the noun septentrid, - onis , m. (septem + trio) ; abl. after 
the prep. sub. The phrase gives the idea of the situation of that part of Gaul that 
seems to be under the stars in the Great Bear constellation. See note on septen - 

tridnes, 1 . 26, Chap. I. ut, adv., and usually such in a parenthetical clause. 

ante, adv. See lines 21-26, Chap. I. 

Line 5. dictum est, 3d pers. sing. perf. ind. pass, of died , -ere, - dixi , - dictum , 3; 
it is here used impersonally ; supply mi hi, as dat. of the agent, and we have the 

equivalent of the personal construction = dixi. posita, participle as predicate 

after est, forming a species of periphrastic conjugation ; it agrees in gender and 

number with Gallia. est, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. of the verb sum, esse,fui ', 

futurus; it agrees with its subject-nom. Gallia. non (ne + unum), adv., modifies 

modo. But observe that non modo . . . sed etia?n are conjunctive adverbial phrases, 
and that when non modo . . . non are followed, as in our text, by sed ne . . . quidem , 
this phraseology indicates a rising to a more emphatic negative in the second clause. 

frumenta, nom. plur. of the noun frumentum, n. (frugi-f- mentum), subj. of 

the verb erant. Observe (<r) that fructus usually denotes tree-fruit, but frumentum 
= grain; (b) that frumenta, in Caesar’s commentaries = standing grain, while the 
sing, frumentum = the grain gathered ; in other words, it —pabulum, forage. 

Line 6 . in, prep, with the acc. and abl. ; here it takes the abl. On the meaning of 

in, according to the case, see note on in, 1 . 1, Chap. I. agris, abl. plur. of the noun 

ager, agri, m. ; agris is the obj. of the prep. in. matura, nom. plur. n. of the 

adj. mdturus, -a, -um ; comparative mdturior, superl. mdturissimus, less frequently 

mdturrimus. mdtura is predicate-adj. after erant. non, adv. (ne + oe[u]num), 

modifies the adj. mdtura. erant, 3d pers. plur. imperf. ind. of the intrans. verb 

sum, esse, f id, futurus ; it agrees with its subject-nom. frumenta. sed, conj.; 

a particle of limitation — a stronger adversative than either at or autem. ne, 

adv., here modifying quidem ; sometimes a conj., and the two particles ne . . . quidem 
may be taken as conjunctions here, connecting the clauses. Archaic form nei (ni) ; 
the primary I^atin negative. 

Line 7. pabull, gen. sing, of the noun pabulum , -t, n.; it, as a gen., limits copia. 

quidem, conjunctive adv. Observe that the emphatic word is inserted between 

ne and quidem. See A. & G. 345, b; G. 679; II. 569, III. satis, adv., modifying 

mdgtia ; comparative satius = more satisfying, i.e. better. Synonyms : satis = enough, 
objectively, so that one needs no more ; but affatim = enough, subjectively, so that 


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LINES 8-11.] 


BOOK I. 


Ill 


8 suppetebat ; eo autem frumento, quod 

was in store; that , moreover , grain which 

9 flumine Arari navibus subvexerat, propterea 

on the river Arar by ships he had conveyed, for this reason 

10 minus uti poterat, quod iter 

the less (easily) to use he was able, because the route 

11 ab Arari Ilelvetil averterant, a 

from the Arar the llelvetii had turned aside, from 


age was at hand. 
Moreover, the 
grain which Cae- 
sar had brought 
by boats on the 
river Sa6ne, he 
could not use, 
because the Hel- 
vetii had turned 
their course from 
the river, and 


one wishes for no more. Doedl. Synonyms. magna, nom. sing. f. of the adj. 

rndgnus, maior , mdximus . mdgna is an attributive of copia. cdpia, nom. sing. 

of cdpia , -ae , f. ; subj. of suppetebat '. Note that in the sing, cdpia — abundance ; in 
the plur., troops. 

Line 8. suppetebat, 3d pers. sing, imperf. ind. of sup(b)peto , -ere, -ivi (-/*), -itum, 
3, n. (sub + petere) ; hence suppetere = lit. to seek for that which is near, suppetebat 

agrees with its subject-nom. cdpia. ed, abl. sing. n. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id; 

it is an attributive of the noun frumento. autem, conj., postpositive ; a weak 

adversative ; often simply marks the transition. frumentS, abl. sing, of fru- 

mentum, -i, n. See note on frumenta, 1 . 5, above, frumento is in the abl. after the 

verb uti, 1 . 10, below. Consult A. & G. 249; B. 167, 1 ; G. 407; II. 421, 1 . quod, 

acc. sing. n. of the rel. pron. qui, quae, quod ; it refers to frumento as its antecedent, 
but is the direct obj. of subvexerat. quod is known to be a rel. pron. in the acc., 
because subvexerat is a trans. verb and requires a direct obj. 

Line 9 . flumine, abl. sing, of the noun fliimen, -inis, n. (fluere, to flow); hence 
flumen = lit. a plowing, flumine is in the abl. of the way by which. See A. & G. 

258,^; B. 167, 5, (b) ; G. 389; H. 420, 1,3). Arari, abl. sing, of the noun Arat or 

Araris, m., acc. in -im; an appositive. The form Arare, abl., sometimes occurs. 
The Arar is the modern Saone; it rises in the Vosges mountains, and empties into 

the Rhone. navibus, abl. plur. of the noun ndvis, -is, f. (gk. vavs) ; abl. of means. 

A. & G. 248, c; B. 167; G. 401 ; II. 420. subvexerat, 3d pers. sing, pluperf. 

ind. act. of subz'eho, -ere, - vext , - rectum , 3 ; it agrees with a pron. implied in the end- 
ing, referring to Caesar. propterea (propter + ea), adv. ; the herald of the 

following quod- clause. 

Line 10. minus, adv., comparative of parum (not enough ), superl. minimi; it 
modifies the verb uti. minus — lit. less, but may be frequently rendered as if it were 

non. uti, pres. inf. of the deponent verb utor, uti, iisus, 3 ; inf. complementary, 

and depends on poterat. See A. & G. 271 ; B. 181 ; G. 423; II. 533, I, 2. poterat, 

3d pers. sing, imperf. ind. of possum, posse , potui (potis + sum) ; it agrees with a 

subject-nom. implied in the ending, referring to Caesar. quod, conj., connects 

the clauses ; known to be a conj. not merely because there is no noun immediately 
preceding as an antecedent, but because averterant, as a plur. trans. verb, has its 

obj. iter; quod, accordingly, could neither be the subj. nor obj. iter, acc. sing. 

of the noun iter, itineris, n. ; the direct obj. of dverteranf. For synonyms, see note 
on via, 1 . 2, Chap. IX. 

Line ii. ab, prep, with the abl. (d before consonants only, ab before either 

vowels or consonants); compare gk. &t 6, English off. Arari, abl. sing, of Arar, 

1 aris , m.j acc. in -im ; another form of the abl. is Arare; abl. after the prep, ab . 


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112 


CAESAR’S GALLIC WAR 


[CHAP. XVI. 


he was unwilling quibus discedere nolebat. Diem ex 12 

th^^ThTAedui w ^ om * 0 l eave h e i oas unwilling. Day after 

di * d0 “ re Aed “ I; 

saying that the d a V to put him off (began) the Aedui : (the grain) 

grain was being _ » _ , 

collected, brought confem, comportan, adesse dicere.u 

in, and was near to be brought together , to be collected , to be near , to say 


Helvetii, nom. plur. of the adj. Helvetius , -a, - um , used substantively, and as such 
the subject-nom. of dverterant . For description of this clan, see note on Helvetii ; 

1. 16, Chap. I. averterant, 3d pers. plur. pluperf. ind. act. of dverto , -ere, dverit , 

dversum , 3 (ab + vertere); hence avertere = lit. to turn away, dverterant agrees with 
its subject-nom. Helvetii. a, see ab , immediately above. 

Line 12. quibus, abl. plur. m. of the rel. pron. qui, quae , quod ; as a rel. it 

refers to Helvetii as its antecedent, but it is the obj. of the prep. d. discedere, 

pres. inf. of discedo , -ere, -cessi, - cessum , 3 ; complementary, depending on nolebat. 

nolebat, 3d pers. sing, imperf . ind. of nolo, ndlle, ndlut (ne + volo) ; it agrees 

with a pron. implied in its ending as. subject-nom., referring to Caesar. Note that, 
after crossing the Saone, the Helvetii had turned in a westerly direction, in order to 
cross the Cevenne mountains at their least altitude. Their destination, it will be 

recalled, was the country of the Santoni. Diem, acc. of the noun dies, -ei, m. or 

f. in sing., always m. in the plur. diem is here acc. of extent of time. Consult 
A. & G. 256, 2 ; B. 153 ; G. 336; H. 379. ex, prep, with the abl. (e before con- 

sonants only, ex before vowels or consonants). 

Line 13. die, abl. of dies, -ei, after the prep, ex, which latter here = after. 

ducere, historical pres. inf. of duco, -ere, duxi, ductum, 3, for diicebant. As diicere is 
a trans. verb, supply e um, i.e. Caesarem, as direct obj. As to the use of the historic 
inf., and for grammatical references, see note on fldgitdre , 1. 3, above. As to its 
signification, ducere = (a) to lead, in its widest sense ; then, of course, (b) to lead a 
person in regard to his will; then, (c), in reference to time, it = to prolong; and (d), in 
reference to persons, it = to put off, as in our text. But sometimes (e) it = to lead or 
control one’s own thoughts, to reckon . Compare note on duxerunt, 1. 10, Chap. III. 
Aedui, nom. plur. of the adj. Aeduus, -a, -um, used substantively, and here sub- 
ject-nom. of the historical inf. ducere. For historical description of the clan, see 
note on Aeduo, 1 . 20, Chap. III. 

Line 14. cQnferri, pres. inf. pass, of confero , ferre, contuli, col(n)ldtum (con -+- 

fero) ; supply frumentum as subject-acc. comportan, pres. inf. pass, of comporto, 

-ore, -dvi, -atum ; comportdri is in the same grammatical construction as conferri; its 
subject-acc. is the pron. id, representing frumentum. Note the omission of the conj. 
between these infinitives (asyndeton). Note also that, as fend is used of what is 
borne by a servant on his own body, and poridrt is used in reference to that which 
is borne on a beast or wagon ; so conferri, in our text, would have reference to the 
contributions of menial Aeduans to their officials, and comportdri would denote the 
official delivery of the grain to Caesar. Or comportdri may be taken as merely 

epexegetical of conferri. adesse, pres. inf. of the intrans. ad(as)sum, - esse , 

ad(af)fui , ad(af)futurus. adesse is in the same grammatical construction as the 
two immediately preceding infinitives ; i.e. its subject-acc. is the pron. id, referring 
to frumentum. Observe that these three infinitives with their subject-accusatives 
depend on dtcere. dicere, historical pres. inf. of died, -ere, dtxi, dictum , 3 ; it 


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LINES 16-18.] 


BOOK I. 


113 


is Ubi se diutius dud 

(began they). When himself too long to be put off 

16 intellexit et diem instare, quo die 
he perceived and the day to be near on which day 
it frumentum militibus me tin oporteret, 

(himself) grain to the soldiers to measure out it behooved , 

18 convocatls eorum principibus, quorum 

having been summoned their chiefs , of whom 

stands for dicebant ', in ordinary discourse, and agrees with the pron. ei, i.e. Aedui, to 
be supplied, as the subject-nom. For grammatical references, see note on fdgitdre , 
1. 3, above. 

Line 15. Ubi (quo + bi), adv. =lit . in which place, where ; sometimes used of 

time, and = whenever or when. se, acc. sing, of the reflexive pron. sui \ sibi, se , 

se , same form in both numbers ; subject-acc. of the verb duet. diutius, adv., 

comparative of diu (dies); superl. diutissime . For the omission of the standard of 
comparison, see A. & G. 93, a ; B. 163, rem. 6; G. 297, 2 ; H. 444, 1. diutius mod- 

ifies the verb duct. duel, pres. inf. pass, of dued, -ere, duxi , due turn, 3 ; it, with 

its subject-acc., forms a noun-clause which is the direct obj. of intellexit. duet is 
known to be the pres. inf. pass, of ducor, and not the dat. of dux, ducis, duct, to the 
novice by noticing that the vowel in the penult in dux is short ; to the experienced 
Latinist, by the observation that the construction cannot be satisfactorily analyzed 
in any other way than by making duct a pass. inf. But note that duct here = to be 
put off, and compare ducere, 1. 13, above. 

Line 16. intellSxit, 3d pers. sing. perf. ind. act. of intellego, -ere, -lext, dec turn, 3 
(inter -j- legere) ; hence intellegere — to select between, to discriminate , to know, intel- 
lexit agrees with a pron. implied in the ending as subject-nom., referring to Caesar. 

diem, acc. sing, of the noun dies, -et, m. and f. in sing., always m. in the plur. ; 

diem is subject-acc. of the verb instdre. instare, pres. inf. of ins id, - sidre , -stiti, 

fut. participle - staturus , 1 (in + stare) ; hence instdre = lit. to stand on or near , i.e. to 

press on, be urgent. qu5, abl. sing. m. of the rel. pron. qui, quae , quod ; as a rel. 

it refers to diem , but it has here an adjective force, and is the attributive of the 
noun die, repeated from diem. As to the repetition of the antecedent in the relative- 

clause, consult A. & G. 200, a ; B. 129, rem. i, (b)\ G. 615 ; H. 445, 8. die, abl. 

of time at which, from dies, -ei; see diem, immediately above. For grammatical 
references, see A. & G. 256, I; B. 171 ; G. 393; H. 429. 

Line 17. frumentum, acc. sing, of frumentum , n.; direct obj. of the deponent 

verb metiri, of which verb supply the pron. se as subject-acc. militibus, dat. 

plur. of the noun miles , -itis, m. ; dat. of the indirect obj. after metiri. See A. & G. 

225, 3, d\ B. 141 ; G. 345; H. 384, II. metiri, pres. inf. of the deponent verb 

metior, -irt, mensus, postclassic metitus, 4. Note that the infinitive-clause frumentum 

(se) militibus metiri is the subject of the so-called impersonal verb oporteret. 

oporteret, 3d pers. sing, imperf. subjunctive of the impersonal verb oportet, -ere , 
-; uit , 2 ; subjunctive, because in a dependent clause in implied ordtio obliqua. Consult 
A. & G. 342 ; B. 245, (b); G. 663; H. 529, II, note i, i). 

Line 18. convocatls, abl. plur. m. of the perf. pass, participle convocdtus , -a, -um 
of the verb convoco, -dre, -dvi, -dtum, 1 ; abl. absolute with the noun principibus . — 


at hand. When 
Caesar saw that 
he was put off 
too long, and 
that the day was 
near when he 
must distribute 
grain to his sol- 
diers, summoning 
the Helvetian 
chiefs, of whom 


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114 


CAESAR 8 GALLIC WAR 


[CHAP. XVI. 


magnam copiam in castris habebat — in 19 

a great plenty in camp he had — among 

his Divitiaco et Lisco, qui summo 20 

them Divitiacus and Liscus , who of the supreme 

magistrate praeerat, quem Yergobretum 21 

body of officers was the leader , whom as Vergobretus 

eorum, gen. plur. m. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id, used as a personal pron. of the 

3d pers. ; it limits the noun principibus . principibus, abl. plur. of princeps , 

-cipis, m. (primum + capere) ; primarily an adj. ; here a noun, and in the abl. absolute 
with the perf. pass, participle convocdtis , denoting time when . Consult A. & G. 255, 

d, 1; B. 172; G. 409, 410 ; H. 431. quorum, gen. plur. of the rel. pron. qui, 

quae, quod ; it refers to principibus as its antecedent, but, as a gen., it limits copiam. 

Line 19. magnam, acc. sing. f. of the adj. mdgnus, -a, -um ; comparative mdior; 

superl. degree mdximus ; magnam is an attributive of cdpiam. copiam, acc. 

sing, of the noun copia, -ae, f. (con + ops) ; here cdpiam = multitudinem. cdpiam is 

the direct obj. of habebat . in, prep, with the acc. or abl. ; here it takes the abl. 

For definition of meaning when followed by either the acc. or abl., see note on in, 

1 . 1, end, Chap. I. castris, abl. plur. of ca strum, -i, m.; in the sing. = a redoubt; 

in the plur. = a camp, castris is the obj. of the prep. in. habebat, 3d pers. sing. 

imperf. ind. act. of habeo , -ere, -ui, - Hum , 2 ; it agrees with a pron. implied in the 

ending as its subject-nom., referring to Caesar. in, see note on in, immediately 

before castris , above. 

Line 20. his, abl. plur. m. of the dem. pron. hie, haec , hoc, used as a personal 
pron. of the 3d person, his refers to the Aeduans, and is used, because they had 

just been alluded to. his is the obj. of the prep, in, which here = among. 

Divitiaco, abl. sing, of Divitiacus, -i, m. ; abl. absolute with the participle convocdtis, 
to be supplied. Divitiacus was an Aeduan chief, brother of Dumnorix, and a friend 

of the Roman people. et, cop. conj.; it connects objects of equal importance; 

atque (ad + que), a cop. conj., but adds a notion of greater importance; while -que 
(enclitic) merely appends a notion, and is adjunctive rather than copulative. In our 

text, et couples Divitiaco and Lisco. Liscd, abl. sing, of the proper noun Liscus , 

-i t , m. ; it, too, is in the abl. absolute with convocdtis, supplied. Observe that the 
participle is plur., because it is in the abl. absolute construction with two nouns con- 
nected by the conj. et. It appears that Liscus was an Aeduan chief magistrate. 

qui, nom. sing. m. of the rel. pron. qui, quae, quod; it refers to Liscus, but is subject- 

nom. of praeerat. summo, dat. sing. m. of the adj., superl. degree, summus , 

-a, ~um; one of the forms of the superl. of the adj. superus, comparative superior, 
superl. supremus or summus ; summo is an attributive of magistratui. 

Line 21. magistratui, dat. sing, of the noun magistrdtus , -us, m. ; a contracted form 
magistrdtu is read in some editions, magistrdtui is dat. after prae in composition in 

praeerat. Consult A. & G. 228 ; B. 143 ; G. 347 ; H. 386. praeerat, 3d pers. sing. 

imperf. ind. of the intrans. verb praesum, praeesse, praefui (prae + esse) = lit. to b: 

before ; hence praeesse = to be over, to be in command of. quem, acc. sing. m. of the 

rel. qui, quae, quod ; its antecedent is magistrdtui, and quem is the direct obj. of appellant; 
or the clause may be taken as = sed eum qui summo magistrdtui praeerat, Vergo- 
bretum appellant Aedui. Yergobretum, acc. sing, of Vergobretus , -i, m. ; predicate- 


he had a large 
number in the 
camp — among 
them Divitiacus 
and Liscus, the 
latter the ruling 
chief, whom the 
Aedui call Ver- 
gobretus, who is 


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LINES 22-24.] 


BOOK I, 


115 


22 appellant AeduT, qul creatur annuus et 

address the Aedui , who is elected an annual and 

23 vitae necisque in suos habet potestatem — 

of life death and, among his own he has the power — 

24 graviter eos accusat, quod, cum neque 

sharply them he rebukes, because, when (grain) neither 


elected annually, 
and has the power 
of life and death 
among his own 
people — he cen- 
sured them se- 
verely for not aid- 
ing him, as grain 


acc. For the two accusatives after appellant ', see A. & G. 239, i,a; B. 151, (£); 
G. 340; H. 373. With Vergobretus compare the gk. Be py 6/3 per os. The word is 

Celtic in origin, and said to mean vir ad indicium — a man for trying cases. See 
Dr. Anthon’s note in loc. As it evidently denotes a very important man or office, 
the word is entitled to a capital initial, as the older editions give it. 

Line 22. appellant, 3d pers. plur. pres. ind. act. of ap(d)pelld, -are, - dvt \ - dtum , 1 ; 

it agrees with its subject-nom. AeduT. Aedui, nom. plur. of the adj. Aeduus , -a, 

um , used substantively; as a noun it is subject-nom. of appellant. As to this 

clan, see note on Aedud , 1 . 20, Chap. III. qui, nom. sing. m. of the rel. pron. 

quT, quae , quod; it refers to magistrate, but is the subject-nom. of creatur. 

creatur, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. pass, of the act. verb cred, -dre, -dvt, -dtum; pass. 

parts: creor, creari, credtus, 1. annuus, nom. sing. m. of the adj. annuus, -a, -um 

(annus, a year); predicate after a copulative verb. Consult A. & G. 176, a, end; 
B. 128, B; G. 206; H. 360, note 1. Observe that the rigidly literal translation of 
quT creatur annuus is : who is elected an annual ; and that the adj. here is = the 
adv. in the English idiom. et, cop. conj.; it connects the clauses. 

Line 23. vitae, gen. sing, of the noun vita, -ae, f. (derived from victa, perf. 

participle of vivo), vitae, as a gen., limits potestatem. necisque (necis + que). 

necis, gen. sing, of the noun nex, necis, f. (compare GK. vlicos). necis is connected by 

the enclitic conj. -que with vitae, and is in the same grammatical construction. 

in, prep, with the acc. or abl. ; here it takes the acc. suos, acc. plur. m. of the 

poss. and reflexive pron. suus, -a, -um, used substantively. See A. & G. 190, a; 
B. 60, rem. ; G. 204, note 1, b; H. 441, 1. If one prefer, he may supply populds 

here, suos as a subst. is the obj. of the prep. in. habet, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. 

of the verb habed, -ere, -ut, -iturn, 2 ; connected by the conj. et with creatur, and has 

the same subject-nom. qui. potestatem, acc. sing, of the noun potestds, - atis , f. 

(posse); the direct obj. of habet. 

Line 24. graviter, adv. (gravis); it modifies accusat. Note that adverbs are 
regularly formed from adjectives by the addition of - ter to the stem. As gravis is 

an i-stem, the adv. is formed thus : gravi -f- ter. eos, acc. plur. of the dem. pron. 

is, ea, id, used as a personal pron. of the 3d pers. ; it refers to principibus, but is the 

direct obj. of accusat. accusat, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. of the verb accuso, 

-dre, - dvi , -dtum, 1 (ad + causa); hence accusdre = lit. to call one to account, i.e. = 
ad causam vocare. accusat agrees with a subject-nom. implied in the ending, refer- 
ring to Caesar. quod, conj. ; known to be such, because it is seen to introduce 

a clause, quod . . . sublevetur , giving a reason for the statement made in the main 

proposition. cum, conj., known to be such, because it is seen to introduce a 

time-clause, cum . . . posset. neque (ne + que) = lit. and not; but neque • . • 

neque = neither . . . nor . 


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116 


caesab’s gallic war 


[CHAP. xvi. 


could neither be 
bought nor taken 
from the fields ; 
as the time was 
critical and the 
enemy near; es- 
pecially, as, in- 
fluenced in great 
measure, by their 


emi 

to be bought 

posset, 
t oas possible , 

propinquis 

near 

praesertim 

especially 


neque ex agrls sum! 25 

nor from the fields to be taken 

tam necessario tempore, tam 26 

at so necessary a time , with so 

hostibus ab els non sublevetur ; 27 

enemies by them he not was assisted ; 

cum magna ex parte eorum 28 

since great from (in) part by their 


Line 25. emi, pres. inf. pass, of the verb e mo, - ere , emi, bnptum , 3; comple- 
mentary inf. depending on posset Consult A. & G. 271 ; B. 181 ; G. 423; H. 533, I, 2. 
neque, see neque, preceding line. ex, prep, with the abl. (e before con- 
sonants only, ex before vowels or consonants). agris, abl. plur. of the noun ager , 

agri, m. ; abl. after the prep. ex. sum!, pres. inf. pass, of sumo , -ere , sump si, 

sumptum , 3 ; it is also a complementary inf., depending on posset. 

Line 26. posset, 3d pers. sing, imperf. subjunctive of possum, posse, potui (potis 
4 " sum); imperf. subjunctive after cum, denoting both time and cause. See A. & G. 
326; B. 223; G. 586; H. 517. posset agrees with frumentum, to be supplied, as sub- 

ject-nom. tam, adv. (an accusative-form ; compare the correlative form quam); 

it modifies the adj. necessdrio. necessarid, abl. sing, of the adj. necessdrius , -a, 

-um (necesse [ne + cedere]) ; necessdrio is an attributive of tempore. tempore, 

abl. of the noun tempus, -oris, n. (gk. rtfivetv, to cut) ; hence tempus = a section of 
duration, tempore is the abl. of time at which. Consult A. & G. 256, I; B. 171; 
G. 393 ; H. 429. tam, adv. ; modifies the adj. propinquis. 

Line 27. propinquis, abl. plur. of the adj . propin quus, -a, -um (profe, near); it 

is a modifier of hostibus. hostibus, abl. plur. of the noun hostis , hostis , m. and f. 

(originally a stranger; transf. an enemy); abl. of manner. See A. & G. 248; B. 168; 

G. 399; II. 419, III. Another possible construction is the abl. absolute. ab, 

prep, with the abl. (d before consonants only, ab before vowels or consonants); with 

ab compare gk. &it 6, elided dir’ and &<f>, and English off. eis, abl. plur. of the 

dem. pron. is, ea, id, used as a personal pron. of the 3d pers. ; eis is the obj. of 
the prep, ab, and is the abl. of the agent. A. & O. 246; B. 166; G. 401 ; H. 415, I. 

non (ne 4 - oenum or unum, apocopated) ; observe its normal Latin position 

immediately before the word it modifies. sublevetur, 3d pers. sing. pres, sub- 

junctive pass, of sublevd , -dre , -dvi, -dtum, 1 ; it agrees with a pron. implied in the 
ending, referring to Caesar as its subject-nom. sublevetur is in the subjunctive mode 
in the ^iW-clause, because the reason is given on the authority of Caesar the 
general, rather than on Caesar the historian. Note that Caesar the historian is a 
little dubious in his statements as to Caesar the general, whose acts military neces- 
sity sometimes seemed to control. But consult A. & G. 321 ; B. 198, ( b ) ; G. 541, 
663 ; H. 516, II. 

Line 28. praesertim, adv. (prae + serere) = lit. to join before , i.e. the adv. = 
foremost, especially. Observe (0) that praesertim is in form like an adverbial acc. 
statim ; it is made by annexing the adverbial ending tim to the stem ser thus: 
praeser + tim. Observe (b) that the clause introduced by praesertim cum . . . susceperit 
merely elaborates and gives special emphasis to the preceding quod . . . sublevetur- 

clause. cum, conj., causal. magna, abl. sing. f. of the adj. mdgnus , -a, -um; 

comparative rndior, superl. mdximus. magna modifies the noun parte. ex, prep. 


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LINES 29 - 31 .] 


BOOK I. 


117 


29 precibus 

prayers 


adductus 

being led 


bellum susceperit, 

war he has undertaken , 


30 multo 

much 


etiam gravius, quod sit destitutus, 

even more severely , because he hasbeen abandoned , 


prayers he had 
undertaken the 
war, even the 
more bitterly he 
complained of 
their desertion. 


si queritur. 
does he complain . 


i XVII. Turn demum 

Then at length 


Liscus 

Liscus 


oratione 

by the oration 


XVII. Then 
at length Liscus, 
influenced by 


with the abl. (e before consonants only, ex before either vowels or consonants). For 
the position of the monosyllabic prep, between a noun and its modifier, see A. & G. 

345, a; B. 58. 2 ; G. 413, rem. 1 ; H. 569, II, 1. parte, abl. sing, of the noun 

pars, partis^ f. ; it is the obj. of the prep. ex. Observe that the phrase mdgnd ex 
parte = lit. of or from a great party denoting the source or measure = in great 

measure , according to the English idiom. eorum, gen. plur. m. of the dem. 

pron. isy ea, idy used as a personal pron. of the 3d pers. ; as a gen. it limits precibus . 

Line 29. precibus, abl. plur. of the noun prex, precis , f. ; used in the sing, only 
in the abl. precibus is an abl. of cause after the perf. pass, participle adductus. 
Consult A. & G. 245, and b\ B. 165, and rem. 4; G. 408, note 2 ; H. 416, note i. 

adductus, perf. pass, participle of the verb adducdy -ere t - duxi, -ductumy 3 ; as a 

participle it agrees with Caesar understood. beUum, acc. sing, of the noun 

bellum, - ty n. ; it is the direct obj. of susceperit. As to the original form of the word 

and its derivation, see note on bellumy 1 . 15, Chap. I. susceperit, 3d pers. sing. 

perf. subjunctive act. of suscipidy -ere, - cept, -ceptum, 3 (sub + capere); subjunctive 
after cum causal ; see grammatical references to possety 1. 26, above. 

Line 30. multo, may be taken as adv. modifying gravius; or may be taken as 

abl. of degree of difference after the same adv. etiam, adv. (et + iam), modifies 

multo. gravius, adv., comparative degree of gravitery superl . gravissime. Observe 

that he complains even more severely than he did as indicated by graviter cos 

accusaty 1. 24, above. quod, conj. = because. sit destitutus ( destitutus sit), 

3d pers. sing. perf. subjunctive pass, of destituo, - ere , -stituiy stiiutum , 3 (de + sta- 
tuere); subjunctive, because the reason is given on the authority of Caesar the 
diplomatist, rather than on that of Caesar the historian. See note on sublevetur , 
1. 27, above, and the grammatical references there given. 

Line 31. queritur, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. of the deponent verb queror , -F, 
questusy 3 ; it agrees with a pron. implied in the ending, referring to Caesar as the 
subject-nom. Ordtio recta of lines 24-31 : Ego graviter vos accusd , quod, cum neque 
eml neque ex agris sum! possit , tarn necessario tempore, tarn propinquis hostibus d 
vdbis non sublevor; praesertim cum magna ex parte vestris precibus adductus bellum 
susceperim ; multo etiam gravius, quod sum destitiitusy queror. 

Line i. Turn, adv., a correlative particle denoting coincident or sequent time, 

connected with cum, ubi and postquam ; compare gk. t 6re. demum, adv.; 

enclitically connected with the preceding turn to give emphasis to the idea of 
restriction = at length; compare gk. Sijirore. Liscus, -I, m., subject-nom. of pro* 


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118 


CAESAR’S GALLIC WAR 


[CHAP. XVH. 


Caesaris adductus, quod antea tacuerat, 2 

of Caesar led , (that) which before he had concealed , 

pr 5 p 5 nit: esse nonnullos, quorums 

he sets forth: to be (there are) some, whose 

auctoritas apud plebem plurimum valeat, 4 

influence with the populace most has weight , 

qui prlvatiin plus possint quam ipsi 5 

who privately more are able than the very 

ponit ; he was the chief magistrate among the Aedui. oratione, abl. sing, of 

drdtio, -onis, f. ; abl. of cause subjective after adductus. Consult A. & G. 245, and 
2, b; B. 165, and rem. 4; G. 408, and note 2; H. 416, and note i. Synonyms: 
sermo — conversation or a conversational speech; whereas oratio — the premeditated 
and prepared speech. 

Line 2. Caesaris, gen. sing, of the noun Caesar, - aris, m. ; as a gen. it limits 

ordtione. adductus, nom. of the perf. pass, participle of the verb addiicd , -ere, 

-diixi, -due turn, 3 (ad + ducere); pass. : ad due or, -i, - ductus ; as a participle it agrees 

with the proper noun Liscus. quod, acc. sing. n. of the rel. pron. qui, quae, 

quod; its antecedent is id, to be supplied, which id is the direct obj. of prdponit; but 
quod is the direct obj. of tacuerat , which is here used transitively. To refer to an 
idea, id quod or quae res, as phrases, are generally used, though quod alone some- 
times occurs. See A. & G. 200, e , and note; B. 129, rem. 8; G. 614, rem. 2; 

H. 445, 7. antea, adv. (ante + ea) ; it modifies tacuerat. tacuerat, 3d pers. 

sing, pluperf. ind. of taceo, -ere, - ui , - itum , 2 ; it agrees with a pron. implied in the 
ending, referring to Liscus as its subject-nom. 

Line 3. prdponit, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. of propono , -ere, -posuT, -positum, 3 
(pro -f- ponere) — lit. to place or put forward; hence = to display or expose ; it agrees 

with Liscus as subject-nom. esse, pres. inf. of the intrans. verb sum,fui, fut. 

participle futurus . Observe (a) that esse is for sunt in the drdtio recta; (b) that the 
rest of this chapter is in the oratio obliqua from the speaker's point of view — 
representdtio ; in other words, proponit controlsthe sequence of tenses in the oblique 

narrative. nonnullos, acc. plur. m. of the adj. pron. nonnullus , -a, -um (non -j- 

nullus) = some; nonnulli, plur. = some few; i.e. the two negatives = an indefinite 
affirmative. Consult A. & G. 150, a; B. 117. 10; G. 449; II. 553, 1. Observe partic- 
ularly that esse ?idnnullos in indirect discourse = sunt nonnulli in direct discourse ; 
and that esse in indirect, or sunt in direct, discourse is a verb of complete predica- 
tion. quorum, gen. plur. m. of the rel. pron. qui, quae, quod; it refers to non - 

nullos as its antecedent, but as a gen. it limits auctdritds. 

Line 4. auctoritas, -atis, nom. sing, f.; subj. of the verb valeat. apud, 

prep, with the acc. plebem, acc. sing, of the noun plebs, plebis, f. ; nom. plebes 

sometimes occurs; plebem is the obj. of the prep. apud. For synonyms, see note on 

populum, 1. 17, Chap. VI. plurimum, adv., superl. of multum; comparative 

plus ; plurimum modifies valeat. plurimum might be taken as an adj., a cognate acc. ; 

see A. & G. 238, b\ B. 1 50, rem. 2 ; G. 333, and 2 ; H. 371, II, (2). valeat, 3d pers. 

sing. pres, subjunctive of valed, - ere,-ui ', - itum , 2; subjunctive, because it is in a de- 
pendent clause in oratio obliqua. Consult A. & G. 336, 2 ; B. 245, 1 ,(b)\ G. 655 ; II. 524. 

Line 5. qui, nom. plur. m. of the rel. pron. qui, quae, quod; it refers to non - 
nullos as its antecedent, but is the subj. of possint. privatim, adv. (from the 


Caesar's speech, 
disclosed what 
he had previous- 
ly concealed. He 
said there were 
some whose au- 
thority with the 
common people 
was very great, 
and who, in a 
private capacity, 


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LINES 0-8.] 


BOOK I. 


119 


c magistrates. Hos seditiosa atque improba 

magistrates. These by mutinous and wicked 

7 oratione multitudinem deterrere ne 

speech the multitude to deter (deter) that not 

s frumentum conferant, quod debeant : 

the grain they may collect , which they ought : 

stem priva + the acc. adverbial ending tim) ; this stem is seen in privdtus , a parti- 
ciple of the verb privdre , and the root priv is seen in the adj. privus = single , each. 

plus, adv., comparative degree of multum ; superl. plurtmunt . But see note on 

plurimum, 1. 4, above. The adverbs privatim and plus modify the intrans. or neuter 

verb possint. possint, 3d pers. plur. imperf. subjunctive of possum, posse, potui 

(potis, able + sum); it agrees with its subject-nom. qui; it is in the subjunctive, 
because it is in a dependent clause in oratio obliqua; but more accurately, because it 
is in a relative clause after an indefinite or general expression, which characterizes 

the antecedent. See A. & G. 320, a; B. 234, 1 ; G. 631, 2 ; H. 503, 1. quam, 

conj., connects, the clauses. ipsi, nom. plur. m. of the intensive dem. pron. ipse, 

-. sa , -sum, gen. ipsius , dat. ipsi, same form as nom. plur. ; the'distinction can only be 
determined by considering the context; ipsi here adds emphasis to magistrdtus ; 
together these words = the magistrates themselves or the very magistrates. 

Line 6. magistrates, nom. plur. of the noun magistrdtus, -us, m. ; it is the sub- 
ject-nom. of possint understood. For description of the Roman magistrates, see note 
on magistrdtus, 1. 15, Chap. IV. The Gallic magistrates appear to have been a body 

of officers who were elected annually. Hos, acc. plur. m. of the dem. pron. hie , 

haec, hdc, used substantively, referring to the private parties, hds is subject-acc. of 

deterrere. seditiosa, abl. sing. f. of the adj. seditiosus, -a, -um ; it is an attributive 

of oratione. Observe that adjectives in - osus denote fulness. atque (ad + que), 

conj.; usually adds a more important notion. improba, abl. of the adj. improbus , 

-a, -um (in, negative -f- probus) = not good, in a moral point of view; it, too, is an 
attributive of oratione. Oratio ?-ecta of lines 3-6 : sunt nonniilli, quorum auctoritas 
apud plebem plurimum valeat, qui privatim plus possint quam ipsi magistrates. 

Line 7. oratione, abl. sing, of dratid, - onis , f. (ordre, to speak); abl. of means. 

For synonyms, see note on oratione , 1. 1, above. multitudinem, acc. sing, of the 

noun multiiudo , - dinis , f. ( multus ); it is direct obj. of deterrere. deterrere, pres. 

inf. act. of deterred, -ere, -ui, -Hum, 2. Note that hds . . . deterrere is the main clause 
of indirect discourse = hi . . . deterrent, of direct discourse; compare esse nonniillds, 
1. 3, above, and note also that these clauses depend on proponit, 1. 3, above, or its 
equivalent dicit. ne, adv. and conj., archaic nei for ni, primitive negative; com- 

pare GK. yd \ ; here ne is telic after a verb denoting to hinder. 

Line 8. frumentum, acc. sing, of the noun frumentum, -i, n. (frugi + mentum); 

it is the direct obj. of conferant. conferant, 3d pers. plur. pres, subjunctive of the 

verb conferd, -ferre, contuli, col(n)ldtum ; it agrees with a pron as its subject-nom. im- 
plied in the ending, referring to multitudinem ; it is subjunctive of negative purpose 

after ne. Consult A. & G. 331,*, 2,(1); B. 200, rem. 5; G. 548, note i ; H. 505, II, 1. 

quod, acc. sing. n. of the rel. pron. qui, quae, quod; it refers to frumentum as its 
antecedent, but is the direct obj. of conferre, to be supplied from conferant ; and 

which is* an inf. complementary to debeant. debeant, 3d pers. plur. of the verb 

debeo, -ere, -ui, -itum, 2; its suBiect-nom. is a pron. implied in the ending, referring to 


had more influ- 
ence than the 
magistrates 
themselves; that 
these men by 
their seditious 
and wicked talk 
were keeping the 
populace from 


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120 


caesar’s gallic war 


[CHAP. XVH. 


bringing in the 
grain, as they 
ought ; that it 
were better, if 
they could no 
longer hold the 
supremacy of 
Gaul, to submit 
to the sway of 
the Gauls than 
to that of the 
Romans; and 


praestare, si iam prmcipatum Galliae » 

it to be (it is) preferable , if now the leadership of Gaul 

obtinere non possint, Gallorum quam 10 

to maintain not they are able , of the Gauls than 

Romanorum imperia perferre ; neque 11 

of the Romans the commands to endure ; nor (themselves) 

dubitare quin, si Helvetios superaverint 12 

to doubt that , if to the Helvetii are superior 


multitudinem ; it is in the subjunctive, because it is a dependent clause in ordtio 
obliqua . For etymology, see note on debuerint , 1. n, Chap. XI. There is a variety 
of readings and punctuation at this point, in our text. Most modern editions con- 
struct the text thus after conferant: quod praestdre debeant: si iam . . . praeferre , 
neque dubitdre . Some editions have a bracketed [debeant] after dubitare . The lection 
of Kraner, which we have given, is to be preferred. 

Line 9. praestare, pres. inf. of praesto , -tire, - stiti , -stdtum and siitum , 1 ; second 
stem irr. ; praestdre is used impersonally = melius esse, it is better; strictly speaking, 
the inf. perferre, 1. 11, below, with its modifiers is the subj. of praestdre . It will be 
noted that the inf. construction is the main clause of indirect discourse ; that in 

direct discourse praestdre becomes praestat. si, conditional particle ; original 

form set, sibilated from gk. el. iam, adv. = now, of any event, past, present or 

future; whereas nunc emphasizes the present, iam followed by non, in the text = 

no longer. prlncipatum, acc. sing, of the noun principals , -us, m. (primus -f- 

capere) ; direct obj. of obtinere . For synonyms, see note on imperium t 1. 27, Chap. III. 
Galliae, gen. sing, of Gallia, -ae, f. ; it limits principdtum . 

Line 10. obtinere, pres. inf. of obtineo, -ere, -ui, -tentum, 2 (ob -f- tenere); com- 
plementary inf., depending on possint. See A. & G. 271 ; B. 181 ; G. 423; H. 533, I, 2. 

n5n, negative adv. (ne + oe[u]num, apocopated) ; note its normal position ; 

immediately before the word it modifies. possint, 3d pers. plur. pres, subjunctive 

of possum , posse, potui (potis + sum) ; it agrees with a pron. implied in its ending as 
its subject-nom., referring to those included among the nonniillbs, 1. 3, above ; sub- 
junctive in the condition after the conj. si; the conclusion is contained in praestdre . 

Galldrum, gen. plur. of Galli, -drum , m., limiting as a gen. imperia. quam, 

conj., connecting the phrases, magis or potius is to be supplied before quam. 

Line ii. Romanorum, gen. plur. of the noun Romani, -drum , m. ; limits ea , 

i.e. imperia understood. imperia, acc. plur. of the noun imperium , -i, n. ; direct 

obj. of perferre. For synonyms, see note on imperium, 1. 2 7, Chap. III. per- 

ferre, pres. inf. act. of perfero, -ferre, - tuli , -Idtum (per -j- ferre) = lit. to bear through; 

. hence = to submit; not to be confounded with praeferre. perferre is here used as a 

noun, and is the subject-acc. of praestdre, 1. 9, above. neque, conjunctive adv. 

(ne + que) = lit. and not; as a conj. it connects the sentences, as an adv. it modifies 
dubitdre. 

Line 12. dubitare, pres. inf. of dubitd , -dre, -dvi, -dtum, 1 (primitive form dubo 
[duo, two]); hence = to vacillate between two opinions, to be dubious. With dubitdre 
supply the pron. se, acc. plur., as subject-acc.; the reference is to the Gallic patriots. 

quin (qul + ne) = lit. by which not; after negative clause of doubt or hindrance 

= ut, that or but that. si, see note on this particle, 1. 9, above. Helvetios, 


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LINES 13-15.] 


BOOK I. 


121 


13 Romani, 

una cum 

reliqua 

Gallia 

the Romans , 

together with 

remaining 

Gaul 

14 Aeduis 

llbertatem 

sint erepturi. 

Ab 

from the Aedui freedom 

they will take. 

By 

15 eisdem 

nostra cbnsilia 

quaeque 

in 

the same 

our plans , 

what (things) and 

, in 


that they did not 
doubt that, if the 
Romans should 
conquer the Hel- 
vetii, they would 
wrest freedom 
from the Aedui 
along with the 
rest of Gaul. By 


acc. plur. of Helvetiiy -drum , m. ; direct obj. of superdverint. As to this clan, see 

note on Helvetia 1 . 16, Chap. I. superaverint, 3d pers. plur. perf. subjunctive of 

superdy -drey -avi t -dtuniy 1 (super) ; hence superdre = lit. to be over ; it agrees with its 
subject-nom. Romani; subjunctive in the condition after si. Consult A. & G. 304, a, 
NOTE; B. 204, 2 ; G. 590, and 594, II; H. 507, II. 

Line 13. R 5 manl, nom. plur. of the adj. Rdmdttusy -a t -um t used substantively; 

it is the subject-nom. of superdverint. una, adv. (unus) = lit. at one and the same 

time; hence, together with cum = along with. See note on una, 1 . 17, Chap. V. Note 

that the adverbial clause cum reliqud Gallid modifies sint erepturi. cum, prep. 

with the abl. reliqua, abl. sing. f. of the adj. reliquusy -ay -um ; it is an attrib- 
utive of Gallid. Gallia, abl. sing, of the proper noun Galliay -ae f f. ; abl. of 

accompaniment after the prep. cutn. A. & G. 248, a; B. 168, rem. 4; G. 392; 
H. 419, I. For synonyms, see note on reliqud , 1 . 7, Chap. V. 

Line 14. Aeduis, dat. plur. of the adj. Aeduus f -a y -«w, used substantively; dat. 
instead of the abl. after sint erepturi, a verb of separation. Consult A. & G. 229; B. 143, 
rem. 3 ; G. 345, and REM. 1 ; H. 386, 2. As to the Aeduan clan, see note on Aedud ', 1 . 20, 

Chap. III. llbertatem, acc. sing, of the noun libertdsy -dtis y f. (derived from adj. 

liber, free), libertdtem is the direct obj. of the verb sint erepturi (erepturi sint). 

sint erepturi, 3d pers. plur. pres, subjunctive, first periphrastic conjugation of eripio y 
-ere y -ui t - reptum , 3 (e + rapere) = lit- to snatch away; subjunctive, because a result- 
clause after quin, following a clause of doubt. Consult A. & G. 319, d; B. 201, 

rem. 2 ; G. 555, 2 ; H. 505, 1, 1. Ab, prep, with the abl. (ab before vowels and 

consonants, d before consonants only). Oratio recta of lines 6-14: Hi seditiosa 
atque improba oratione multitudinem deterrent ne frumentum conferant, quod 
debent : praestaty si iam principatum Galliae obtinere non possint, Gallorum quam 
Romanorum imperia perferre ; neque dubitant quin, si Helvetios superaverint 
Romani, una cum reliqua Gallia Aeduis llbertatem sint erepturi. 

Line 15. elsdem, abl. plur. of the dem. pron. idcniy eadem t idem , gen. eiusdem t 
dat. eidem; abl. of the agent. See A. & G. 246; B. 166; G. 401 ; H. 415, I. The 
allusion is to the nonnullos. I.iscus is reporting the sentiments of the Gallic patriots. 

nostra, acc. plur. of the poss. adjective pron. noster y -tra, -trum ; nostra is an 

attributive of the noun consilia. consilia, acc. plur. of the noun consilium , -*, n. ; 

consilia is subject-acc. of the verb eniintidri. Observe that, as Liscus is a friend of 
the Romans, he regards their plans as his ; i.e. Liscus is speaking of the Roman 

party among the Aeduans. quaeque (quae+ enclitic que). quae is nom. plur. 

n. of the rel. pron. qui y quae y quod; it refers to ea understood as its antecedent, 
which is an acc. plur., and as such to be conceived as subject-acc. of eniintidri under- 
stood ; but quae is the subject-nom. plur. of the finite verb gerantur. Observe how 
closely the main clause here in the oratio obliqua is connected with the relative 

clause by the enclitic conj. -que. in, prep, with the acc. or abl. ; here it takes 

the abl. 


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122 


caesar’s gallic war 


[CHAP. XVII. 


these persons, 
said he, our plans 
and all camp ac- 
tivities were re- 
ported to the en- 
emy ; nor could 
he restrain them. 
Moreover, as to 
the fact of his 


castris gerantur, 
the camp are done, 


hostibus enuntiarl ; ig 

to the enemy to be (are) reported ; 


hos a se coerceri non posse. 17 

these (men) by himself to be coerced not to be (are) able . 


Quin etiam, quod necessario rem is 

Aye indeed , as to the fact that by necessity the matter , 


Line 16. castris, abl. plur. of the noun castrum , n. ; obj. of the prep. in. 

Note that castrum in the sing, —fort or redoubt ; in the plur., castra = camp . 

gerantur, 3d pers. plur. pres, subjunctive pass, of the verb gero, -ere, gessi, ge stum , 3; 
it agrees with its subject-nom. quae ; it is in the subjunctive, because in a dependent 

clause in the oratio obliqua. hostibus, dat. plur. of hostis , -is, m. and f. ; dat. of 

the indirect obj. after enuntidri. See A. & G. 225, 3, e; B. 140; G. 344; H. 384, I. 

enuntiarl, pres. inf. pass, of the verb enuntio, -are, -art, - dtum , 1 ; pass, parts : 

eniintior , -drt, -dtus, i. Observe that nostra consilia hostibus enuntidri is a main 
clause of indirect discourse, depending on prdpdnit, or its equivalent die it, 1. 3, above ; 
and that enuntiari in direct discourse becomes enuntiatur . 

Line 17. hos, acc. plur. of the dem. pron. hie, haec, hoc, used as a personal 
pron. of the 3d pers.; it refers to hostibus, a word just mentioned, and is subject-acc. 

of posse. a, prep, with the abl. (d before consonants only, ab before vowels or 

consonants). se, abl. sing. m. of the reflexive pron. sui, sibi, se, se, same form in 

both numbers; se refers to Liscus, and is in the abl. after the prep, ab; abl. of the 

agent. Consult A. & G. 246; B. 166; G. 401 ; H. 415, I. coerceri, pres. inf. 

poss. of coerced , -ere, - cui , -citum, 2 (con + arcere) ; hence = lit. to enclose completely, 
i.e. to restrain; coerceri is a complementary inf., depending on posse. See A. & G. 

271; B. 1 81 ; G. 423; H. 533, I, 2. non, .negative adv. (ne 4 " oe[u]num) ; it 

modifies posse. posse, pres. inf. of the intrans. verb possum, posse, potui (potis, 

adj. = able + sum), posse agrees with its subject-acc. hos. 

Line 18. Quin (qui + ne) = lit. that not; but frequently, especially with etiam, 
used as a particle of corroboration. When thus used, the phrase quin etia?n =yes 

indeed or nay indeed, quin in such use is not a conj., but an adv. etiam (et -f- iam), 

conjunctive adv. ; usually adds a notion to what has been already expressed. quod, 

an adverbial acc. of the pron. qui, quae, quod, and = as to the fact that; with the sub- 
junctive eniintidrit , because in indirect discourse. Consult A. & G. 333, a, and 341, d, 
and rem.; B. 123, rem. 21, and 198, rem. 1 ; G. 525, 2 and 3; H. 516, and especially 

the note. necessario, adv.; really abl. n. of the adj. necessarius, -a, -urn, used 

adverbially. rem, acc. sing, of the noun res, rei, f. ; the direct obj. of eniintidrit. 

The matter referred to is the opposition of the Gallic patriots among the Aeduans 
to the Romans, as indicated by their inertia in regard to Caesar’s food supply. Some 
texts read (a) necessdrid re ; others (b) necessariatn rem. The literal translation of 
the ^«0</-clause, according to the reading of our text, is : as to the fact that, having 
been compelled, he has necessarily reported the matter to Caesar. If we read (a), 
above, the literal translation of the quod- clause is : as to the fact that, by a necessary 
matter constrained, he has reported to Caesar; supply rem, as direct obj., since enun- 
tidrit is transitive. If we read (b), above, the literal translation of the quod- clause 
is : as to the fact that, having been compelled, he has reported a necessary matter. On 
these different lections we make these criticisms : (a) necessdrid re codctus eniintidrit 
can only mean : constrained by a necessary matter, i.e. Caesar’s lack of food supply, 


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LINES 19 - 22 .] 


BOOK I. 


123 


19 coactus 

having been compelled, 

20 sese, 

himself (he knows), 

21 fecerit, et 

he has done , and 

22 potuerit, 


Caesar! enuntiarit, intellegere 

to Caesar he has reported , to know 
quant 5 id cum perlculS 
how great , that , with , pen7 

ob earn causam, quam-diu 

for that reason , as Jongr as 

tacuisse. 


he may have been able , ( himself ) to have been silent. 


having on com- 
pulsion disclosed 
the matter to 
Caesar, he said 
he knew with how 
great danger he 
had done it, and 
for this reason he 
had kept silent as 
long as he could. 


he has reported. As enuntiarit is transitive, an obj. — rem — must be supplied; but 
it is not very probable that Caesar would, even in his haste, use in the same clause 
different cases of res in different significations. Besides, rem representing the oppo- 
sition of the Gallic patriots, could be no necessary matter, (b) necessarian i rem 
must be the direct obj. of enuntiarit , as the accusative construction is not probable 
after coactus, and not possible, except as an acc. of specification. But he has reported 
a necessary matter seems to be irrelevant; for Caesar, of course, knew his own lack 
and needed no telling, and the Gallic patriots’ acts were rather the impulse of their 
wills than of necessity. From the nature of the case, therefore, we are constrained 
necessarily to keep to the common lection here : necessario rent ccdctus Caesart 
enuntiarit — the reading of the best texts for centuries. Any idea of tautology 
arising from this reading vanishes the moment we reflect that coactus = compulsion 
by an objective force; whereas necessario enuntiarit = a revelation whose impulse is 
subjective necessity, though it may have been occasioned by objective constraint. 

Line 19. coactus, nom. sing, of the perf. pass, participle coactus , -a, -um of 
cogd, -ere, coegi ', code turn, 3 (con -|- agere) ; hence = lit. to bring together, coactus as a 

participle agrees with Liscus understood. Caes'ari, dat. sing, of Caesar , - aris, m.; 

dat. of the indirect obj. after enuntiarit. enunt(c)iarit, 3d pers. sing. perf. sub- 

junctive of enunt(c)id, -are, -avi, -dtum y 1; it agrees with a pron. implied in the ending, 
as subject-nom., referring to Liscus; subjunctive, because in a dependent clause in 
oratid obltqua. Observe that enuntiarit is contracted for enuntiaverit. For syncopa- 
tion and contraction, see A. & G. 128, 2; B. 251 ; G. 131, 1 ; H. 235. intellegere, 

pres. inf. act. of intellego, -ere y -text, - ledum , 3 (inter -J-legere); often written intelligo . 

Line 20. sese, acc. sing, of the reflexive pron. sui y sibi y se, se, reduplicated sese ; 
subject-acc. of intellegere. Observe that intellegere sese is the main clause of the 

indirect discourse, and stands for intellego ego in direct discourse. quantS, abl. 

of the adj. quantus , - a y -um ; it is an attributive of pertculo. id, acc. sing. n. of 

the dem. pron. is, ea, id; direct obj. of fecerit; the allusion is to his report to Caesar. 
cum, prep, with the abl. periculo, abl. sing, of the noun peitculum , n. ; 

abl. of manner after the prep. cum. A. & G. 248; B. 168; G. 399; H. 419, III. 
Observe that the prep, is not absolutely necessary here, as the noun has a modifier. 

Line 21. fecerit, 3d pers. sing. perf. subjunctive of f acid, -ere, feci, factum, 3; 
it agrees with a personal pron. implied in the ending, referring to Liscus as the sub- 
ject-nom. ; it is subjunctive, because in a dependent clause in oratid obltqua. 

et, cop. conj. ; connects ititellegere and tacuisse. ob, prep, with the acc. earn, 

acc. sing. f. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id ; it is an attributive of causam. causam, 

acc. sing, of the noun causa, -ae, f. ; it is the obj. of the prep. ob. quam-diu, adv. 

(quam + diu); often written as two words: quant did; as an adv. it modifies potuerit. 

Line 22. potuerit, 3d pers. sing. perf. subjunctive of possum, posse, potui (potis, 
able -f- sum) ; it agrees with Liscus, to be supplied, as its subject-nom. ; it is in the 


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124 


caesar’s gallic war 


[CHAP. XVIII. 


XVIII. Caesar 
from this speech 
of L i s c u s per- 
ceived that Dum- 
norix, the brother 
of Divitiacus, was 
meant ; but, as he 
was unwilling to 
have these mat- 


XVtlL Caesar hac 5ratione Lisci 1 

Caesar, by this oration of Liscus 

Dumnorigem, DivitiacI fratrem, deslgnarl 2 

Dumnorix, Divitiacus' s brother, to be pointed at, 

sentiebat ; sed, quod pluribus praesentibus 3 

perceived ; but, because very many being present. 


subjunctive, because in a dependent clause in indirect discourse. tacuisse, perf. 

inf. of faced , -ere, - ui , - itum , 2 ; connected by the conj. et with intellegere , and in the 
same grammatical construction, i.e. its subject-acc. is sese. The ordtio recta of lines 
14-22: Ab elsdem nostra cdnsilia quaeque in castris geruttfur, hostibus enuntiantur; 
hi a me coercerl non possunt. Quin etiam, quod necessario rem coactus tibi (Caesari) 
cniintidvl \ intellego ego, quanto id cum periculo feci, et ob hanc causam, quam-diu 
potul , fa cut. 

Line i. Caesar, -aris, m., subject-nom. of sentiebat. hac, abl. sing. f. of the 

dem. pron. hie, haec, hoc ; it is an attributive of ordtione; its use indicates that 
the reference is to the speech just delivered. A. & G. 102, a; B. 84, 1 ; G. 305, and 3; 

H. 450, 1. oratione, abl. sing, of ordtio, - onis , f. ; abl. of means after sentiebat . 

Synonyms : ordtio = the finished speech — premeditated and prepared ; sermo is the 

conversationally delivered speech — a species of extemporaneous harangue. 

Lisci, gen. sing, of the proper noun Liscus, -i, m. ; as a gen. it limits ordtione. Liscus 
was a chief magistrate of the Aedui. 

Line 2. Dumnorigem, acc. sing, of Dumnorix, -igis, m. ; subject-acc. of designdri. 
Dumnorix was a leader of the Gallic patriotic party among the Aedui, while his 

brother Divitiacus remained loyal to the Romans. DivitiacI, gen. sing, of the 

noun Divitiacus, -i, m.; as a gen. it limits frdtrem. fratrem, acc. sing, of frdter, 

-ris, m. (kindred with gk. (ppdrpa, which = brotherhood) ; an appositive. 

designari, pres. inf. pass, of the act. designo, -dre, -dvi, -dtum, 1 ; pass, parts: de signor, 
-dri, -dtus, 1 (de -f- signare \signum ]) ; hence = lit. to mark out . The subject-acc. of 

designdri is Dumnorigem , and the acc. and inf. is an object-clause of sentiebat. 

Line 3. sentiebat, 3d pers. sing, imperf. ind. act. of sentio, -ire, sensi, sen sum, 4 ; 
it agrees with its subject-nom. Caesar. Synonyms : sentire — to know through the 
feelings ; intellege = to know through reflection ; and cdgnoscere = to know through 

the senses, or by tradition. sed, conj., the strongest of all the adversative 

particles ; autem and at are much weaker ; but verum = sed, nearly. quod, conj. 

= because; introduces a statement of fact. Consult A. & G. 321 ; B. 198; G. 540; 

H. 516, I. pluribus, abl. plur. m. of the comparative adj . plus, pluris ; declined 

in the sing, only in the neuter, with the dat. wanting ; the plur. declined regularly 
as an /-stem : plures, pliira, gen. plurium, etc. pluribus , in our text, is used sub- 
stantively, and as a subst. it is in the abl. absolute with the adj. praesentibus. For 
declension, see A. & G. 86; B. 72, 7; G. 89, rems. 2, 3; H. 165, note i. prae- 

sentibus, abl. plur. m. of the adj . prae sens, -entis (participle of praesum, -esse, fui); 
in the abl. sing., of persons usually prae sente ; of things, praesenti. praesentibus 
is in the abl. absolute construction with pluribus used as a noun; the construc- 
tion as such denotes the time when. Consult A. & G. 255, a; B. 192, rem. i ; G. 409; 
H. 43 L 4 - 


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LINES 4 - 7 .] 


BOOK I. 


125 


4 eas res iaetari n5lebat, celeriter 

these things to he talked about he was unwilling , quickly 

6 concilium dimittit, Liscum retinet. 

the council he breaks up , Liscus he keeps back . 

e Quaerit ex solo ea, 

He (Caesar) inquires from (him) alone as to those (things) 

7 quae in conventu dixerat. Dicit 

which in the assembly he had said. He (LiscuR) speaks 


ters discussed in 
the presence of a 
crowd, he speedi- 
ly dismissed the 
council, yet de- 
tained Liscus. He 
inquired of him 
alone about the 
matters that he 
had mentioned 
at the conven- 


Line 4. eas, acc. plur. of the dem. pron. is, ea , id; e&s is an attributive of the 

noun res . res, acc. plur. of res , ret , f.; stem re , shortened in the gen. and dat. 

sing. ; subject-acc. of the inf. iaetari. The things alluded to are those that Liscus 

had disclosed. iaetari, pres. inf. pass, of iacto, -dre, -dvt, -dtum , 1 (freq. of iacere , 

to hurl). Observe that frequentative verbs are usually of the first conjugation, 

whatever may be the conjugation of the verbs from which they are derived. 

ndlebat, 3d pers. sing, imperf. ind. of the irr. verb nolo , nolle , nolui (ne + volo) ; it 
agrees with a pron. implied in the ending as its subject-nom., referring to Caesar. 
Observe, in the formation of the compound, that v is suppressed, and then the e and 

o are contracted in o. Thus : ne -f- void become ne * old = nolo. celeriter, adv. 

(adj. celer, swift); adv. formed by adding -ter to the adj. stem celeri . celeriter mod- 
ifies the verb dimittit. 

Line 5. concilium, acc. sing, of the noun concilium , -i, n.; the direct obj. of 
dimittit. This word is not to be confounded with consilium , counsel; though it 
frequently is thus confounded by Latin writers in all eras, concilium , by careful 
writers = an assembly for consultation — a council ; whereas consilium = the counsel 
that is taken in such assembly. But, as already intimated, the significations are 

often confused. dimittit, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. of dimitto , -ere*, - mist , 

-j missum , 3 (dis + mittere, to send apart); it agrees with a pron. implied in the end- 
ing, referring to Caesar. Liscum,, acc. sing, of Liscus , -i, m. ; direct obj. of 

retinet. Note the asyndeton here between the clauses, and consult A. & G. 346, c ; 

B. 310, 1, (a)\ G. 483, note; H. 636, I, 1. retinet, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. 

of retineo , -ere, - tenui , - tentum , 2 (re -f- tenere, to hold back); it agrees with a pron. 
implied in the ending as subject-nom., referring to Caesar. 

Line 6. Quaerit, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. of the verb quaero , -ere , -sivi (-/<), 

-Hum, 3 (irr. in 2d stem) ; it also agrees with Caesar understood. ex, prep, with 

the abl. (e before consonants only, ex before vowels or consonants). s 515 , abl. 

sing. m. of the adj. solus , -a , -urn, gen. solius , dat. soli, solo is an attributive of eo, 
to be supplied, which refers to Liscum. Note that quaero takes the abl. of the 
person with the prepositions ab, de or ex , instead of the acc. of the person ; it takes 
besides the acc. of the thing. Consult A. & G. 239, c , note 1; B. 151, rem. 2; 

G. 339, rem. 1 ; H. 374, 2, note 4, and p. 193, footnote i. ea, acc. plur. of the 

dem. pron. is, ea , id, used substantively — the acc. of the thing after quaerit. 

Line 7. quae, acc. plur. of the rel. pron. qui, quae , quod; it refers to ea as its 

antecedent, but is the direct obj. of dixerat. in, prep, with the acc. or abl.; here 

it takes the abl. conventu, abl. sing, of conventus , -its, m. (con -f- venire, to come 

together); it is the obj. of the prep. in. dixerat, 3d pers. sing, pluperf. ind. act. 

of died , -ere, dixi, dictum, 3 ; it agrees with a pron. implied in the ending as its sub- 
ject-nom., referring to Liscus. Dicit, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. of died, 3 ; its 

subject-nom. is Liscus , to be supplied. 


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126 


caesar’s gallic war 


[CHAP. XVIII. 


tion. Liscus now 
spoke with a 
freer and bolder 
spirit. Caesar in- 
quired privately 
of others about 
the same matters, 
and found the 
truth to be, (that 
(it was Dumnorix 


liberius atque 
more freely and 

secret5 ab 
privately from 

esse vera : 

to be true: 


audiicius. Eadem 8 

more boldly. About the same (things) 

alils quaerit; repent 9 

others he (Caesar) inquires ; he finds 

Ipsum esse Dumnorigem, 10 

Himself to be (was) Dumnorix , 


Line 8. liberius, adv., comparative degree of positive libere (liber , free) ; the 
adv. modifies dicit , and denotes rather freely. For the omission of the standard of 

comparison, see A. & G. 93, a ; B. 163, rem. 6; G. 297, 2; H. 444, 1. atque (ad 

+ que), conj. = and also . See note on this particle, 1. 10, Chap. I. audacius, 

adv., comparative degree of audacter (audax, bold); superl. auddcissime; connected 

by the conj. atque with liberius , and modifies dtcit. Eadem, acc. plur. n. of the 

dem. pron. idem, eadem , idem; used substantively, or supply the English word 
things; direct obj. of quaerit. 

Line 9. secretd, adv., derived from the participle secretus , -a , -um of the verb 
secerno , - ere , -crevi, - cretum , 3 (se, inseparable prep. -|- cernere), hence secernere = lit. 
to put apart, separate , the participle secretus = separated — that which is out of the 
way, retired, secret. For the formation of adverbs from the abl. neuter of adjectives, 
see A. & G. 148, e; B. 117. 6; G. 91, 2, ( c ); II. 304, II, 2. secretd modifies quaerit. 

ab, prep, with the abl. (ab before vowels or consonants, d before consonants 

only). alils, abl. plur. of the adj. pron. alius , -a, -ud; gen. alius; dat. alii; aliis 

is in the abl. after ab. Observe that quaero takes the abl. of the person with ab, de 
or ex; and also the acc. of the thing. See grammatical references on solo , 1. 6, 

above. For synonyms, see note on reliqua , 1. 7, Chap. V. quaerit, 3d pers. sing. 

pres. ind. ; for parts, see note on quaerit, 1. 6, above ; it agrees with a pron. implied 

in the ending as subject-nom., referring to Caesar. reperit, 3d pers. sing. pres. 

ind. act. of reperio, -ire, rep(p)eri, repertum, 4 (re, intensive parere, to acquire); 
hence reperire = to acquire again; i.e. = to find. 

Line 10. esse, pres. inf. of the intrans. verb sum, perf./wf, fut. participle futu- 
rus; it is used impersonally, or, more accurately, the following speech in oratio 
obliqua is its subject-acc. W e may, however, supply ilia — referring to what follows 

— as the subject-acc. vera, acc. n. plur. of the adj. verus , -a, -um; predicate 

after esse. The reader will observe that from this point to, and inclusive of, the 
word desperdre , 1. 43, below, the discourse is indirect, depending on reperit (or its 
representative dtcit understood). Let the reader lecall that in the drdtid obliqua 
the main clause of a declarative sentence is put in the inf. with subject-acc. ; that 
the tense of the verb of saying introducing this discourse determines the tense of 
this inf. ; and that the tenses of the subjunctive are also thus determined, i.e. if the 
verb of saying is a primary tense, the sequence is primary ; if secondary, the sequence 

is secondary. Ipsum, acc. sing. m. of the intensive dem. pron. ipse, -sa, -sum. 

ipsum as an adj. pron. modifies Dumnorigem. esse, pres. inf. of the neuter or 

intrans. verb sum, esse, fui, futurus; it is for est in direct discourse. Dumno- 

rigem, acc. sing, of Dumnorix, - igis , m. ; it is subject-acc. of esse , of which cupidum , 
1. 12, below, is the predicate-adj. 


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LINES 11-14.] 


BOOK I. 


127 


11 summa audacia, magna apud plebem 

of the greatest boldness , of great among the common people 


12 propter llberalitatem gratia, cupidum rerum 

because of (his) liberality , favor , desirous of things 

13 no varum. Complures annos portoria 

new . Very many years , the customs 


14 reliquaque omnia 

remaining and , all 


Aedu 5 rum 

the AeduVs 


vectlgalia 

revenues, 


himself, a man 
of consummate 
audacity,! and of 
great influence 
among the people 
on account of his 
liberality,. who 
was eager for 
revolution./ For 
many years he 
had farmed the 


Line ii. summa, abl. sing. f. of summus, -a, -um, superl. degree of the adj. 
superus, superior, supremus or summus ; summd is an attributive of the noun auddcid. 

audacia, abl. sing, of auddcia, - ae , f. ; abl. of quality with the adj summd . 

Consult A. & G. 251, and a; B. 169; G. 400; H. 419, II. The phrase summd auddcid 
is, in fact, an adjective-modifier of virum, to be supplied, which latter is in apposi- 
tion with Dumnorigem. magna, abl. sing. f. of the adj. mdgnus, mdior , mdxi- 

mus; mdgnd is an attributive of grdtid, 1. 12, below. apud, prep, with the acc. 

— : — plebem, acc. sing, of the noun plebs, plebis, f.; rare nom . plebes, -is; plebem is 
the obj. of the prep, apud . For synonyms, consult note on popult, 1 . 17, Chap. III. 

Line 12. propter (prope, near), prep, with the acc. llberalitatem, acc. sing. 

of the noun liberalitds, - tdtis , f. (liber, free) ; it is the obj. of the prep, propter, imme- 
diately above. gratia, abl. sing, of the noun grdtia, -ae, f. ; it is an abl. of qual- 
ity with the adj. mdgnd. Consult A. & G. 251 ; B. 169; G. 400; H. 419, II. 

cupidum, acc. sing. m. of the adj. cupidus, -a, - um , predicate-ad j. after esse , 1. 10, 
above. With cupidus compare cupere, to desire, and the English noun-derivative 

cupid. rerum, gen. plur. of the noun res, ret, f. (stem re, shortened in gen. and 

dat.); objective gen. after the adj. cupidum . Consult A. & G. 218, a; B. 135, (a); 

G. 374; H. 399, I, 1. 

Line 13. novarum, gen. plur. f. of the adj. novus, -a, -um; it is an attributive 

of the noun rerum, Complures, acc. plur. m. of the adj. complures, -a, rarely -ia, 

gen. -turn (con, intensive, whose equivalent in this compound = English very -|- 
plures, many); complures is an attributive of annos. Observe that this adj. is used 
only in the plural, and that in some editions the form compliiris instead of complures 

occurs. annds, acc. plur. of the noun annus, -i, m. ; acc. of extent of time. See 

A. & G. 256, 2; B. 153; G. 336; H. 379. portoria, acc. plur. of noun portorium, 

-t, n. (compare portdre, to carry) ; hence the noun portorium = lit. the condition or 
terms of carrying, i.e. tax, toll, or, as we say, tariff, for the portoria were frontier- 
duties, portoria is the direct obj. of habere. 

Line 14. reliquaque (reliqua -f que). reliqua is acc. n. plur. of the adj. reli- 
quus, -a, -um; it is an attributive of vectigdlia. For synonyms, see note on reliqua, 

1 . 7, Chap. V. Observe that the enclitic -que connects portoria with vectigdlia. 

Omnia, acc. plur. n. of the adj. omnis, - e , an /-stem, omnia, too, modifies vectigdlia, 

or rather the phrase reliqua vectigdlia. Aeduorum, gen. plur. of the adj. Aeduus, 

-a, -um, used substantively ; as a noun-gen. it limits vectigdlia. vSctlgalia, acc. 

plur. of the noun vectigal, -dlis, n. ( vehere , to bring) ; hence vectigdlia = that which is 
brought in; connected by the conj. -que with portoria, and in the same grammatical 
construction, i.e. direct obj. of habere . The vectigdlia were taxes and rents put on 
every species of property ; and both the portdria and vectigdlia were farmed out for 
collection to the publicdni. 


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128 


caesar’s gallic war 


[CHAP. XVIII. 


imports and all 
other taxes of 
the Aedui at a 
low rate, because 
when he bid, no 
one dared to bid 
in opposition. 
By these means 


parvo pretio redempta habere, is 

at small cost having been bought up to have (he had), 

propterea quod ill5 licente contra ie 

for this reason because he bidding , against (him) 

liceri audeat nemo. His rebus et suam n 

to bid dares no one. By these things both his 


Line 15. parvo, abl. sing. n. of the adj. parvus, -a, -um; comparative minor , 

superl. minimus . parvo is an attributive of pretio. pretio, abl. sing, of the 

noun pretium , n. ; abl. of price, according to the general rule, when it is expressed 

by a noun. Consult A. & G. 252 ; B. 167, 4 ; G. 404 ; H. 422. redempta, acc. 

plur. n. of the perf. pass, participle of redimo, - ere , -emi, 1 emptum , 3; it agrees 

with porioria and vectigdlia. habere, pres. inf. act. of habeo , -ere, -ui, - Hunt , 2 ; 

supply se as subject-acc., referring to Dumnorix. The words, therefore, redempta 
se habere = lit. having been purchased , he had. The reader will observe that 
this form of expression is a periphrase = redemisse, nearly. See A. & G. 292, c ; 
B. 191, 3, (d); G. 238; H. 388, 1, note. Compare note on codctum habebat, 1 . 5, 
Chap. XV. 

Line 16. propterea, adv. (propter + ea); herald of the ^W-clause immediately 

following. quod, conj. See note on this particle, 1 . 9, Chap. I. ill6, abl. 

sing. m. of the dem. pron. ille , -la, -lud ; gen. illius, dat. Hit. illo points back to 
Dumnorigem, of whom the narrative is a description, but is in the abl. absolute 
construction with licente; illd is more emphatic than ed , and also indicates 
that Dumnorix is somewhat remote from the speaker, at least, that he is not 

present. licente, abl. sing, of the pres, participle licens, - entis of the deponent 

verb liceor , -eri, licitus, 2 ; observe that deponent verbs have the participles in 
both voices, licente is abl. absolute with illd, denoting time when. See A. & G. 

255, d, 1 ; B. 192 ; G. 409, 410; H. 431, 2, 3). contra, adv. (from an obsolete 

adjective conterus [con], in the abl. f.); might be taken as a prep., if eum were 
supplied. 

Line 17. liceri, pres. inf. of the deponent verb liceor ( for principal parts, see 
note on licente , preceding line); complementary inf., depending on audeat. See 

A. & G. 271; B. 181 ; G. 423; H. 533, I, 1. audeat, 3d pers. sing. pres, sub- 

junctive of audeo, -ere, ausus, neuter pass, or semi-deponent verb; it agrees with a 
pron. implied in the ending as subject-nom., referring to Dumnorix; it is in the sub- 
junctive mode, because in a dependent clause in ordtio obltqua. nemd (ne + 

homo), noun, m. and f., acc. neminem ; the gen. neminis, and the abl. nemine are not 
used, except, occasionally, nemine with the abl. perf. participle ; instead of neminis, 
nullius , and instead of nemine, nullo are used. Observe the emphatic position of 

nemo; its normal and unemphatic position would be immediately after quod. 

His, abl. plur. f. of the dem. pron. hie , haec, hoc ; it is the attributive of the noun 
rebus. rebus, abl. plur. of the noun res, rei, f. ; abl. of means. A. & G. 248, c, I ; 

B. 167 ; G. 401 ; H. 420. et, cop. conj.; et . . . et = both . . . and. suam, acc. 

sing. f. of the poss. pron. suus, -a, -urn ; it is an attributive of rem, but refers to 
Dumnorix. The ordtio recta of lines 10-17: Ipse est Dumnorix, summa audacia, 
magna apud plebem propter liberalitatem gratia, cupidus rerum novarum. Com- 
plures annos portoria reliquaque omnia Aeduorum vectigalia parvo pretid redempta 
habet, propterea quod illo licente contra liceri audei nemd. 


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LINES 18 - 22 .] 


BOOK I. 


129 


18 rem 

familiarem 

auxisse 

et 

property 

personal 

to have (he has) increased and 

19 facilitates 

ad 

largiendum 

magnas 

resources 

for 

bribery 

great , 

20 comparasse 

5 

magnum 

numerum 

to have (he has) acquired ; 

a large 

number 

21 equitatus 

suo 

sumptu 

semper 

of cavalry 

at his own 

expense 

always 

22 alere 

to maintain (he maintains) 

et circum 

and around 

se 

himself 


he had increased 
both his own 
private property, 
and had acquired 
large resources 
for bribery. He 
always supported 
and kept near his 
person a large 
number of caval- 
ry at his own 
expense; and at 
home not to say, 
but even among 


Line 18. rem, acc. sing, of res, ret , f . ; it is the direct obj. of auxisse. 

familiarem, acc. sing. f. of the adj. familidris , -e, abl. sing, regularly familidrt; 
familidrem modifies rem. The phrase suam rem familidrem = his private property . 

auxisse, perf. inf. act. of auged , -ere, auxi , auctum, 2 ; supply the pron. se as 

subject-acc., referring to Dumnorix. With auged compare gk. root avy, as seen in 
atifa and av£dvu). et, conj., connects auxisse and compardsse. 

Line 19. facilitates, acc. plur. of facultds, -dtis, f. (Jacilis, archaic form of the 
sA\.facul); hence the noun = lit. the capacity of doing anything easily; and hence, 
further, as faculty used brings increase, facultds , transf. = copia or plenty, and the 

plur .facultdtes =1 riches. facultdtes is the direct obj. of compardsse. ad, prep. 

with the acc. largiendum, gerund of the verb largior, -girt, -gitis, 4, deponent 

(adj. largus, large) ; acc. of the gerund with ad, denoting purpose. See A. & G. 300 ; 
B. 184, REM. 4, III; G. 432; H. 542, III. The phrase ad largiendum accordingly 
—for giving largesses. magnas, acc. plur. f. of the adj. mdgttus, -a, -um ; com- 

parative degree mdior; superl. mdximus. mdgnds is the attributive of facultdtes. 

Line 20. comparasse, perf. inf. act. of the verb comparo , -dre, -dvt, - dtum , 1 ; 
for the uncontracted compardvisse. For the rules as to syncopation and contraction, 
see A. & G. 128, 2; B. 251 ; G. 131, 1 ; H. 235. compardsse is connected by the conj. 
et with auxisse, and has the same subject-acc., namely se understood. The reader 
remembers that here is another main clause of the indirect discourse, depending on 

reperit, 1. 9, above. magnum, acc. sing, of the adj. mdgttus; see note on mdgnds , 

preceding line ; an attributive of numerum. numerum, acc. sing, of the noun 

numerus, -i, m. ; direct obj. of alere . 

Line 21. equitatus, gen. sing, of the noun equitdtus , -us, m. ( equitdre from 
equus); hence = lit. a riding; concretely — cavalry ; equitdtus as a gen. limits nume- 
rum. Observe that the ultima of equitdtus is short in the nom. and voc., but is long 

in the other cases. su5, abl. sing. m. of the poss. reflexive pron. suus, -a, -um ; 

it is an attributive of sumptu, but refers to Dumnorix. sumptu, abl. of the 

noun sumptus, -its, m. (compare sumere, to take, expend) ; abl. of means. 

semper, adv., modifies alere. 

Line 22. alere, pres. inf. act. of aid, -ere, alut, alitum, 3; supply sese, referring to 

Dumnorigem, 1 . 10, above, as subject-acc. et, conj., connects alere and habere. 

circum, prep, with the acc. se. se, acc. sing, of the reflexive pron. sut, sibi, se, se; 

same form in both numbers, se is the obj. of the prep, circum ; it refers to Dumnorix. 


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130 


caesar’s gallic war 


[CHAP. XVIII. 


the neighboring 
states he had 
great influence ; 
and to keep this 
influence, he had 
given his mother 
in marriage to 
a man of the 
highest rank and 
greatest favor in 
the country of 


habere, neque 

to have (he has), not and , 

apud flnitimas 

among the neighboring 

posse ; atque 

to be (he is) able; and 

matrem in 

of (his) mother among 


solum doml, 

only at home , 

clvitates 

states 


sed etiam 23 
but even 
largiter 24 
largely 


huius potentiae causa 25 

this power for the sake 

Biturigibus hominl 20 

the Bituriges to a man 


Line 23. habere, pres. inf. act. of habeo, -ere, - ui , - Hunt , 2; its subject-acc. is a 

pron., to be supplied, referring to Dumnorix. neque, conjunctive adv. (ne -}- 

que) ; here it = et non. solum, adv. ; but with neque followed by sed etiam , the 

particles have a conjunctive force. doml, locative of the noun downs, -its, or 

loc. do mi, f. As to this case, see A. & G. 258, d; B. 176; G. 41 1. 2 ; II. 426, 2. 

sed, conjunctive adversative, stronger than autem or at. etiam (et + iam), adv.; 

but with sed, in contrast with non solum , the phrase gives prominence to the second 
clause. Consult A. & CL 151, a, 154, a, 155, b\ B. 123, 3; CL 482. 5; H. 554, 5. 

Line 24. apud, prep, with the acc. ; with reference to persons = among; some- 
times apud aliq uem =at one's house. flnitimas, acc. plur. f. of the a.d). fin i ti- 
nt us, -a, um (finis, border) ; finitimds is the attributive of civitdtes. Clvitates 

(cives), acc. plur. of civitds, - dtis , f. civitdtes is the obj. of the prep. apud. 

largiter, adv. (adj. largus, poetic and late Latin), largiter modifies posse. The adv. 
has three forms: large, largiter and largitus. The form large is classic; largiter is 
rare in classic prose; comparative degree largius ; superl. largissime. 

Link 25. posse, pres. inf. of the intrans. verb possum, posse, potui (potis -f* sum) ; 
supply here se as the subject-acc. As here posse is a verb of complete predication, 

the clause se largiter posse — lit. he is abundantly able, i.e. he has g 7 'e at influence. 

atque (ad -f- que), conj. (atque before vowels or consonants, dc before consonants 
only), atque =and also; though sometimes it has the meaning only of the simple 

copulative et or -que. huius, gen. sing. f. of the dem. pron. hie, haec, hoc; huius 

is an attributive of potentiae. potentiae, gen sing, of the noun poteniia, -ae, f. 

(potens, participle of possum), potentiae is a gen. limiting causd. Synonyms: potentia 
= power as a personal quality ; potestds = p 07 ver in execution and nlan of action ; 

imperium = military power. causa, abl. sing, of the noun causa , -ae, f. causd 

is strictly an abl. of cause ; but in use = a prepositional substantive usually follow- 
ing the gen. depending on it. Consult A. & G. 245, c ; B. 165, rem. 3; G. 373, rem. i ; 
H. 416, and footnote 2. The ordtid obltqua of lines 17-25: His rebus et suam 
rem familiarem auxit et facultates ad largiendum magnas compardvit ; magnum 
numerum equitatus suo sumptu semper alit et circum se habet, neque solum doml, 
sed etiam apud flnitimas clvitates largiter potest. 

Line 26. matrem, acc. sing, of the noun mdter, - tris , f.; direct obj. of col(n)- 
locdsse, 1 . 28, below. Observe that the stem is properly mdter, in which the e is 
syncopated in all the cases except the nom. and voc. sing. Some authorities hold 
the stem of mdter to be rndtr, and of pater to be patr, yet concede that the stem 
originally ended in -ter. Consult A. & G. 48, c, and footnote 4 ; B. 38, rf.m. i ; 

G. 44, 1, middle; II. 77, 2. in, prep, with the acc. or abl.; here it takes the abl. 

Biturigibus, abl. plur. of Bituriges , -um, m.; Biturigibus is the obj. of the prep. 


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LINES 27-30.] 


BOOK L 


131 


27 illlc nobilissimo Fic potentissimo 

there of the highest rank and very powerful 

28 collocasse, ipsum ex 

to have (he has) given (in marriage), himself from 

29 Helvetils uxorem habere, sororem 

the Helvetii a wife to have (he has), a sister 

30 ex matre et propinquas suas 

from (his) mother and female relations his own 


the Bituriges; 
that he had 
himself taken a 
wife from the 
Helvetii, and 
had given his 
half-sister and 
near relations 
in marriage, in 
other states. 


in. The Bituriges were a Celtic tribe located near modern Bourges in France. 

homini, dat. of the noun homo , - inis , m. here, as determined by the context, homini 
is indirect obj. of col(n)locdsse. A. & G. 225; B. 141 ; G. 344; II. 384, II. 

Line 27. illlc, adv. (ille+ce); hence = t'n that place . nobilissimb, dat. 

sing. m. of the adj. nobilissimus , -a, - um ; positive ndbilis (noscere, to know) ; com- 
parative degree nobilior. nobilissimo is a modifier of the noun homint. ac, 

conj., contracted from atque (ac before consonants only, atque before both vowels 
and consonants), dc or atque usually adds a notion of importance, while et connects 

equally important notions. potentissimb, dat. sing. m. of the adj. fotentissimus , 

- a , -um, superl. degree; positive potens (participle of possum); comparative potentior . 
potentissimo is connected by the conj. dc with nobilissimo , and is in the same gram- 
matical construction, i.e. it agrees with homini. 

Line 28. COl(n)locasse, perf. inf. act. of col(n)loco, - dre , -dvi, -alum, 1 (con, in- 
tensive + locare) ; hence = lit. to place a person or thing somewhere, i.e. to establish , 
to give, etc.; supply se as subject-acc., referring to Dumnorix; for a complete anal- 
ysis, supply also the supine nupturn, which is expressed in 1. 31, below. Observe 
that the uncontracted form of the inf. is collocdvisse. For the suppression of v , 
and the subsequent contraction of the vowels, see A. & G. 128, 2; B. 251; 

G. 1 31, 1 ; H. 235. ipsum, acc. sing. m. of the intensive dem. pron. ipse, 

-sa, -sum, gen. ipsius, dat. ip si. ipsum = he himself, and is subject-acc. of 

habere. ex, prep, with the abl. (e before consonants only, ex before vowels or 

consonants). 

Line 29. Helvetils, abl. plur. of the adj. Helvetius, -a, -um, used substantively, 

and is the obj. of the prep. ex. uxdrem, acc. sing, of uxor, -oris, f. ; direct obj. 

of habere. Synonyms: uxor is the common word =the married woman as helpmeet 
for the man — man's inferior, coniunx (coniungere), m. and f., sometimes = the 
husband, more frequently = the wife, that is the man’s equal (compare consors) ; 

whereas marita is the poetic and postclassic word for wife. habere, pres. inf. 

act. of habeo, -ere, -ui, - iturn , 2 ; its subject-acc. is the pron. ipsum. sororem, 

acc. sing, of the noun soror, -oris, f. ; direct obj. of col(n)locdsse, line 32, below. 

Line 30. ex, prep, with the abl. ; see note on ex, 1. 28, above. matre, abl. 

sing, of mdter, - tris , f. ; see note on mdtrem, 1. 26, above, matre is the obj. of the 
prep. ex. ex mdtre = lit. from the mother, i.e. on the mother's side — Dumnorix’s 

half-sister. et, cop. conj. ; connects sororem and propinquds. propinquas, 

acc. plur. f. of the adj. propinquus, -a, - um (prope), used as a noun; direct obj. of 

collocdsse. suas, acc. plur. f. of the poss. and reflexive pron. suus, -a, -um; it is 

an attributive of propinquds, but refers to Dumnorix. 


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132 


caesar’s gallic war 


[CHAP. XVIII. 


He favored and 
wished well to 
the Helvetii on 
account of this 
relationship ; he 
hated even on 
his own account 
Caesar and the 
Romans, because 
by their com- 
ing his own 


nuptum in 

to veil ( themselves ) in 

collocasse. 

to have (he has) contracted . 


alias clvitates 31 

other states 

Favere et 32 

To favor (he favors) and 


cupere Helvetiis propter earn 33 

to he (he is) zealous for the Helvetii because of this 

affmitatem, odisse etiam suo nomine 34 

affinity , to hate (he hates) even in his own name 


Line 31. nuptum, supine in - um of the verb nubo, -ere, niipsi , nuptum . The 
supine in -um usually follows verbs of motion to express the purpose ; but in some 
cases after verbs which do not express motion, as in our text. Consult A. & G. 302 ; 
B. 186, (A); G. 435 ; H. 546, 1. Observe that nubere = lit. to cover , to veil , i.e. as a 
woman's act, to veil herself for her husband; and therefore a complete analysis 
requires us to supply thus : se vird nuptum — se referring to sordrem , or rather to 
both sordrem and propinquds . The veil alluded to in this expression is the flam - 

meum or the flame-colored veil, worn by the bride at the wedding. in, prep. 

with the acc. or abl. ; here it takes the acc. After verbs of motion in = into; after 
verbs of rest = in, or on, or among . See In, A. 8c G. 153, 1, 2; B. 120, 1, 2, 3; 
G. 418, I, 2; H. 435, I. Observe that collocdsse is not strictly a verb of motion; 
yet it is followed by in with the acc. as if it were such. Probably this usage arose 
from the formula in mdtrimonium ducere — the phraseology used of a man who 

marries. alias, acc. plur. f. of the adj. alius, da, -iud, gen. alius, dat. alii; the 

plur. is regular, like that of bonus . alids is an attributive of civitdtes. Observe that 
alius = another, other , of an indefinite number; whereas alter = the one, the other of 

two. Clvitates, acc. plur. of the noun civitds, - dtis , f. (cives). civitdtes is the obj. 

of the prep. in. Synonyms : civitds, abstractly = the condition of a citizen, hence = 
citizenship, civitds, concretely = the citizens of a city or cities, united in a district, 
forming a body-politic — the state, urbs = a city, whose district is coterminous with 
the dwellings of the citizens ; but sometimes by metonymy civitds = urbs. res - 
piiblica = the commonwealth — the state conceived to be formed by the concessions 
of all for the common weal. 

Line 32. collocasse, see note on this word, 1. 28, above. Favere, pres. inf. 

act. of faveo, -ere, fdvi , fautem, 2 ; supply se as subject-acc., referring to Dumnorix. 

et, cop. conj., connects words and clauses of equal importance. The ordtio 

recta of lines 25-32 : atque huius potentiae causa matrem in Biturigibus hominl 
illic nobilissimo ac potentissimo collocdvit, ipse (Dumnorix) ex Helvetiis uxdrem 
habet, sororem ex matre et proplnquas suas nuptum in alias clvitates collocavit. 

Line 33. cupere, pres. inf. act. of the verb cupio, -ere, cupivi (-/7), cupitum, 3 ; 
connected by et with favere, and in the same grammatical construction, i.e. se under- 
stood is its subject-acc. Helvetiis, dat. plur. of Helvetii, -drum, m. ; dat. after 

the verbs favere and cupere — words of favoring. Consult A. & G. 227; B. 142; 

G. 346 ; H. 385, I. propter, prep, with the acc. earn, acc. sing. f. of the 

dem. pron. is, ea, id; earn is an attributive of af(d)finitdtem. 

Line 34. affinitatem, acc. sing, of affinitds, - tdtis , f. (ad + finis) ; it is the obj. 
of the prep, propter ; Observe that affinitds = affinity by marriage, not by blood ; 


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LINES 3 M 7 .] 


BOOK I. 


133 


36 Caesarem 

Caesar 

se adventu 

coming 

37 Divitiacus 
Divitiacus , 


et Romanos, 

and the Romans , 

potentia eius 

the power of him 

fra ter in 

the brother , ' to (his) 


quod 

because 


eorum 

at their 


deminuta, et 

was diminished , and 

antiquum locum 

former place 


power was di- 
minished, and his 
brother Divitia- 
cus was restored 
to his old posi- 
tion of popu- 
larity and honor. 
If any disaster 


affinity by blood is denoted by consanguinitds. ddisse, perf. inf. in form, but pres. 

in meaning of the preteritive verb odi , ddisse; supply se or ipsum , referring to Dum- 

norix as the subject-acc. etiam (et + iam), a conjunctive adv. here of restrictive 

force. suo, abl. sing. n. of the poss. and reflexive pron. suus, -a, - um ; it agrees 

with nomine , but refers to Dumnorix. nomine, abl. sing, of the noun nomen , 

-inis, n. (compare noscere and the gk. yty vAo-kw) ; it is thus seen that nomen = that 
by which a person or thing is known, nomine is an abl. of manner. A. & G. 248 ; 
B. 168 ; G. 399 ; H. 419, III. The phrase suo nomine = on his own account , i.e. for 
personal reasons. 

Line 35. Caesarem, acc. of the proper noun Caesar , -aris , m. ; direct obj. of 

ddisse . et, conj. ; it connects Caesarem and Romdnos . Romands, acc. plur. 

of the adj. Romdnus, -a, -um, used substantively; connected by et with Caesarem , 

and in the same grammatical construction. quod, conj. = because; the quod - 

clause gives the reason of Dumnorix’s hatred of Caesar and the Romans. 

edrum, gen. plur. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id, used as a personal pron. of the 3d pers. ; 
English poss. case; it refers to Caesar and the Romans; but as a gen. it limits 
adventu. 

Line 36. adventu, abl. sing, of the noun adventus, -us, m. (ad-f- venire); abl. 

of time at which. See A. & G. 256, 1 ; B. 171, rem. 3; G. 393; H. 429. potentia, 

-ae, f. ; subject-nom. of deminuta (sit), Synonyms: potentia (potens) = the objective 
power by which men move men. potestds ( possum ) = lawful power that men exercise 
in courts of law, and under an ethical impulse ; compare gk. i£ovola ; whereas vis 

(gk. fs) = the power that men use both in attacking and in restraining others. 

eius, gen. sing. m. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id, used as a personal pron. of the 3d pers. ; 

as a gen. eius limits potentia , but it refers to Dumnorix. deminuta, supply sit, 

3d pers. sing. perf. pass, subjunctive of the verb deminuo, -ere, - minus , minutum , 3 
(de, intensive -j- minuere [minus]); deminuta sit agrees with its subject-nom. potentia^ ; 

it is in the subjunctive, because in a dependent clause in ordtio obliqua. et, cop. 

conj. ; it connects the subordinate clauses. 

Line 37. Divitiacus, -I, m., in apposition with frdter ; he was an Aeduan chief, 

brother of Dumnorix, and a friend of the Romans. frater, nom. sing, of frdter, 

- tris , m. ; subject-nom. of sit restitutus (restitutus sit). The allusion is to Dumnorix ; 
he, too, was an Aeduan of influence, and was a leader, in some sort, of the Gallic 

patriotic party, who were hostile to the Roman power. in, prep, with acc. or 

abl.; here it takes the acc., and = to or into. See A. & G. 153, under In, 1 ; B. 120, 

3; G. 418, 1 ; H. 435, x * antiquum, acc. sing. m. of the adj. a?ttiquus, -a, -um 

(anti, i.e. ante + cus). antiquum is an attributive of locum. Synonyms : vetus = 
the old in opposition to the recent, i.e. in opposition to that which has not been long 
in existence ; whereas atidquus = the old in opposition to that which has not pre- 
viously existed. locum, acc. sing, of the noun locus, -i, m. in the sing., m. or n. 

in the plur. ; see note on loci , 1 . 10, Chap. II. locum is the obj. of the prep, in. 


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134 


CAESAR S GALLIC WAR 


[CHAP. XVIII. 


should happen to 
the Romans, he 
. indulged the lar- 
gest hope of ob- 
taining sovereign 
power through 
the agency of the 
Helvetii ; while, 


gratiae atque honoris sit restitutus. Si 38 

of favor and of honor was restored. If 

quid accidat Romanis, summam in 39 

anything should happen to the Homans , highest into , 

spem per Helvetios regni obtinendi 40 

hope through the Helvetii of the sovereignty to he gained 


Line 38. gratiae, gen. sing, of the noun grdtia , -ae, f. ( grdtus , favor, both act. 

and pass. ; compare cdrus , gk. x^pts, and English grace). atque (ad -f- que), 

conj. that adds a more emphatic notion. See note on this particle, 1 . 10, Chap. I. 

honoris, gen. sing, of the noun honor , -oris, m. ; connected by atque with grdtiae, 

and in the same grammatical construction. sit restitutus (restitutus sit), 3d pers. 

sing. perf. subjunctive pass, of restitud , -ere, - ui , - iitum , 3 (re + statuere, to set up 
again); connected by et with dbninuta (sit), and the subjunctive for the same reason 

— namely, because in a subordinate clause in the ordtio obliqua . Si, conditional 

conj. (archaic form set, sibilated from the gk. el). The ordtio recta of lines 32-38: 
Favet et cupit Ilelvetils propter hanc afflnitatem, odit etiam suo nomine Caesarem 
et Romanos, quod eorum adventu potentia eius deminuta, et Divitiacus frater in 
antiquum locum gratiae atque honoris est restitutus. 

Line 39. quid, nom. sing. n. of the indef. pron. quis (qui), quae, quid (quod). 
The forms quis, quae, quid are used substantively; qui, quae, quod, adjectively. 

quid is the subject-nom. of accidat. accidat, 3d pers. sing. pres, subjunctive act. 

of accido, -ere, -cidi (ad + cadere); hence accidere = lit. to fall to, i.e. to befall , happen; 
pres, subjunctive in the condition of si. Observe that si quid accidat is used euphe- 
mistically for if defeat shall happen to. Observe, further, that the pres, infinitives 
and pres, subjunctives are used when the writer has no intention to express an action 
as prior to another, because reperit , on which the indirect discourse depends, is a 
present tense. Romanis, dat. plur. of the adj. Romdnus, -a, -urn, used substan- 
tively, and is the indirect object of accidat. summam, acc. sing. f. of the adj. 

summus, -a, - um , superl. degree of the positive superus, comparative superior, superl. 

supremus or summus. summam is an attributive of the noun spem. in, prep. 

with either the acc. or abl., here* it takes the acc. ; note its position between the 
modifier and the noun modified, and see A. & G. 345, a, 2; B. 58. 2; G. 413, rem. 2; 
II. 569, II, 1. 

Line 40. spem, acc. sing, of the noun spes, - ei , f. Observe that the final vowel 
of the stem is short in the gen. and dat. of spes; it is short also in the gen. and dat. 

of the stems of fides and res. spent is the obj. of the prep. in. per, prep, with 

the acc. Helvetios, acc. plur. m. of the adj. Helvetius, -a, -um, used as a subst. ; 

it is here the acc. of the agent, considered as means, after the prep. per. Consult 

A. & G. 246, b; B. 166, rem. 1 ; G. 401 ; H. 415, I, note i. regni, gen. sing, of 

the noun regnurn, -i, n. (rex), regni as a gen. limits spem. Obtinendi, gen. of 

the gerundive obtinendus, -a, -um of the verb obUneo, -ere, -ui, -ten turn, 2 (ob+ tenere). 
obtinendi as a gerundive agrees with the noun regni. The phrase regni obtinendi 
constitutes what is called the gerundive construction, and as such depends on spem . 
Consult A. & G. 298; B. 184, rem. 4, i ; G. 428; II. 544, 1. It may clarify this 
matter to say that the gerundive is simply the fut. pass, participle, and is the attrib- 
utive, in the oblique cases, of some noun; while the gerund is a verbal noun in the 
active voice, and takes a direct obj. Thus in spem regtti obtinendi = lit. into the 


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LINES 41-44.] 


BOOK I. 


135 


4i venire ; imperio 

to come (he comes) ; under the power 


popull Romani 

of the people Roman 


42 non 

not 

43 ea, 

that , 


modo de regno, sed etiam de 

only of the sovereignty , hut even of 


quam habeat, gratia desperare. 

which he has , popularity , to despair (he despairs). 


44 Reperiebat 

Ascertained , 


etiam in quaerendo Caesar, 

too, on inquiring Caesar , 


under the sway 
of the Roman 
people, he not 
only despaired 
of the sovereign- 
ty, but even of 
maintaining the 
influence which 
he at that time 
had. As to the 
unsuccessful 
cavalry skirmish 


hope of the sovereignty to be obtained , which is equivalent to: into the hope of obtain - 
ing the sovereigttty. For the gerund construction thus: patriam spes videndi — the 
hope of seeing one's fatherland. 

Line 41. venire, pres. inf. act. of the verb venio,-lre, vent ventum , 4; supply 

eum , referring to Dumnorigem , 1 . 10, above, as subject-acc. of venire. impend, 

a lone abl. absolute, denoting both time and cause. If the pres, participle of esse 
were in use, the phraseology would be: imperio ente popull Rdmdnl = the rule of the 
Roman people being. With such a participle, the abl. absolute construction would 

be regular. popull, gen. sing, of the noun populus, - 1 , m. ; as a gen. it limits 

imperio. For synonyms, see 1 . 17, Chap. VI. Rdmani, gen. sing. m. of the adj. 

Romdnus , -a, - um ; it is an attributive of popull. Note that the adj., in this phrase, 
always follows the noun. 

Line 42. n 5 n, adv. (ne + unum); it modifies modo . modo, adv. (modus); 

hence modo = lit. by measure , i.e. expressing a restriction of the notion = in English 

only. de, prep, with the abl. regnd, abl. of the noun regnum , -1, n. (rex). 

regno is the obj. of the prep. de. Observe that the phrase de regno follows the verb 
desperdre, and that the prep, de in the compound is repeated with regnd. This is 
the common construction in Caesar, but other writers construct more frequently with 

the acc. sed, conj. ; strongest of the adversatives. etiam (et + iam), adv. 

As adverbs, both modo and etiam modify desperare ; but as conjunctive phrases, non 
modo . . . sed etiam indicate that prominence is given to the second word or clause. 
de, prep, with the abl. 

Line 43. ea, abl. sing. f. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id; it is an attributive of 

grdtid. quam, acc. sing. f. of the rel. pron. qul \ quae , quod; as a rel. it refers to 

grdtid; in grammatical construction it is the direct object of habeat. habeat, 

3d pers. sing. pres, subjunctive of the verb habeo, -ere, -ul, - Hum , 2; it agrees with a 
pron. implied in the ending as subject-nom., referring to Dumnorix; it is in the sub- 
junctive mode, because it is in a dependent clause in ordtio obllqua. gratia, abl. 

sing, of the noun gratia, -ae, f. (grdtus, favor; kindred with earns, gk. x^/ 34 *)* grdtid 

is the obj. of the prep. de. desperare, pres. inf. of the verb despero, -dre, -dvl, 

-dtum, 1 (de-f- sperare, to be without hope) ; supply eum as subject-acc. of desperdre, 
referring to Dumnorix. The ordtio recta of lines 38-43 : ST quid accidit Romanis, 
summam in spem per Helvetios regni obtinendl ve nit; imperio popull Romani non 
modo de regno, sed etiam de ea, quam habet, gratia desperat. 

Line 44. Reperiebat, 3d pers. sing, imperf. ind. act. of reperio, -Ire, rep(p)ert, 
repertum, 4 (re + parere, to procure again); it agrees with its subject-nom. Caesar. 

etiam (et -f- iam), adv. — also. in, prep, with the acc. or abl.; here it takes 

the abl. quaerendo, abl. of the gerund of the verb quaerd, -ere, quaeslvi (-sil). 


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136 


caesar's gallic war 


[CHAP. XVIII. 


which had taken 
place a few days 
before, Caesar al- 
so found on in- 
quiry, that the 
beginning of that 
stampede was 
made by Dum- 
norix and his 


quod proelium equestre adversum paucls 46 

in that a battle cavalry unsuccessful a few, 

ante die bus esset factum, initium eius 4« 

before days , had been fought , the beginning of that 

fugae factum a Dumnorige atque eius 47 

flight ( had been) made by Dumnorix and his 


situm , 3; quaerendo as a gerund is the obj. of the prep. in. Consult A. & G. 301, (3); 

B. 184, rem. 4, IV; G. 433; H. 542, IV, (2). Caesar, -aris, m.; subject-nom. 

of reperiebat. Note how both the subj. and predicate are made emphatic by ex- 
change of positions ; the natural Latin order is : Caesar etiam in quaerendd reperiebat. 

Line 45. quod, adv. ; acc. of the rel. qui \ quae , quod = whereas or in that* 
Consult A. & G. 333, a\ B. 123, rem. 21 ; G. 525, 2; H. 516, II, 2, note. But quod 
might be taken as a rel. pron., and fugae as = to proelii , and then the following ordo 
might explain the construction : initium eius proelii equestris adverst , quod proelium 

esset factum , factum (esse), etc. Compare quae pars . . . ea, 1 . 24, Chap. XI. 

proelium, nom. sing, of the noun proelium , -i, n. ; subject-nom. of esset factum 
(factum esset). As to derivation and synonyms, see note on proelits , 1 . 18, Chap. I. 

As to the battle, read again Chap. XV. equestre, nom. sing. n. of the adj. 

equester , -tris, -tre (eques [equus ] ). equestre is an attributive of proelium. 

adversum, nom. sing. n. of the adj. adversus , -a, -um (ad + versus, participle of 

verto); adversum , too, is an attributive of proelium . paucis, abl. plur. m. of the 

■ adj. paucus , -a, -um. paucis modifies diebus. 

Line 46. ante, adv. and prep.; here it is an adv. and modifies esset factum 

(factum esset). diebus, abl. plur. of the noun dies , - ei (old form in the gen. die), 

m. or f. in the sing. ; always m. in the plur. diebus is the abl. of the degree of dif- 
ference. Consult A. & G. 250; B. 164, rem. 3; G. 403, note 4, (a); H. 423, and 
430, note 3. Note the strictly literal translation of paucis ante diebus — before by a 

few days. esset factum (factum esset), 3d pers. sing, pluperf. subjunctive of 

fid, fieri, f actus \ used as pass, of facio , -ere, feci, factum, 3; esset factum agrees with 
its subject-nom. proelium, 1. 45, above ; it is in the subjunctive, because it is a sub- 
ordinate clause in the ordtio obliqua. Consult A. & G. 321, a; B. 245, 1, (b); G. 525, 3; 

H. 524. initium, acc. sing, of the nom. initium , -i, n. (in -j- ire), initium is 

subject-acc. of factum (esse). Observe that this inf. clause is the object of, and 

depends on, Reperiebat, 1 . 44, above. eius, gen sing. f. of the dem. pron. is, ea, 

id; as a gen. it limits fugae . 

Line 47. fugae, gen. sing. of. the noun fuga , -ae, f.; as a gen. it limits initium . 

factum (esse), perf. inf. of fid, fieri, f actus, 3; its subject-acc. is initium. 

a, prep, with the abl. (d before consonants only, ab before either vowels or con- 
sonants). Dumnorige, abl. sing, of the proper noun Dumnorix, -igis, m. ; abl. of 

the agent after the prep. d. See A. & G. 246; B. 166; G. 401 ; H. 415, I. See note 

on Dumnorigem , 1 . 10, above. atque (ad -}- que), conj., used before vowels and 

consonants, dc before consonants only ; it usually adds a notion of greater import. 

eius, gen. sing. m. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id; used substantively; as a 

personal pron. of the 3d pers. = here his; observe that before fugae, immediately 
preceding, it has its proper demonstrative force, and = that. Whether used as 
a dem. or as a personal pron. can only be determined by the connection, eius as a 
gen. limits equitibus . 


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Lines 48 - 51 .] 


BOOK i. 


137 


quern 

which 


48 equitibus, — nam equitatul, 

cavalry, — for the cavalry, 

49 Caesari Aedui miserant, Dumnorix 
to Caesar the Aedui had sent, Dumnorix 

bo — eorum fuga reliquum esse 
— by their flight the rest of, to be (were), 

5i perterritum. 

terrified . 


auxilio 

for an aid 

praeerat ; 

was over ; 

equitatum 

cavalry, 


cavalry ; — for 
Dumnorix was in 
command of the 
cavalry, which 
the Aedui had 
sent to aid Cae- 
sar ; — that the 
rest of the caval- 
ry had been ter- 
rified and stam- 
peded by their 
flight. 


Line 48. equitibus, abl. plur of the noun e ques, - itis , m. ( equus ); connected by 

the conj. atque with Duntnorige, and in the same grammatical construction. 

nam, con). = for; expresses an objective reason; enim , a subjective. equitatui 

(contracted form equitdtu), dat. of equiidtus, -us, m.; after prae in praeerat , 1 . 49, 

below. See A. & G. 228; B. 143; G. 347 ; H. 386. quem, acc. sing. m. of the 

rel. pron. qui, quae, quod; as a rel. pron. it refers to equitdtui, but is the direct obj. of 
miserant. auxilio, dat. sing, of the noun auxilium, -it, n.; dat. of the end for which . 

Line 49. Caesari, dat. sing, of the noun Caesar, -arts, m. ; dat. of the obj. to 
which . Observe that miserant takes here a direct obj. and two datives, and consult 

A. & G. 233, a; B. 147, and rem. i ; G. 356; H. 390, II. Aedui, nom. plur. of 

the adj. Aeduus , -a, - um , used substantively ; subject-nom. of miserant. As to the 

Aedui, consult note on Aeduo, 1 . 20, Chap. III. miserant, 3d pers. plur. pluperf. 

ind. act. of the verb mitto , -ere, misi, missurn, 3; it agrees with its subject-nom. Aedui. 

Dumnorix, -igis, m., subject-nom. of the verb praeerat. See note on Dum- 

norigem, 1. 10, above. praeerat, 3d pers. sing, imperf. ind. of the neuter or 

intrans. verb prae sum, -esse, -fui, fut. participle -futurus; praeerat agrees with its 
subject-nom. Dumnorix. 

Line 50. eorum, gen. plur. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id, used as a personal pron. 

of the 3d pers. ; here it = of them or their; as a gen. it limits fuga. fuga, abl. 

sing, of the noun fuga, -ae, f. fugd is an abl. of cause. See A. & G. 245; B. 165; 

G. 408; H. 416. reliquum, acc. sing. m. of the adj. reliquus, -a, -um; reliquum 

is an attributive of equitdtum. For synonyms, see note on reliquus, 1 . 7, Chap. V. 

esse, pres. inf. of the intrans. verb sum, esse, fui, futurus ; it is here used in the 

formation of the perf. pass, esse perterritum ( perterritum esse). equitatum, 

acc. sing, of the noun equiidtus , -us, m. {equitdre, to ride) ; hence the noun abstract 
= a riding; but in concrete, cavalry, equites in the plur. has the same meaning. 
But after 122 b.c. the equites became an order of Roman knights, and as such were 
farmers of the taxes, and administrators of justice ; whereas equitdtus very rarely 
designates the equestrian order, equitdtum is subject-acc. of esse perterritum ( per- 
territum esse). 

Line 51. esse perterritum ( perterritum esse), perf. pass. inf. of the verb per- 
terreo, -ere, -ui, -itum, 2 (per -+- terrere). Observe (a) the intensive force of the prep. 
per in the compound perterrere = to frighten thoroughly. Observe (b) that the con- 
struction from reperiebat, with the exception of the parenthetic clause, is informal 
ordtio obliqua ; the acc. sentences depending on reperiebat. The direct form would 
be : quod proelium equestre adversum paucls ante diebus erat factum, initium eius 
fugae factum est a Dumnorige atque eius equitibus . . . horurn fuga reliquus est equi- 
tdtus perterritus , 


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138 


caesar’s gallic war 


[CHAP. XIX. 


XIX.» On being 
thus informed, 
since to these 
suspicions the 
most incontest- 
able facts were 
added; viz., that 
Dumnorix had 
led the Helvetii 
through the coun- 
try of the Sequa- 
ni; that he had 
ordered the mu- 
tual exchange of 


XIX. Quibus rebus cognitls, cum 1 

Which thing 8 having been learned , when 

ad has susplciones certissimae res accederent, 2 

to these imputations most certain things were added , 

quod per fines Sequanorum HelvetiSs 3 
that through the territory of the Sequani the Helvetii 

traduxisset, quod obsides inter eos 4 

he had led , that hostages among them 


Line i. Quibus, abl. plur. f. of the rel. pron. qui, quae , quod ; it is an attributive 
of rebus; at the beginning of a sentence the rel. = et eis. See A. & G. 180 ,/ ; B. 129, 

rem. 9; G. 610; H. 453. rebus, abl. plur. of the noun res, ret , f. (stem re 

shortened in the gen. and dat. sing.) ; abl. absolute with cognitis denoting time when . 

Consult A. & G. 255; B. 192 ; G. 409; H. 431. cognitls, abl. sing, of the perf. 

pass, participle cdgnitus , -a, -um of the verb cogndsco , -ere, - tiovi , - nitum , 3 (con -f* 

[gjndsco, gk. yty vdo-Kw). cognitis is in the abl. absolute construction with rebus . 

cum, conj. ; other forms quum and archaic qum ( qui ). cum here denotes both time 

and cause. 

Line 2. ad, prep, with the acc. has, acc. plur. f. of the dem. pron. hie, 

haec , hoc ; hds is an attributive of suspiciones. suspicidnes, acc. plur. of the noun 

suspicio , -on is, f. ( suspicdri , to suspect) ; it is the obj. of the prep. ad. certis- 

simae, nom. plur. f. of the adj. certissimus , -a , - um, superl. degree; positive certus, 
by metathesis for cretus , a participle of the verb cerno , - ere , crevi , cretum ; comparative 

certior. certissimae is an attributive of the noun res. res, nom. plur. of the 

noun res , ret, f. ; subj. of the verb accederent. accederent, 3d pers. plur. imperf. 

subjunctive of accedo, -ere, - cessi , - cessum , 4 (ad + cedere, to approach ); hence, as 

accedere is a neuter verb, it = sometimes to approach a thing with the notion of aug- 
mentation ; it therefore freq. = to be added , as in our text, accederent is in the sub- 
junctive after cum temporal Or historical. A. & G. 325; B. 222; G. 585; H. 521, 
II, 2; it agrees with its subject-nom. res . 

Line 3. quod, conj. =tkat; here the function of the connective is merely to 
introduce the following explanatory quod- clauses, which are in apposition with the 

noun res. per, prep, with the acc. fines, acc. plur. of the noun finis , -is, m. 

fines is the obj. of the prep .per. For synonyms, see note on agrum, 1 . 12, Chap. II. 

Sequanorum, gen. plur. of the proper noun Sequani, -drum; as a gen. it 

limits fines. For description of this clan, see note on Aeduo, 1 . 20, Chap. III. 

Helvetios, acc. plur. of the adj. Helvetius, -a, -um, used substantively. Hclvetios is 
the direct obj. of trdduxisset. For description of the Helvetii, see note on Helvetii , 
1 . 16, Chap. I. 

Line 4. traduxisset, 3d pers. sing, pluperf. subjunctive of the verb trdducd, -ere, 
-diixi, -ductum, 3 (trans + ducere) ; it agrees with a pron. implied in the ending as 
subject-nom., referring to Dumnorix ; it is in the subjunctive mode, because Caesar 
reports his own thought, as if it were another’s. Consult A. & G. 321, and 341, d; 

* The translator thus constructs the following strictly English period : On being thus informed, 
Caesar thought there was sufficient reason for punishing Dumnorix, or for ordering the Aeduan 
state to do it, since to these suspicions the most incontestable facts were added : that Dumnorix 


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LINES 6-7.] 


BOOK I. 


139 


6 dandos curasset, quod ea omnia 

to be given he had cared for , that these all (things) 

6 non modo iniussu suo et clvitatis, 

not only without leave his own, and (that) of the state , 

7 sed etiam Inscientibus ipsls fecisset, 

but also, unaware themselves being , he had done, 

B. 198, (b); G. 525, 1, and 541 ; H. 516, II. quod, see quod at the beginning of 

the preceding clause. Obsides, acc. plur. of the noun obses , -idio, m. and f . ; 

direct obj. of curasset. inter, prep, with the acc. e5s, acc. plur. m. of the 

dem. pron. is, ea, id, used as a personal pron. of the 3d pers. eds is the obj of the 
prep, inter. 

Line 5. dandos, gerundive, or fut. pass, participle of the verb do, dare, dedt, 
datum (a short before -re in pres. inf. act. by exception), dandos is the factitive 
obj. after curdsset. Consult A. & G. 294, d; B. 184, III, (a ) ; G. 430; II. 544, note 2. 

curasset, 3d pers. sing, pluperf. subjunctive act. for the uncontracted form 

ciirdvisset; it agrees with a pron. implied in the ending as subject-nom., referring to 

Dumnorix; subjunctive mode for the same reason as trdduxisset , preceding line. 

quod, a conj. — that. See note on quod, 1. 3, above. ea, acc. plur. n. of the dem. 

pron. is, ea, id, used substantively ; or supply the English word things , and take ea as 
a dem. adj. = these. The things referred to were all the things to which Caesar took 
exception. The things just mentioned in the $r«^/-clauses preceding, and in the 
clauses succeeding, were mere pretexts made to justify Caesar’s invading the Gallic 

clans ; his real motive for such invasion was self-glory and the glory of Rome. 

Omnia, acc. plur. n. of the adj. otnnis, -e ; omnia is an attributive of ea, used as a noun. 

Line 6. n5n, adv. (non+unum, apocopated); it modifies the adv. modo . 

modo, adv. ; as such it modifies fecisset. iniussu, abl. of the noun iniussus , 

-us, m. (in + iiistus); in fact used only in the abl. ; see A. & G. 71, b; B. 51 ; G. 70; 

H. 134. iniussu is an abl. of manner. suo, abl. of the poss. pron. suus, -a, -urn; 

it is an attributive of iniussu, but it refers to Caesar. et, cop. conj. 

Clvitatis, gen. sing, of the noun civitds, - atis , f. (cives) ; as a gen. it limits iniussu , to 
be supplied, but it refers to the state of Dumnorix — the Aeduan. 

Line 7. sed, conj. ; the strongest of the adversatives. etiam (et -}- iam), 

adv. ; as such it modifies fecisset. But the reader will reflect, that while non modo 
. . . sed etiam as phrases can be analyzed; in use they are really connectives with 
conjunctive force, sed etiam giving emphasis to the second clause. Compare gk. 

ob fibvov . . . dXXd sal ; or 6 t 1 . . . dXXd ical. inscientibus, abl. plur. of the 

adj. tnsciens, -entis (in, negative -f- scire) ; abl. absolute with ip sis. ipsls, abl. 

plur. m. of the intensive dem. pron. ipse, -sa, -sum, gen. ipstus, dat. ipst. ipsts is 
abl. absolute with the adj. inscientibus, but it refers to the Aedui. As to the abl. 
absolute construction of a noun or pron. with an adj., consult A. & G. 255, a ; B. 192, 

REM. 1 ; G. 409; II. 431, 4. fecisset, 3d pers. sing, pluperf. subjunctive of facid, 

-ere, feet, factum, 3 ; subjunctive for the same reason as trdduxisset, 1. 4, above. 
fecisset agrees with a pron. implied in the ending as subject-nom., referring to 
Dumnorix. 

had led the Helvetii through the country of the Sequani; that he had ordered the mutual ex- 
change of hostages ; that he had done all these things not only without Caesar’s orders, or those 
of the Aeduan state, but even without the knowledge of the Aedui ; and that, in fine, charges of 
sedition had been made against him by the chief magistrate of the Aedui — even Liscus himself. 


hostages ; that 
he had done all 
these things not 
only without Cae- 
sars orders or 
those of the Ae- 
duan state, but 
even without the 
knowledge of the 


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140 


caesar’s gallic war 


[CHAP. XIX. 


Aedui; and that 
charges of sedi- 
tion had been 
made against him 
by the chief magis- 
trateof the Aedui, 
Caesar thought 
there was suffi- 
cient reason for 
punishing Dum- 


quod 

that 


a magistratu 

by a magistrate 


Aeduorum accusaretur, 8 

of the Aedui he was accused , 


satis esse causae 

enough to be (it is) of cause 


arbitrabatur, quare 9 

he thought , wherefore 


in eum aut ipse animadverteret aut 10 

on him either he himself should animadvert or 


Line 8. quod, see note on this word, 1 . 3, above. a, prep, with the abl. 

(d before consonants only, ab before vowels or consonants). magistratu, abl. 

sing, of the noun magistrdtus, -us, m. ; abl. of the agent after the prep. d. Consult 
A. & G. 246 ; B. 166 ; G. 401 ; H. 415, I. The allusion is to Liscus the Vergobretus. 

Aeduorum, gen. plur. of the proper noun Aedui, -drum, m. ; as a gen. it limits 

magistratu. As to this clan, see note on Aeduo, 1 . 20, Chap. III. accusaretur, 

3d pers. sing, imperf. subjunctive pass, of the act. verb accuso, - dre , -dvi, - dtum , 1 ; 
it agrees with a pron. implied in the ending as subject-nom., referring to Dumnorix ; 
it is in the subjunctive mode for the same reason as trdduxisset , 1 . 4, above. See, as 
to the accusation, Chapters XVII and XVIII. 

Line 9. satis, adv., or adj., or noun, according to the exigencies of the construc- 
tion ; here, with the gen. partitive, it has a substantive force, and is the subject-acc. 

of esse. esse, pres. inf. of the intrans. or neuter verb sum, perf. ind .fut, fut. 

participle futurus ; it is here a verb of complete predication ; its subject-acc. is 

satis, used as a noun. causae, gen. sing, of the noun causa , -ae, f. ; partitive 

gen.; consult A. & G. 216, 4; B. 134; G. 369; H. 397, 4, and footnote 3. 

arbitrabatur, 3d pers. sing, imperf. ind. of the deponent verb arbitror, -dri, - dtus , 1 ; 
it agrees with a pron. implied in its ending as subject-nom., referring to Caesar. 
The reader will observe that arbitrabatur is the principal verb in this elaborate 
complex sentence, and carries the weight, so to speak, of all the clauses. Synonyms: 
arbitrdri (arbiter) =. to think in a judicial way — to decide as an arbitrator; and 
then, generally =to hold as true, to think , like GK. vofilfctv. putdre = to think as an 
accountant — to reckon ; hence, generally = to suppose , to think, aestimdre = to 
think as a process of exact estimation ; whereas existimdre = to think as a moral 
function — to estimate a thing at its true value. quare (qua -f- re), adv., some- 

times written qua re; if thus written, qud is abl. f. of the rel. pron. qui, quae , quod , 
used adjectively, and re is the abl. sing, of res, ret, f. ; and the phrase qud re is to 
be taken as an abl. of cause = by which thing, i.e. wherefore. 

Line 10. in, prep, with either the acc. or abl.; here it takes the acc. eum, 

acc. m. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id, used as a personal pron. of the 3d pers. ; it is the 

obj. of the prep, in; it refers to Dumnorix. aut, conj., used to denote that the 

difference is exclusive, aut . . . aut = either ... or. See note on this particle, 

as contrasted with vel, 1 . 19, Chap. I. ipse, nom. sing, of the intensive dem. 

pron. ipse, - sa , -sum, gen. ipstus, dat. ipst; it refers to Caesar; it is expressed for 

emphasis, and is the subject-nom. of animadverteret. animadverteret, 3d pers. 

sing, imperf. subjunctive of animadverto , -ere, -ti, -sum (animum + ad -f- vertere); it 
agrees with its subject-nom. ipse; it is in the subjunctive after qudre — indirect 
question. See A. & G. 334; B. 242; G. 467; H. 529, 1 . Observe that animadvertere 
= lit. to turn the mind to; but that, as the attention to a fault usually issued in the 
punishment of it, this verb, especially with in and the acc., came to mean to punish . 
aut, see the alternate immediately before ipse . 


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LINES 11-14.] 


BOOK I. 


141 


ii civitatem 

the state 


animadvertere iuberet. 

to animadvert he should order . 


His 

To these 


12 omnibus rebus unum repugnabat, 

all things , one (thing) opposed itself , 

13 quod Divitiaci fratris summum in 

that of Divitiacus, the brother, the greatest toward 

14 populum Romanum studium, summam 

the people Roman , zeal, the greatest 


norix,orfororder- 
ing the Aeduan 
state to do it. One 
circumstance was • 
opposed to all 
these considera- 
tions : that he 

well knew the 
very great devo- 
tion of Dumno- 
rix’s brother Di- 
vitiacus to the 
interests of the 
Roman people, 


Line ii. civitatem, acc. sing, of the noun civitds, -dtis (rives) ; subject-acc. of 

animadvertere. animadvertere, pres. inf. of animadverto , i ; with subject-acc. 

depends on iuberet. See A. & G. 271, b; B. 194, rem. 2, a ; G. 423, note 6; H. 535, 
II, footnote 1. Observe that inhere takes the acc. and inf. instead of ut and the 

subjunctive. iuberet, 3d pers. sing, imperf. subjunctive of iubed, -ere, iussi , 

iussum , 2; iuberet is connected by the alternative conj. aut with animadverteret , and 

is in the subjunctive mode for the same reason, viz., an indirect question. His, 

dat. plur. of the dem. pron. hie , haec , hoc; it is an attributive of rebus. 

Line 12. omnibus, dat. plur. of the adj. omnis , -e, an /-stem; it, too, is an attrib- 
utive of rebus; strictly, however, omnibus modifies the complex idea involved in his 

rebus. rebus, dat. plur. of the noun res , rei, {.; dat. of the indirect obj. after 

repugndbat. unum, nom. sing. n. of the adj. iinus, - a , -um, gen. iinius , dat. uni. 

unum is here used substantively — or we may supply verum , -/, n., i .e.fact — and is 

subject-nom. of repiigtidbat. repugnabat,, 3d pers. sing, imperf. ind. act. of 

repugno , -dre, -dvi, -dtum , 1 (re -}- pugnare) ; hence repugn are = lit. to fight back, 
repugndbat agrees with its subject-nom. unum ; and with its subj. and indirect obj. 
= one fact opposed itself to all these specifications. 

Line 13. quod, conj.; introduces the quod-oiause quod . . . edgndverat ', which 

clause is explanatory of unum , and in apposition with it. Divitiaci, gen. sing. 

of the proper noun Divitiacus , -/, m. ; an appositive of fratris. fratris, gen. 

sing, of the noun frdter , -tris, m.; as a gen. it limits the noun studium. 

summum, acc. sing. n. of the adj . summus, -a, -um ; positive superus (rare), com- 
parative superior , superl. supremus or summus. summum is an attributive of 
studium . in, prep, with the acc. or abl. ; here it takes the acc. 

Line 14. populum, acc. sing, of the noun populus , -/, m. ; it is the obj. of the 
prep, in. Observe that the phrase in populum Romdnum is used instead of the 
objective gen. after studium. Compare odium in Caesarem and odium Caesaris , and 
consult A. & G. 217, c ; B. 131, rem. 3; G. 363, rem. i, end; H. 396, III, note i. 
But observe that the distinction between objective and subjective is ambiguous in 
the phrase odium Caesaris ; while there can be no ambiguity in the phrase odium in 

Caesarem . Rbmanum, acc. sing. m. of the adj. Romdnus, -a , -um (Roma-}- nus); 

Romdnum is an attributive of populum. studium, acc. sing, of the noun studium , 

-/, n. (studere, kindred with gk. airovddfciv, to be zealous), studium is a direct obj. of 
edgndverat, 1. 16, below. summam, acc. sing, of the adj. superl. degree sum- 

mus, -a, -um; see note on summum , preceding line; summam is an attributive of 
voluntdtem. 


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142 caesar’s gallic war [chap. xix. 


his very great 
regard for Cae- 
sar, his eminent 
fidelity, justice 
and moderation ; 
and he was afraid 
that by Dumno- 

in 

toward 

se voluntatem, 

himself, yood-will, 

egregiam 

distinguished 

fidem, 15 
fidelity, 

iustitiam, 
j ustice , 

temperantiam 

self-control, 

cognoverat ; 
he had known ; 

nam, ie 
for, 

rix’s punishment 
he might wound 
the feelings of 

lie 

lest 

eius 
by his 

supplicio 

punishment , 

Divitiaci 

Divitiacus' s 

animum 17 
soul 


Link 15. in, prep, with the acc. or abl. ; here it takes the acc. se, acc. 

sing, of the reflexive pron. sui , sibi , se , se — same form in both numbers; se here is the 
obj. of the prep. in. Observe that the pron. se refers to Caesar, and compare notes 

on in and populism , lines 13 and 14, above. voluntatem, acc. sing, of voluntds , 

-id /is, f. {void); direct obj. of cogndverat. Observe the omission of the conjunctions 
between the several direct objects of cogndverat (asyndeton). Observe that in a 
series of words there is an entire omission of conjunctions, or they are repeated 
between the words or phrases. The enclitic - que , however, might be appended to 
the last word of a series. See A. & G. 208, 3, and 346, c; B. 123, rem. 6; G. 474, 

noth; H. 554, 6. egregiam, acc. sing. f. of the adj. egregius , -a , -um (e-f- grex, 

i.e. chosen from the herd), egregiam is an attributive of the noun fidem. fidem, 

acc. sing, of the noun fides, fidei , f. (stem fide shortened in gen., dat. and acc. sing. 
fidem is a direct obj. of cogndverat. Note that fides wants the plural. 

Line 16. iustitiam, acc. sing, of the noun iustitia , -ae , f. (derived from ius 

through the adj. iustus). iustitiam is a direct obj. of cogndverat. temperantiam, 

acc. sing, of the noun temperantia , - ae , f. {temperdns, compare (JK. auxppoabirij). 

cogndverat, 3d pers. sing, pluperf. ind. act. of cdgndsco, -ere, - novi , - nitum , 3 (con + 
[gjnoscere, to know); it agrees with the subj. implied in the ending, referring to 
Caesar. Observe that cognoscere in the complete tenses is sometimes used pre- 
teritively. Thus cogndverat, pluperf. in form = the perfect in sense. Consult A. & G. 
279, e; B. 1 13; G. 241, rem. ; H. 297, I, 2. Lit. the pluperf. = he had learned, i.e. he 
knew. nam, conj. ; used to give a reason for the statement made in the pre- 

ceding sentence. Observe that nam introduces a real objective reason, while enim , 
always postpositive, introduces a subjective one. 

Link 17. ne, conj. and adv. (the primitive Latin negative; archaic form net , 
tit; while non is derivative), ne after a verb of fearing is a conj., and = that, 
because in the expression of a wish to actualize somewhat, the particle depends in 
the English language on the idea of fearing, and not on that of wishing. We may 
illustrate the idiom from our text by punctuating thus : verebatur; ne Divitiaci 
animum ojfenderet (optative subjunctive) = he was afraid; would that he might not 
offend the feelings of Divitiacus. And this = he was afraid that he would offend the 
feelings of Divitiacus. Consult A. & G. 331,/, and footnote; B. 200, REM. 6; 

G. 550, 2, and note i ; H. 498, III, note i. eius, gen. sing. m. of the dem. 

pron. is, ea, id, used as a personal pron. of the 3d pers.; eius as a gen. limits sup- 
plied; it refers to Dumnorix. supplicio, abl. sing, of the noun supplicium , -i, n. 

(supplex [sub -f- plio]); hence supplicium = the punishment of a suppliant ; of one who 

bends or kneels to receive the penalty of a crime, supplicio is an abl. of means. 

Divitiaci, gen. sing, of the proper noun Divitiacus, - i , m. ; as a gen. it limits the 

noun animum. animum, acc. sing, of the noun animus , -I, m.; it is the direct 

obj. of offenderet. As contrasted with mens , the thinking faculty, the intellect, 
animus = the sensibility. For complete definitions of the synonyms, see note on 
animus, 1 . 2, Chap. X. 


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LINES 18-20.] 


BOOK I. 


143 


is offenderet, verebatur. Itaque prius-quam 

he might displease , he was afraid. Therefore , before that 


19 quicquam 

anything 

20 vocari 

to be called , 


conaretur, 

he attempted , 

iubet et 

he orders , and 


Divitiacum 

Divitiacus 

cotldianls 
the daily 


ad se 

to himself 

interpretibus 

interpreters 


Divitiacus. Ac- 
cordingly, before 
attempting to ex- 
ercise any dis- 
cipline, he or- 
dered Divitiacus 
to be summoned 
to his presence; 
and, dismissing 
the usual inter- 


Line i 8. offenderet, 3d pers. sing, imperf subjunctive of offendd , -ere, -fendi, 
fensum, 3 (ob -f- fendere, to strike against); offenderet agrees with a personal pron. 
implied in the ending as subject-nom., referring to Caesar; -it is the subjunctive of 
purpose after tie. See A. & G. 331,/; B. 200, rem. 6; G. 550, 1 and 2; II. 498, III. 

Note that the noun-clause tie . . . offenderet is the direct obj. of verebatur. 

verebatur, 3d pers. sing, imperf. ind. of the deponent verb vereor, -eri, veritus, 2 ; 
it agrees with a pron. implied in the ending, referring to Caesar. Synonyms : vereri 
= to fear from man's innate sense of veneration — the venerable naturally inspires 
awe; metuere = to fear — often for a sense of shame or disgrace; while timere = 

to fear impending evil as the result of reflection or caution. Itaque (ita-f- que), 

conj., illative; denotes an inference; when introducing a clause, it generally stands 

at the beginning. prius-quam, adv. (prius -f quam) ; freq. written frius quam ; 

often the parts are separated by tmesis. The force of the quatti is not obvious with 
the word before as the meaning of frius; but, as an illustration, if we translate frius 
with sooner , the force of quam, as a particle used in comparison, is readily seen. 

Line 19. quicquam, acc. sing. n. of the indef. pron. quisquatti , quaequam , quid - 
quam or quicquam ; used substantively, and the direct obj. of the deponent verb 
condretur. Observe that this pron. is compounded of quis-f quam; that the former 
part of the word is declined like quis and qui , but have the quod-form — adj. — and 
the ^«/V/-form — subst. — in the neuter ; and that this pron. is used in negative 

sentences, or in interrogative sentences implying a negative. conaretur, 3d pers. 

sing, imperf. subjunctive of the deponent verb editor , -are, condtus, 1. conaretur is 
subjunctive after frius-quatn, temporal. Consult A. & G. 327; B. 226, rem. i ; G. 577; 

H. 520, 2. Divitiacum, acc. sing, of the proper noun Divitiacus, -i, m.; subject- 

acc. of vocari. ad, prep, with the acc. se, acc. sing, of the reflexive pron. 

sui, sibi, se, se — the same form in both numbers; se is the obj. of the prep, ad; it 
refers to Caesar. 

Line 20. vocari, pres. inf. pass, of voco, -dre, -dvi, - dtum , 1 ; pass, parts: vocor, 

-dri, - at us , 1 ; the subject-acc. of vocari is the noun Divitiacum. iubet, 3d pers. 

sing, of the verb tubed, -ere, iiissi, iussum, 2. iubet agrees with a pron. implied in 
the ending as its subject-nom., referring to Caesar. Observe that the direct obj. of 
iubet is the inf. noun-clause Divitiacum ad se vocdrt. Observe also that from this 
point to the end of the chapter the construction is affected by refresentdtio, i.e. the 
verbs in the main clauses are in the historic pres, tense. et, cop. conj. ; it con- 
nects iubet and colloquitur, 1. 24, below. cotldianls, abl. plur. m. of the adj. 

co(quo)tididnus, -a, -urn {co\quo\tldie — quot -f- die) ; cotididnis is a modifier of inter- 
fretibus. Until recently the orthography of cotididnus was quotididnus. Who will 

introduce the fad of spelling quot , cot? interpretibus, abl. plur. of the noun 

interfres, - etis , m. and f. (inter -f- pres), from fressus, apocopated? interfretibus is 
in the abl. absolute construction with the participle remotis. 


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144 


CAESAR S GALLIC WAR 


[CHAP. XIX. 


preters, he con- 
versed with him 
through Caius 
Valerius Procil- 
lus, a man of 
influence in the 
Gallic province, 
Caesar’s intimate 
friend, one in 
whom he had 
the greatest con- 
fidence in every 


remotls 

being removed , 

principe m 

a leading man 


per C. Valerium Procillum, 21 

through Caius Valerius Procillus , 


Galliae pr5vinciae, familiarem 22 

of Gaul , of the province , friend 


suum, cui summam 

his own , for whom the highest , 

fidem habebat, cum 

confidence he had , with 


omnium rerum 23 

of all things , 

eo colloquitur ; 24 
him he confers; 


Line 21. remotls, abl. plur. of the perf. pass, participle remotus , a , -urn of the 
verb removed , -ere, -mdvi, -mo turn, 2 (re + movere, to move back); abl. absolute with 

interpretibus. per, prep, with the acc. C., an abbreviation of Caium ; acc. 

sing, of Caius , -f, m., the praendmen . Valerium, acc. sing, of Valerius , the 

nomen — the name of the gens. Procillum, acc. sing, of Procillus , -*, m., the 

cognomen or family name. The three names together may be taken as a complex 
noun-phrase, the obj. of the preposition per , denoting the agent as means. Consult 

A. & G. 246, b\ B. 166, rem. 1 ; G. 401 ; H. 415, I, note i. The allusion is to 
Caius Valerius Procillus, a man of influence in Gaul, whose father had been made 
a Roman citizen ; he was facile prtnceps inter pares. The cognomen is variously 
written in the MSS. The Greek paraphrast translates per C. Valerium Procillum: 
81& tow Tatov B aXrjplov llpoaidWov. 

Line 22. principem, acc. sing, of the noun prtnceps , - ipis , m. (primus + capid); % 

an appositive of Procillum. Galliae, gen. sing, of the noun Gallia , -ae , f.; as a \ 

gen. it limits prdvinciae. provinciae, gen. sing, of the noun prdvincia , -ae, f.; 

as a gen. this noun limits principem. The allusion is, probably, to the Roman 
province in Gaul, as his father had received Roman citizenship, and the son Caius, 
as an interpreter, must have had knowledge of the Roman tongue, which, as a 

resident of Celtica, he could not be supposed to have acquired. familiarem, 

acc. sing, of the 2l&). familidris , -re, used substantively here, and as such in apposi- 
tion with Procillum. 

Line 23. suum, acc. sing. m. of the substantive and reflexive pron. suus, -a, 

-urn ; it is an attributive of the noun familidrem, but refers to Caesar. cui, 

dat. sing, of the rel. pron. qui, quae, quod ; it refers to Procillum, but is in the dat. 
after the phrase fidem habebat, which = confldebat. Consult A. & G. 227, note 2 ; 

B. 142 ; G. 346, and 357 ; H. 392, I. summam, acc. sing. f. of the adj. summus, 

-a, -um ; positive superus (rare), comparative superior, superl. supremus or summus . 

summam is an attributive of fidem. omnium, gen. plur. f. of the adj. omnis,-e ; 

as a gen. it limits rerum. rerum, gen. plur. of the noun res, ret, f.; as a gen. it 

limits fidem; gen. objective. See A. & G. 217; B. 131, rem. 2; G. 363, 2; 
II. 396, III. 

Line 24. fidem, acc. sing, of the noun fides, -el, f. (stem fide , final vowel 
shortened in gen. and dat. sing.). With fides compare the Latin verb fldo and the 

gk. icelO to, root tti 9 . fidem is the direct obj. of habebat. habebat, 3d pers. sing. 

imperf. ind. act. of habeo, -ere, -ul, -itum, 2 ; it agrees with a pron. implied in the 

ending as subject-nom., referring to Caesar. cum, prep, with the abl. ; known 

to be a prep., and not a conj., because it is seen at once that the verb colloquitur is 
connected immediately by et (1. 20, above) with iubet, and requires no other con- 


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LINES 25-27.] 


BOOK I. 


145 


25 simul common efacit, quae 

at the same time he forcibly reminds (him), what (things) 

26 ipso praesente in concilio Gallorum 

himself being present , in the council of the Gauls 

27 de Dumnorige sint dicta, et ostendit, 

about Dumnorix were said , and he shows 


nective. eo, abl. sing, of the dem. pron. is, ea , id, used as a personal pron. of 

the 3d pers.; cum eo = with him, i.e. Divitiacus. col(n) loquitur, 3d pers. sing. 

pres. ind. of the deponent verb colloquor, -i, - locutus , 3 (con -f- loqul, to speak together ). 
colloquitur agrees with a pron. implied in the termination, referring to Caesar as its 
subject-nom. 

Line 25. simul, adv. (kindred with the gk. &fia = together with). com- 

monefacit, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. of commouefacio , - ere , -feci , -factum , 3 
(commoneo + facio) = remind one forcibly , hence warn ; supply eum as direct obj. 
This verb and ostendit , 1 . 27, below, may, like verbs of teaching, take two objects 
— one of a person, and another of a thing. Observe that compounds of facio, 
not prepositional, retain the ictus like the simple form. See A. & G. 19, d; G. 15, 

rem. 2; H. 18, 2, 2). quae, nom. plur. n. of the interrogative pron. quit , quae, 

quid ; used substantively = what things ; it is the subject-nom. of sint dicta (dicta sint). 

Line 26. ipso, abl. sing. m. of the intensive dem. pron. ipse , - sa , -sum; ipso is in 
the abl. absolute construction with the participle praesente; see A. & G. 255, a ; B. 192, 

rem. 1 ; G. 409; H. 431, 4; ipso refers to Divitiacus. praesente, abl. sing. m. of 

the pres, participle praesens , -ntis ; abl. absolute with the pron. ipso. Observe that the 
participle praesens comes from the verb praesum , - esse , fut; and that the abl. sing., 
referring to persons , usually ends in - e , to things , in -/. Our text conforms to the rule, 

and praesente is abl. absolute with ipso , referring to Divitiacus. in, prep, with 

the acc. or abl. ; here it takes the abl. For the meaning of in after verbs of motion 

and of rest, see note on in with acc. or abl., 1 . 1, end, Chap. I. concilid, abl. 

sing, of the noun concilium , -i, n. (caldre, to call) ; concilio is the obj. of the prep. 
in. Synonyms : concilium = an assembly of distinguished persons for deliberation ; 
whereas consilium = the counsel taken in such assembly. But the meanings of the 

two words are often confused in the MSS. and editions. Gallorum, gen. plur. 

of the adj. Gallus , - a , - um , used substantively ; as a gen. it limits the noun concilio. 

Line 27. de, prep, with the abl.; lit. = fro?n ; here it — about. Observe that 
the prepositions ab, de and ex, all = lit .from. But de = from , i.e. any fixed point ; 
ab =from, i.e. the external border; ex — from, i.e. the interior — from within a 
place or thing; de, however, transf. to mental operations = of, about, concerning — 
the most common signification of the word; compare the gk. prep, ircpl. Dum- 

norige, abl. sing, of the proper noun Dumnorix, - igis , m. ; it is the obj. of the prep. 

de. sint dicta (dicta sint), 3d pers. plur. perf. subjunctive pass, of the verb died, 

-ere, -dtxi, dictum, 3 ; pass, parts : dicor, diet, dictus, 3. sint dicta agrees with its 
subject-nom. quae, 1. 25, above; subjunctive, because an indirect question puts its 
verb in the subjunctive. Consult A. & G. 334; B. 242 ; G. 467; A. 529, I, and 5, 1). 

et, cop. conj., connects commonefacit and ostendit. ostendit, 3d pers. sing. 

pres. ind. act. of the verb ostendo, -ere, -tendi, - tentum , 3 (ob -f- tendere, to stretch 
towards), ostendit agrees with a pron. implied in its ending as its subject-nom., 
referring to Caesar. 


respect. Caesar 
at once remind- 
ed Divitiacus of 
what, in Divitia- 
cus’s presence, 
had been said 
in the council of 
the Gauls con- 
cerning Dum- 
norix ; and also 


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146 


caesar’s gallic war 


[CHAP. XIX. 


disclosed to him 
what remarks 
each man had 
privately made 
concerning him 
in Caesar’s pres- 
ence. Caesar 
begged and en- 
treated him not 
to be offended, 
if Caesar himself 


quae 

what 


separatim 
(things) separately 
apud se dixerit. 

with himself had spoken, 

hortatur, ut sine 

exhorts , that without 

anirnl vel ipse 

mind’s, either himself 


quisque de eo 28 

each one about him 

Petit atque 29 

lie begs and also 

eius offensione 30 
his , aversion , 

de eo causa 31 

about him , the case 


Line 28. quae, acc. plur. n. of the interrogative pron. guts, quae , quid ; direct 

obj. of dixerit separatim, adv. ( separdre , to separate); as an adv. it modifies the 

verb dixerit quisque, nom. sing, of the indef. pron. quisque, quaeque , quidque , 

declined like the indef. quis with -que appended, which gives a notion of universality 

to the word, quisque is the subject-nom. of dixerit de, prep, with the abl. ; 

see note on de , 1. 27, above. eo, abl. sing. m. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id, used 

as a personal pron. of the 3d pers. eo is the obj. of the prep, de , and refers to Dum- 
norix; in the Latin de eo here — de Dumnorige. 

Line 29. apud, prep, with the acc.; apud with names of persons often = in the 

presence of. se, acc. sing. m. of the reflexive pron. sui , sibi , se , se — same form 

in both numbers; se is the obj. of the prep, apud; it refers to Caesar; or in the 

Latin, here apud se = apud Caesarem. dixerit, 3d pers. sing. perf. subjunctive 

act. of the verb died , -ere, dixi, dictum , 3 ; it agrees with its subject-nom. quisque 
in number and person; supply eum as direct obj.; subjunctive, because an indirect 
question. We regard the construction in lines 25-29 as informal indirect discourse; 
the direct : quae separatim quisque de eo apud me dixit '! the indirect : ego ostendd, 
quae, etc.; or, as Caesar uses the 3d pers. in regard to himself — ostendit. Asa 
voucher for our opinion, compare quid ednsilii sit, ostendit, 1 . 12, Chap. XXL The 

^/m^-clauses, however, might be taken as characteristic subjunctive clauses. 

Petit, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. of peto, -ere, -ivi (-ii), - itum , 3; it agrees with a 

pron. implied in the ending, referring to Caesar as the subject-nom. atque 

(ad-f- que), conj.; usually adds a notion = and also. Compare note on atque, 1 . 10, 
Chap. I. 

Line 30. hortatur, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. of the deponent verb hortor , -tdrt, 
-tdtus, 1 (radical hor, stir, urge ; compare I^atin orior, and gk. dpp&to) ; connected 
by the conj. atque with the verb petit, and in the same grammatical construction. 

ut, telic conj. ; it connects the main with the subordinate clause. sine 

(se -f- ne) = lit. by itself; hence separate, without; prep, with the abl. eius, 

gen. sing. m. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id, used as a poss. pron. of the 3d pers. ; as a 

gen. it is an attributive of animi. offensiftne, abl. sing, of the noun offensio, 

-on is, {. (ob -f- fendere, lit. to strike against); hence the noun = lit. a striking against, 
i.e. a stumbling, and transf. an offense, offensidne is the obj. of the prep. sine. 

Line 31. animi, gen. sing, of the noun animus, - i , m.; objective gen., limiting 
offensidne. The allusion is to the feelings of Divitiacus. For synonyms, see note on 

animo, 1 . 2, Chap. X. vel (imperative of void), alternative conj. vel . . . vel = 

either ... or. For synonyms, see note on aut . . . aut, 1 . 19, Chap. I. ipse, 

intensive pron. ; it is expressed for emphasis, refers to Caesar, and is the subject- 

nom. of the verb statuat. de, prep, with the abl.; see note on de, 1. 27, above. 

eo, abl. sing. m. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id, used as a personal pi on. of the 3d 


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LINES 32, 33.] 


BOOK I. 


147 


32 cognita statuat, vel 

having been examined , should determine , or 

33 statuere iubeat. 

to determine , he should order . 


clvitatem 

Me state 


should decide the 
case after exami- 
nation, or should 
order the Aeduan 
state to do it. 


1 XX. Divitiacus multls cum 

Divitiacun many with , 

2 Caesarem complexus obsecrare 

Caesar having embraced , to implore 


lacrimls 
tears 
coepit, 
began , 


XX. Divitiacus 
.embracing Cae- 
sar began with 
tears to beseech 
him not to pro- 


pers., referring to Dumnorix. eo is the obj. of the prep. de. causa, abl. sing, of 

the noun causa , -at, f. (sometimes caussa; etymology dubious); abl. absolute with 
cdgnitd. 

Line 32. cognita, abl. f. of the perf. pass, participle cognitus , -a, -um of the 
verb cdgnosco , -ere, -iidvl, - nitum , 3 (cum, intensive + [gjnoscere). cdgnitd is in the 
abl. absolute construction with causa , denoting time. See A. & G. 255; B. 192; 

G. 409; H. 431. statuat, 3d pers. sing. pres, subjunctive act. of the verb statud , 

•ere, -ui, - utum , 3 ( status , standing), statuat agrees with its subject-nom. ipse; it is 
in the subjunctive mode — purpose after ut. See A. & G. 317, 1 ; B. 200; G. 546; 

H. 498, I. vel, see note on vel, preceding line. Clvitatem, acc. sing, of the 

noun civitds , - tdtis , f. (ewes); subject-acc. of statuere. Observe that the abstract is 
put for the concrete — the state for the people of the state. 

Line 33. statuere, pres. inf. of the verb statud, 3; see parts given in preceding 

line; its subject-acc. is clvitatem. Supply earn, i.e. causam , as direct obj. iubeat, 

3d pers. sing. pres, subjunctive act. of the verb iubeo, -ere, iussi , iussttm, 2; con- 
nected by the conj. vel with statuat, and in the subjunctive for the same reason, viz., 
purpose after ut. 


Line i. Divitiacus, -I, m.; an Aeduan chieftain; subject-nom. of coepit. 

multis, abl. plur. of the adj. multus, comparative plus, superl. plurimus; multls is an 

attributive of lacrimls. cum, prep, with the abl. As to its position between the 

noun and its modifier, see A. & G. 345, a ; B. 58. 2; G. 413, rkm. 2; II. 569, II. 

lacrimls, abl. plur. of lacrima, -ae, f.; abl. of manner with the prep, cum . See 

A. & G. 248; B. 168; G. 399; H. 419, III. Observe that the word is sometimes 
lacryma and lachryma , and even lacruma; compare gk . ddKpvfia. 



Line 2. Caesarem, acc. sing, of Caesar, -art's, m.; direct obj. of the deponent 
participle complexus. Note that participles are followed by the same cases as their 

verbs. complexus, perf. participle of the deponent verb complector , -l, -plexus 

(com -f- plectere, c;k. 7 rX^xw, lit. to plait together); hence cotnplectl = to embrace, com- 
plexus , as a participle, agrees with the noun Divitiacus. Obsecrare, pres. inf. act. 

of the verb obsecro, -are, -avl, -atum , 1 (ob + sacrare [ob -f- sacrum]) ; hence obsecrare 
= lit. to ask for God's sake , i.e. to beseech. Observe that obsecrare is a complementary 
inf. and depends on coepit, and also, that it is modified by the adverb-phrase cum 
lacrimls; and further, that it is followed by the acc. of the person eum understood, 
referring to Caesarem and the following subjunctive clause ne quid . . . statueret as 

the acc. of the thing. coepit, 3d pers. sing. perf. ind. of coepl, coepisse , fut. 

participle coepturus, perf. pass, participle coeptus; a defective verb used chiefly in 
the praeterite tenses, coepit agrees with its subject-nom. Divitiacus , 


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148 


Caesar’s gallic war 


tCHAP. xx. 


nouncetoosevere ne quid gravius in fratrem 3 

broth^^sa* in S ^ a * no * anything too severe against (his) brother 

that he was aware statueret : Scire se 4 

that the charges ] ie might determine : To know himself (he knew) 

made by Caesar 

were true; that ilia esse vera, nec quemquam ex 6 

no one had more those (things) to be true , not any one on account of 

Line 3. ne, adv., primitive negative particle, archaic form net; sometimes, a 

conj. = lest. quid, acc. sing. n. of the indef. pron. quis y quae , quid; the direct 

obj. of statueret. Observe that the indef. pron. quis is, usually, found in the com- 
binations si quis t ne quis y and num quis; and that in the older editions they are 

written together thus: siquis , nequis y namquis. gravius, acc. sing. n. of the adj., 

comparative degree gravior y - us ; positive gravis y superl. gravissimus. gravius is a 

modifier of the substantive pron. quid. in, prep, with the acc. or abl. ; here it 

takes the acc. For its meaning with verbs of motion and verbs of rest, see under 

In y A. & G. 153, 1, 2; B. 120, 1, 2, 3; G. 418, 1,2; H. 435, 1. fratrem, acc. sing. 

of the noun frdter y frdtris y m. ; it is the obj. of the prep. in. 

Line 4. statueret, 3d pers. sing, imperf. subjunctive act. of statuo , -ere , -ui y 
- utum y 3; imperf. subjunctive — negative purpose after the particle ne. Consult 

A. & G. 331 ; B. 200, REM. 2 ; G. 546; H. 498, I. statueret agrees with a pron. implied 
in the ending as subject-nom., referring to Caesaretn. Observe that if this dependent 
clause were expressed as an imperative sentence, it would take the perf. subjunctive 
— hortatory, i.e. ne statueret would = ne statueritis. See A. & G. 269, a, 1 ; B. 189, 
rem. 1, end; G. 263, (b); H. 484, IV, note 1, and 489, 3); informal indirect dis- 
course. But from this point, i.e. from Scire to dverterentur , 1 . 22, the discourse is 
the formal oratio obliqua . Before entering upon its grammatical analysis, let us read 
again A. & G. 336-342; B. 244, 245; G. 650-661; H. 522-530; and then observe 
that the words obsecrdre coepit are equivalent to an historical perf. tense = dixit; 
that the entire speech hangs, so to speak, thereon; that the main clauses of the 
declaratory sentences are in the inf. with the acc. ; and that the sequence of tenses, 

in the subordinate clauses, is the secondary sequence. Scire, pres. inf. act. of 

scidy scire y scivi (-/*), scilum , 4; its subject-acc. is the reflexive pron. se. Synonyms: 
scire = to kttow y in the widest sense ; while videre = knowledge that comes through 
the organ of sight, and intellegere y knowledge as a rational discernment, and sentire 
as a natural discernment, especially through the sensibility, and cognoscere as an 
historical discernment — through tradition ; scire = to know in all these significations. 

The oratio recta : scio ego. se, acc. sing. m. of the pron. sui y sibi y se y se; subject- 

acc. of the inf. scire. 

Line 5. ilia, acc. plur. n. of the dem. pron. ille y - la y -1ud y gen. illius y dat. Hit. 
The reference is to the charges made against Dumnorix in the two immediately pre- 
ceding chapters. This pron. is used to point in either direction, backward or for- 
ward ; so is hie and is ; but ille is more emphatic than hie or is, in such use, and 

often refers to an object as somewhat remote, ilia is subject-acc. of esse. esse, 

pres. inf. of the neuter or intrans. verb sum y esse y fui y futurus; used here in the 
regular construction with the subject-acc. after a verb of knoiuing. See A. & G. 272 ; 

B. 194; G. 527; H. 535, I, 1, (2); i.e. after verba sentiendi et decldrandi. But observe 
that the pres. inf. after an historical tense represents the imperf. tense in English. 

See A. & G. 288 ; B. 195, (b)\ G. 281, I; H. 537. vera, acc. plur. n. of the adj. 

virus , -d , -um; predicate-acc. after esse. nec, conjunctive adv.; used indiscrim- 


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LINES 6-9.] 


BOOK I. 


149 


6 eo plus 

him more 

7 propterea 

for this reason , 

s plurimum 

very much , 

9 Gallia, 

of Gaul , 


quam 

se doloris 

capere, 

than 

himself, of grief 

to take . 

quod, 

cum ipse 

gratia 

because , 

though himself by (his) influence 

donri 

atque in 

reliqua 

at home 

and also in 

the rest 

ille 

minimum 

propter 

he 

very little on account of 


grief on his broth- 
er’s account than 
himself; for 
though he could 
accomplish much 
at home and in 
other parts of 
Gaul by his influ- 
ence, his brother 
could accomplish 
very little on ac- 


inately with neque before vowels and consonants ; it modifies quemquam as an adj. 

pron. quemquam, acc. sing. m. of the indef. pron. quisquam , subst. quidquam or 

quicquam (quis -j- quam). The compound form makes an indefinite relative; this 

pron. is used in negative clauses, quemquam is subject-acc. of capere. ex, prep. 

with the abl. (e before consonants only, ex before either vowels or consonants). 

Line 6. eo, abl. sing. m. of the dem. pron. is, ea , id, used as a personal pron. of 
the 3d pers. ; it is the obj. of the prep, ex; here ex eo = ex Dumnorige ; the phrase 
indicates the source or cause of Divitiacus’s grief. Some, however, make ex eo = 

from that fact, i.e. from the conduct of Dumnorix, taking eo as neuter gender. 

plus, acc. n. of the comparative adj. plus, pluris; used adverbially ; superl. pluri- 
mum; as an adv. it modifies capere. quam, conj.; with comparatives = than. 

se, acc. sing, of the reflexive pron. sui, sihi, se, se; it is the subject-acc. of 

capere, to be supplied. dolor is, gen. sing, of the noun dolor, -oris, m. ; partitive 

gen. after plus. See A. & G. 216, 2 ; B. 134; G. 369; H. 397, 3. capere, pres. 

inf. of the verb capio, -ere, cepl, captum, 3 ; its subject-acc. is quemqua?n. 

Line 7. propterea, adv. (propter -f- ea) = lit. on account of these things ; the long 
d in this compound, and the a in other words formed after its analogy are anomalies. 
See note on this word, 1 . 9, Chap. I. quod, conj. ; originally an acc. of specifica- 

tion of the rel. pron. quT, quae, quod; used adverbially ; but here quod is a conj. 

introducing the clause quod . . . per se crevisset. cum, concessive conj. = 

although. ipse, intensive dem. pron. ipse, -sa, -sum, gen. ipstus, dat. ipsi; ipse 

refers to Divitiacus; is expressed for emphasis; and is subject-nom. of posset, to be 
supplied from the following clause. gratia, abl. sing, of the noun grdtia , -ae, f. ; 

abl. of cause. A. & G. 245; B. 165; G. 408; H. 416. 

Line 8. plurimum, adverbial acc. of the adj. plurimus , -a, -um; superl. of the 
comparative plus; it modifies posset understood. Consult A. & G. 240, a; B. 150, 

REM. 2 ; G. 334, rem. i ; H. 378, 2. domi, locative case of the noun domus, -us, 

or -/, locative. See A. & G. 258, d; B. 176; G. 411, REM. 2 ; H. 426, 2. atque 

(ad-j- que), conj.; adds a more emphatic notion. in, prep, with the acc. or abl.; 

here it takes the abl. reliqua, abl. sing. f. of the adj. reliquus , -a, -um ; it is an 

attributive of the noun Gallia. For synonyms, see note on reliqua , 1 . 7, Chap. V. 

Line 9. Gallia, abl. sing, of the noun Gallia, -ae, f. ; it is the obj. of the prep. 

in. The reference is to all Gaul outside of the Aeduan country. ille, nom. sing. 

of the dem. adj. pron. ille, -la, -lud, gen. illtus, dat. Hit; it is subject-nom. of the verb 
posset; it refers to Dumnorix, as somewhat removed from the place of interview; if 
he had been near or present, hie would have been used. minimum, adverbial 

acc. of the adj. minimus, -a, -um, superl. degree of parvus , comparative minor; it 

modifies posset. See grammatical references to plurimum, 1 . 8, above. propter, 

prep, with the acc. 


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150 


caesar’s gallic war 


[CHAP. xx. 


count of his 
youth ; yet by 
his means he had 
become influen- 
tial, and was us- 
ing the resources 
of power thus 
acquired for the 
diminution not to 
say, but almost 
for the destruc- 


adolescentiam posset, 

(his) youth , teas able, 

crevisset ; quibus 

he had become powerful ; which 


nervis * non 

power not 

gratiam, sed 

(his) favor, but 


solum 

only 

paene 

almost 


per se 10 

through himself 

opibus ac 11 

influence and 

ad minuendam 12 

for , to be lessened 

ad pemiciem 13 

for destruction 


Line 10. adolescentiam, acc. sing, of the noun adolescentia , -ae, f. (adolescetts) ; 
the obj. of the prep, propter. Observe («) that gratia , 1 . 7, above, denoting subjective 
cause, is in the abl., while (£) the phrase propter adolescentiam denotes an objective 
cause, i.e. that his little influence was a mere incident of his youth; and that 
(<r) adolescentia denotes the period between that of the puer and that of the iuvenis , 

i.e. between 15 and 30 years of age. posset, 3d pers. sing, imperf. subjunctive 

of possum , posse , point (potis, able -J- sum) ; it agrees with its subject-nom. ille, 
i.e. Dumnorix, in number and pers.; it is in the subjunctive mode, because in a sub- 
ordinate clause in the ordtio obltqua . posset might better be taken as in the subjunc- 
tive after cum concessive. See A. & G. 313, d; B. 211; G. 587; H. 515, III. 

per, prep, with the acc. = like c;k. Sid , motion through space, transf. = the means, 

the cause of an action. se, acc. sing, of the reflexive pron. sut sibi se , se — same 

form in both numbers ; se is the obj. of the prep, per; it refers to Divitiacus. 

Line ii. crevisset, 3d pers. sing, pluperf. subjunctive of the verb cresco, -ere, 
crevi, cretum , 3 ; it agrees with a pron. implied in the ending as its subject-nom., 
referring to Dumnorix; it is in the subjunctive, because it is in the quod (or sub- 
ordinate) clause in the ordtio obltqua. quibus, abl. plur. of the rel. pron. qui , 

quae , quod ; it refers to the ideas contained in the last three clauses, but is used here 
adjectively, and is an attributive of opibus . For the best way of translating a rel. at 
the beginning of a sentence, see A. & G. 180,/; B. 129, REM. 9; G. 610 ; H. 453. 

opibus, abl. plur. of an assumed theme ops , opis , f. (kindred with opus , compare 

ops , personification — the goddess of riches), opibus is in the abl. after the verb 

uteretur, 1 . 14, below. Consult A. & G. 249; B. 167, 1 ; G. 407; H. 421, I. ac, 

shortened form of atque (ad -|- que). ac is used only before consonants, dc as a 
conj. connects opibus and fiends. 

Line 12. nervis, abl. plur. of the noun nerrus , -i, m. ; connected by the conj. dc 
with opibus , and in the same grammatical construction. Observe that nen'us , sing. 

= a sinew; in the plur. = sinews as symbol of strength, i.e. transf. power. n5n 

(ne oenum or unum, apocopated), adv., modifies solum. solum (solus, adj., 

alone), modifies the gerundive phrase ad minuendam grdtiam. ad, prep, with 

the acc. minuendam, acc. sing. f. of the gerundive minuendus, -a, - um of the 

verb minito, -ere, -in, -ietum, 3 (minus, less); the gerundive agrees with grdtiam. 

Line 13. gratiam, acc. sing, of the noun grdtia , -ae, f. ; it is the obj. of the prep. 
ad. Observe that the gerundive construction following ad here denotes purpose; 

and consult A. & G. 300; B. 184, rem. 4, III; G. 432; II. 544, 2, note 2. sed, 

conj., strongest of the adversatives ; usually contradicts what immediately precedes. 

paene (pene), adv. = almost; no comparative ; superl. pae(e)nissime — utterly . 

paene modifies the adverb-phrase ad pemiciem suam. ad, prep, with the acc. 


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LINES 14-16.] 


BOOK I. 


151 


14 suam 
his , 

16 amore 
by love 


uteretur. 

he used. 

friitem5 et 

fraternal and 


16 commoven. 

to be moved (he was moved). 


Sese tamen et 

Himself, yet both 

exlstimatione vulgl 

the opinion of the people 

Quod si quid 

As to which if anything 


tion of his — Di- 
vitiacus’s — influ- 
ence. Still love 
for his brother 
and public opin- 
ion affected him 
greatly. Now 
if Caesar should 


perniciem, acc. sing, of the noun pernicies , -et, f. (per, intensive + neco [nex, 

death]) ; hence pernicies = lit. utter destruction . perniciem is the obj. of the prep. ad. 

Line 14. suam, acc. sing. f. of the poss. and reflexive pron. suus, -a, -urn ; it is 
an attributive of the noun perniciem; suam refers to Divitiacus. The reader will 
note that this noun-phrase, and the gerundive-phrase in the preceding line denote 

purpose. uteretur, 3d pers. sing, imperf. subjunctive of the verb it tor, - 1 , Hsus, 3; 

it agrees with a pron. implied in the ending as subject-nom., referring to Dumnorix. 
uteretur is in the subjunctive mode, because it is in a subordinate clause in the oratio 
obliqua. The student will observe that this member of the sentence by the phrase 
quibus opibus, which = et eis opibtts, is connected with crevisset, and is in the sub- 
junctive for the same reason. See note on crei<isset,\. 11, above. Sese, acc. 

sing, of the reflexive pron. sin, sibi, se, se, reduplicated; sese is the subject-acc. of 
comma ert. tamen, adv., introduces a thought in opposition to concession, ex- 
pressed or implied. et . . . et, conjunctions = both . . . and. The dr a (id recta of 

lines 4-14 reads: Sc id haec esse vera, nec quisquam ex eo plus quam ego doloris 
capit, propterea quod, cum ego ipse gratia plurimum doml atque in reliqua Gallia 
possem, ille minimum propter adolescentiam posset, per me crevit ; quibus opibus ac 
nervis non solum ad minuendam gratiam, sed paene ad perniciem meam iititur. 

Line 15. amore, abl. sing, of the noun atnor, - oris , m. tamo); abl. of cause after 
the pass, verb contmoveri. Consult A. & G. 245; B. 165; G. 408; H. 416. Synonyms: 
amor — love in the most comprehensive sense, inclusive of even the affection of 
brutes; whereas caritds, denoting the impulse of affection arising from esteem and 

reflection, is used of men only. fraterno, abl. sing. m. of the adj .fraternus, -a, 

-urn (f rater); it is an attributive of amore. et, see et in preceding line. 

exlstimatione, abl. sing, of the noun existimatio, - onis , f. ; connected by the conjunc- 
tion et with amore, and in the same grammatical construction. Synonyms : aesti- 
mdtio (( aestimo ) = the extrinsic value of an object; whereas existimatio (ex aestimo) 
— an opinion after estimating the value of an object, i.e. — an opinion of an object 

because of its value. vulgl, gen. sing, of vu{p)lgus, -i, n. (digammated from the 

gk. t \ Ko %) ; as a gen. it limits exlstimatione. Observe that vu{o)lgus, though usually 
neuter, is m. in l erg. A. 2, 99. Synonyms: vulgus — the crowd, the rabble; plebs — 
the common people in distinction from the patricians ; and populits = the people in 
their civil capacity. 

Line 16. commoven, pres. inf. pass, of the verb comm erred, -ere, -movi, -mb turn, 2 ; 

pass, parts: commoveor, -veri, -motus, 2; its subject-acc. is Sese, 1 . 14, above. 

Quod, adverbial acc. n. of the rel. qut, quae, quod = lit. as to which ; but in transi- 
tions with si = nau if, or but if, and if, according to meaning of context. si, 

conditional particle, introducing a protasis. quid, nom. sing, of the indef. pron. 

quis , quae , quid, used substantively, and subject-nom. of accidisset. 


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152 


visit Dumnorix 
with severe pun- 
ishment, every 
one would think 
that the punish- 
ment had been 
inflicted with his 
consent, inas- 
much as he was 
Caesar's intimate 
friend ; and the 



caesar’s 

GALLIC 

WAR 

[CHAP. XX. 

el 

a 

Caesare 

gravius accidisset, 17 

to him. 

from 

Caesar 

too severe should happen , 

cum 

ipse 

eum 

locum 

amicitiae apud is 

since 

he himself 

that 

place 

of friendship with 

eum 

teneret, neminem 

exlstimaturum 19 

him 

held, 


no one 

to be about to think 


n5n 

sua voluntate 

! factum ; 20 

(would think) not 

by his 

will 

(it) to have been done; 


Line 17. ei, dat. sing. m. of the dem. pron. is, e a, id , used as a personal pron. 

of the 3d pers.; dat. of the indirect obj. after accidisset. ei refers to Dumnorix. 

a, prep, with the abl. (a before consonants, ab before either vowels or consonants). 

Caesare, abl. sing, of the proper noun Caesar , -aris , m. ; abl. of the source or 

agent. The construction is somewhat anomalous : the agent usually follows pass, 
verbs; but if anything should happen to him from Caesar would = if anything should 
be done to him by Caesar . Consult A. & G. 246, and NOTE; B. 96, REM. 1, end; 

G. 401 ; H. 415, I. gravius, acc. sing. n. of the comparative adj. gravior , - us ; 

gravius modifies the substantive indef. pron. quid \ and = too severely. Consult 

A. & G. 93, a ; B. 163, REM. 6; G. 297, 2 ; H. 444, 1. accidisset, 3d pers. sing. 

pluperf. subjunctive of accidd , -ere, -cidi (ad + cadere).; hence accidere = lit. to fall to, 
i.e. to befall, accidisset agrees with quid expressed as subject-nom. ; it is in the sub- 
junctive after si in the protasis for the fut. perf. in direct discourse, i.e. for acciderit. 


Line. .18. cum, conj. causal; here it —since. ipse, nom. sing. m. of the 

emphatic dem. pron. ipse, -sa , - sum , gen. ipsius , dat. ipsi; it refers to Divitiacus; it 

is expressed for emphasis, and is the subject-nom. of the verb teneret. eum, acc. 

sing. m. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id; it is an attributive of locum. locum, acc. 

sing, of the noun locus , m. ; plur. loci or loca , i.e. m. or n., but with difference of 

signification; see note on loci, 1 . 10, Chap. II. locum is the direct obj. of teneret. 

amlcitiae, gen. sing, of the noun amicitia, -ae, f. (amicus) ; as a gen. it limits 

locum. apud, prep, with the acc. = among, with, before ; with names of persons 

it sometimes = at the house of. 

Line 19. eum, acc. sing. m. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id, used as a personal pron. 

of the 3d pers. ; it here refers to Caesar ; it is the obj. of the prep. apud. 

teneret, 3d pers. sing, imperf. subjunctive of teneo , -ere, - ui , tentum , 2; it agrees with 
its subject-nom. ipse, expressed; it is a subjunctive after cum causal. See A. & G. 

326; B. 198, (c) ; G. 586; H. 517. neminem, acc. sing, of the noun nemo, - inis 

(ne -f- homo); used only in the nom. and acc.; for the gen. niilius and nuld are used, 
but nemine sometimes occurs with a pass, participle, neminem is subject-acc. of 

existimdtu rum (esse). exlstimaturum (esse), fut. inf. act. of the verb existimo , 

•dre, -dvi, - dtum , 1 (ex -f- aestimo) ; its subject-acc. is neminem. 

Line 20. non, adv. (ne -j- oenum or unum); it modifies factum (esse); but 

neminem non = a general affirmative, i.e. = every one. sua, abl. sing. f. of the 

poss. pron. suus, -a, -um ; it is an attributive of volunfdte. voluntate, abl. sing. 

of the noun voluntds, -dtis, i. ; abl. of in accordance with. Sie A. & G. 253, and NOTE; 

B. 162; G. 397; H. 416. For synonyms, see 1 . 19, Chap. VII. factum (esse), 

perf. inf. of fid, fieri , f actus, used as the pass, of facid , -ere, feci, factum, 3. Supply 
id as subject-acc. of factum (esse), referring to quid gravius, lines 16 and 17, above. 


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LIKES 21 - 23 .] 


BOOK I. 


153 


21 qua 

ex re 

futurum, 

uti totius 

which 

from thing (it) 

to be about to be, 

that of entire 

22 Galliae 

animi 

ii 

se 

averterentur.< 

Gaul 

the affections 

from 

himself 

would be turned. 


23 Haec cum pluribus verbis flens a 

These (things) when with very many words weeping , from 


outcome would 
be that the affec- 
tions of all the 
people of Gaul 
would be aliena- 
ted from him. 
When thus with 
many words he 
was tearfully be- 


Line 21. qua, abl. sing, of the rel. pron. qui, quae , quod; used here adjectively 

as an attributive of the noun re. ex, prep, with the abl. (e before consonants, ex 

before either vowels or consonants). Observe that ex = from within a place or 
thing — from the interior, while ab — from the external border of any place or thing; 
and de=.from any fixed point; but de and ex with the abl. instead of the partitive 

gen. after cardinal numerals = of. re, abl. sing, of the noun res , ret , f. ; re is 

the obj. of the prep. ex. The phrase qua ex re refers to the notion of his ordering 
the punishment of Dumnorix. Observe the position of the monosyllabic prep, 
between the noun and its modifier; and consult A. & G. 345, a\ B. 58. 2; G. 413, 

rem. 1; II. 569, II, 1. futurum (esse), fut. inf. of the intrans. verb sum , esse , 

fui; used impersonally; and note that futurum (esse), uti . . . dverterenttir form a 
periphrasis for the fut. pass, in direct discourse. See A. & G. 288,/; B. 195 (b), 

G. 531, Periphrastic Future; II. 537, 3. uti, conj., the original form = «/; 

compare gk. ws. Note that the clause uti . . . dverterentur is the real subj. of 
futurum (esse). See A. & G. 332, a, 2; B. 201, REM. 1, (<r); G. 553, 3; H. 501, I. 

to this, gen. sing. f. of the adj. totus, -a, ~um; gen. totius , dat. loti, toil us as a 

gen. limits Galliae. 

Line 22. Galliae, gen. sing, of the proper noun Gallia , -ae, f.; as a gen. it limits 

attimi. animi, nom. plur. of the noun animus , -i, m.; it is subject*nom. of 

dverterentur. For synonyms, see note on animo , 1 . 2, Chap. X. a, prep, with 

the abl. (d before consonants, ab before vowels or consonants). se, abl. of the 

reflexive pron. sui, sibi, se, se — same form in both numbers; se is the obj. of the 
prep. d. Observe that actual separation after verbs compounded with a prep, 
requires the repetition of the prep. See A. & G. 243, b ; B. 160, rem. i ; G. 390, 1 ; 

H. 413. averterentur, 3d pers. plur. imperf. subjunctive pass, of dverto, -ere, 

-verfi, - versum , 3 (a -j- vertere) ; hence dvertere — lit. to turn from, dverterentur 
agrees with its subject-nom. animi ; it is in the subjunctive of result after uti. 
The ordtio recta of lines 14-22 : Ego tamen et amore fraterno et exlstimatione vulgi 
commoveor. Quod si quid el a te gravius acciderit, cum ego ipse hunc locum amicitiae 
apud te teneam , nemo existimdbit non med voluntate factum ; qua ex re totius Galliae 
animi a me dvertentur. 

Line 23. Haec, acc. plur. n. of the dem. pron. hie, haec , hoc ; it refers to 

the things just mentioned ; grammatically it is the direct obj. of peteret. 

cum, conj., temporal. Observe the emphasis put on haec by putting it before cum. 

pluribus, abl. of the comparative plus, pluris; positive multus, superl. plurimus. 

pluribus is an attributive of verbis. verbis, abl. plur. of the noun verbum , -i, n.; 

abl. of manner. A. & G. 248; B. 168; G. 399; II. 419, III. flens, nom. sing. 

of the pres, participle flens, flentis of the verb fled, -ere,flevi,fletum; the participle as 

such agrees with the subj. of the verb peteret, to be supplied. a, prep, with the 

abl. (d before consonants, ab before either vowels or consonants). 


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154 


caesar's gallic war 


[CHAP. xx. 


seeching Caesar, 
Caesar grasped 
his right hand, 
and cheering him, 
begged him to 
make an end of 
his petition. He 
declared that Di- 
vitiacus’s influ- 


Caesare 

Caesar 

prendit ; 

takes ; 


peteret, Caesar eius 

he sought , Caesar his 


dextram 24 

right hand 


cdnsoliitus rogat, flneni orandi 26 

consoling (him), he asks , (that) an end of pleading 


facia t ; tantl eius apud se gratiam 26 

he will make; of such worth, his, with himself, influence, 


Line 24. Caesare, abl. of Caesar, -arts, m. ; it is the obj. of the prep. a. The 
reader of Latin is aware that verbs of asking take a primary and a secondary obj., 
i.e. the acc. of the person and the acc. of the thing. But peto takes the acc. of the 
thing, and the abl. of the person, as in the text. Consult A. & G. 239, 2. c , and 

note 1 ; B. 1 51, rem. 2; G. 339, rem. i ; H. 374, 2, note 4. peteret, 3d pers. 

sing, imperf. subjunctive act. of peto, - ere,petivi (petii), petitum, 3; it agrees with a 
pron. implied in the ending as its subject-nom., referring to Divitiacus ; it is in the 
subjunctive after cum temporal or historical. A. & G. 325; B. 222; G. 585; H. 521, 

II, 2. Caesar, -aris, m., subject-nom. of prendit. eius, gen. sing. m. of the 

dem. pron. is, ea, id, used as a personal pron. of the 3d pers.; it refers to Divitiacus; 

as a gen. it limits dextram. dextram, acc. sing, of the noun dextra, - ae , f. ; really 

the fern, of the adj. dexter, - tra , -trurn, used substantively; or supply manurn; 
dextram is the direct obj. of prendit. 

Line 25. prendit, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. of the verb prendo , -ere, prendi, 
prensum , 3;- it agrees with a pron. implied in the ending as subject-nom., referring 
to Caesar. A longer form prehendo is in use from which prendo comes by syncopa- 
tion of the h, and the contraction of the vowels into long e (prae -f- hendo). 

consolatus, perf. participle of the deponent verb consolor, -art, - aius , 1. The par- 
ticiple is used in an active signification; supply eum, i.e. Divitiacum, as the direct 

obj. rogat, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. of rogo, -are, -art, - atum , 1 ; it agrees 

with a personal pron. implied in the ending as subject-nom., referring to Caesar; 

historical present. finem, acc. sing, of the noun fines, -is, m. and f. in the sing.; 

always m. in the plur. finem is the direct obj. oifaciat. orandi, gen. of the 

gerund of the verb oro, -are, -avi, -atum, 1 (oro ab ore, abl. of os, oris, n.). orandi as a 
gen. limits finem. Consult A. & G. 298; B. 184, rem. 4, 1 ; G. 428; II. 542, I. 

Line 26. faciat, 3d pers. sing. pres, subjunctive act. of the verb facio, -ere, feet, 
factum, 3 ; it agrees with a pron. implied in the ending as its subject-nom., referring 
to Divitiacus; subjunctive of purpose after ut, to be supplied. Consult A & G. 331, 

and 2. rem. ; B. 200, rem. 3; G. 546, rem. 2 ; H. 499, 2. tanti, gen. sing. n. of the 

adj. tantus, -a, -urn; used substantively; or pretii may be supplied, tanti is predicate 

gen. of price after esse. See A. & G. 252, a; B. 137; G. 380, rem. i ; H. 405. 

eius, gen. sing. m. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id, used as a personal pron. of the 3d 

pers. ; as a gen. it limits gratiam. apud, prep, with the acc. = at, among, with, 

in the presence of ; sometimes with a personal pron. = at the house of. se, acc. 

sing. m. of the reflexive pron. sui, sibi, se, se — same form in both numbers ; se is 

the obj. of the prep. apud. gratiam, acc. sing, of the noun gratia, -ae, f.; sub- 

ject-acc. of the verb esse. Synonyms: gratia (derived from gratus, gk. x^P li )tf az,or 
both subjective and objective ; i.e. grdtia = the favor one feels for another, or the 
favor in which one stands with another; whereas the Latin word favor has only a 
subjective signification; and benevolentia (bene-f- volens) has always in it the notion 
of subjectivity = love and good-will to another . 


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LINES 27-30.] 


BOOK I. 


155 


27 esse ostendit, utl et rel-publicae iniuriam 

to be (is), he shows, that both the republic's injury 

28 et suum dolorem eius voluntatl ac 

and his own vexation , to his wish and 

29 precibus condonet. Dumnorigem ad se 

prayers , he will surrender . Dumnorix to himself 

30 vocat, fmtrein adliibet ; quae in eo 

he calls, (his) brother he brings in; what (things) in him 


Line 27. esse, pres. inf. of the intrans. verb sum, esse, ful , futurus . 

Ostendit, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. of the verb ostemid, ere, -tendi, - tentum , 3 (ob -f- 
tendere) ; hence ostendere = lit. to stretch toward, ostendit agrees with a pron. im-. 

plied in its ending as subject-nom., referring to Caesar. utl, see note on this 

particle, 1. 21, above. et . . . et, conjunctions repeated in coordinate phrases; 

sometimes called correlatives. rel-publicae, gen. of the compound noun res- 

publica; both parts of the compound are declined; objective gen.; limits iniuriam. 

iniuriam, acc. sing, of the noun iniuria , -ae, f. (in, negative + ius) ; iniuriam is 

a direct obj. of condonet. 

Line 28. et, see et immediately preceding. suum, acc. sing. m. of the poss. 

and reflexive pron. suus, -a, -urn. suum is an attributive of dolorem. dolor em, 

acc. sing, of the noun dolor, - oris , m. ; connected by the conj. et with iniuriam, and 

in the same grammatical construction. eius, gen. sing. m. of the dem. pron. is, 

ea, id, used as a personal pron. of the 3d pers. ; as a gen. it limits voluntatl; it refers 

to Divitiacus. voluntatl, dat. of the noun voluntas, - atis , f. (void); dat. of the 

indirect obj. of condonet. ac, conj.; see note on atque, 1. 10, Chap. I. 

Line 29. precibus, dat. plur. of an assumed prex, precis, f. ; but used in the sing, 
only in the abl. case, precibus is connected by the conj. ac with voluntatl, and is in 

the same grammatical construction. condonet, 3d pers. sing. pres, subjunctive 

of the verb condono, -are, dvi, atum , 1 (con -j-donare); hence condondre ■=■ lit. to give 
up. condonet is the subjunctive of result after utl, referring to tantl. Observe that 
the lit. translation is, substantially : Caesar gives up his indignation to the wish and 
prayers of Divitiacus ; which is tantamount to saying that he pardons Dumnorix on 
account of Divitiacus’s wish and prayers. Synonyms : condondre = to give up; then 
to give up as a debt; hence to pardon; whereas ignoscere = to pardon an offense by 

overlooking it. Dumnorigem, acc. sing, of Dumnorix, -igis, m.; direct obj. of 

vocat. ad, prep, with the acc. se, acc. sing, of the reflexive pron. sui , sibi, 

se, se — same form in both numbers ; se is the obj. of the prep. ad. 

Line 30. vocat, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. of the verb voco, - dre , -dvi, -dtum ; 
it agrees with a pron. implied in the ending as subject-nom., referring to Caesar. 
Synonyms: appelldre, nomendre, vocdre ; appelldre — to call — to appeal to for help; 
nomendre = to call by designating the name; whereas vocdre — to call — often in 

the sense of to summon, as in the text. fratrem, acc. sing, of the noun f rater, 

-iris, m.; direct obj. of adhibet. adhibet, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. of adhibeo, 

-ere, -ul % dtum, 2 (ad -f- habere) ; hence adhibere = lit. to have to, i.e. to bring in. 

quae, acc. plur. n. of the interrogative pron. quis, quae , quid; used here adjectively, 


ence was worth 
so much to him, 
that he would con- 
done the wrong 
done to the state 
and the affront 
to himself, at his 
wish and prayer, 
lie summoned 
Dumnorix to his 
presence; he 
brought in his 
brother; he dis- 


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Google 



156 


caesar’s gallic war 


[CHAP. xx. 


closed the cen- 
surable acts of 
Dumnorix ; he 
set forth his own 
discoveries, and 
the complaints 
of the citizens; 
he warned him 
for the future to 
avoid every sus- 
picious act; he 


reprehendat, ostendit ; 

he censures, he shows ; 

intellegat, 
knows , 
prdponit ; 
he sets forth; 


quae ipse 3i 

what ( things ) he himself 
queratur, 32 
complains of, 
reliquum 33 
the remaining 


quae clvitas 

what (things) the state 

monet, ut in 

he warns (him), that for 


tempus omnes suspiciones vitet ; 34 

time all suspicions he should shun ; 


agreeing with the noun things understood ; or may be regarded as used substantively ; 

quae is the direct obj. of reprehendat. in, prep, with either the acc. or abl., 

though with different significations; see note on in, 1 . 1, end, Chap. I; here in takes 

the abl. eo, abl. sing. m. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id, used as a personal pron. of 

the 3d pers. eo is the obj. of the prep, in; it refers to Dumnorix. 

1 . 1 nr 31. reprehendat, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. of the verb reprehendo , -ere, 
-hendi, - hensum , 3 (re-f prehendere); see note on prendit, 1. 25, above, reprehendat 
agrees with a pron. implied in the ending as its subject-nom., referring to Caesar; 
subjunctive, because an indirect question. See A. & G. 334 ; 11 . 242; G. 467; 

H. 529, I. ostendit, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. of ostendo , -ere, - tendi , - ten turn , 3 

(ob -|- tendere) ; it agrees with the subject-nom. Caesar , to be supplied. Observe 

that the indirect question-clause, as a noun-clause, is the direct obj. of ostendit. 

quae, acc. plur. n. of the interrogative quis, quae , quid; direct obj. of intellegat. 

ipse, nom. sing. m. of the intensive dem. pron. ipse , - sa , -sum, gen. ipsius , dat. 

ipsi; ipse is expressed for emphasis = he himself, and is subject-nom. of intellegat. 

Line 32. intellegat, 3d pers. sing. pres, subjunctive of the verb intellego, -ere, 
-lexi, -ledum, 3; it agrees with its subject-nom. ipse, i.e. Caesar, and is in the sub- 
junctive, because an indirect question. quae, acc. plur. of the interrogative quis , 

quae, quid ; direct obj. of queratur. See note on quae, preceding line. Clvitas, 

nom. sing, of the noun civitds, -dtis, f . (ctves) ; abs. pro concreto; civitds, here = 

elves clvitdtis. civitds is the subject-nom. of querdtur. queratur, 3d pers. sing. 

pres, subjunctive of the deponent verb queror, -/, questus, 3; it agrees with its sub- 
ject-nom. civitds ; it is in the subjunctive, because an indirect question. 

Line 33. prdponit, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. of the verb prdpono, -ere, -fosut, 
-positum, 3 (pro -|- ponere) ; it agrees with Caesar, to be supplied as subject-nom. 
The reader will observe that Caesar narrates from the 23d line through this chapter 
from the representdtio point of view, i.e. the verbs are in the historical pres, tense. 
The reader will further observe the omission of the copulative conj. (asyndeton) 
between the two indirect question-clauses that as noun-clauses are direct objects of 

prdponit. monet, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. of the verb moneo, -ere, rnonui , 

monitum, 2 ; historical pres. ; it agrees with Caesar understood, as subject-nom. 

ut, telic conj. in, prep, with the acc. or abl.; here it takes the acc. and=/0r. 

reliquum, acc. .sing. n. of the adj. reliquus, -a, -u?n; it is an attributive of 

tempus. For synonyms, see note on reliqua, 1 . 7, Chap. V. 

Line 34. tempus, acc. sing, of the noun tempus, -oris, n. ; tempus is the obj. of 
the prep. in. As to the etymology, see note on tempore , 1 . 21, Chap. III. .As to 
the idiomatic expression relative to tempus, see A. & G. 259, b; K. 171, rem. 5; 
G. 418, 1; H. 429, 2. omnes, acc. plur. f. of the adj. omnis, -e, an f-stem. 


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LINES 36-38.] 


BOOK I. 


157 


36 praeterita se Divitiaco fratri condonare 

bygones , himself , to Divitiacus (his) brother to give up, 

36 dicit. Dumnorig! custodes ponit, ut, 

he says. For Dumnorix guards he places, that 

37 quae agat, quibuscum loquatur, scire 

nohat ( things ) he may do, whom with , he may talk, to know 

38 possit. 

he may be able. 


told him that he 
would condone 
the past for the 
sake of his broth- 
er Divitiacus. He 
appointed guards 
for Dumnorix 
that he might be 
informed both 
as to his actions 
and companions. 


omnes is an attributive of suspicidnes. suspicidnes, acc. plur. of the noun suspicio, 

-i onis , f. (suspicdrt, to suspect), suspicidnes is the direct obj. of the verb vitet. 

Vltet, 3d pers. sing. pres, subjunctive act. of the verb vito, - are , -d 7 >i, -dtum ; it agrees 
with a pron. implied in the ending as its subject-nom., referring to Dumnorix ; sub- 
junctive of purpose after ut, telic. Consult A. & G. 317, and 331 ; B. 200, (£), and 
REM. 2; G. 545 and 546; II. 497, II, and 498, 1. 

Line 35. praeterita, a participial acc. plur. of the participle praeteritus, -a, - um 
of the verb praetered, -ire, -ivi (-«), - Hum , 4; used in the neuter plur. as a substantive. 

praeterita is the direct obj. of condondre. se, acc. sing, of the reflexive pron. 

sut, sibi, se, se; it refers to Caesar; it is subject-acc. of condonare. Divitiaco, 

dat. of the proper noun Divitiacus, -i, m.; dat. of the indirect obj. after condonare ; 

see note on voluntati, 1. 28, above. fratri, dat. of the noun ftdter , -iris, m. ; an 

appositive of Divitiaco. conddnare, pres. inf. act. of the verb condono, -are, -dvi, 

•dtum, 1; its subject-acc. is the pron. se; and the entire construction: praeterita se 
. . . condonare is a substantive construction, and as such is the direct obj. of dicit. 

Line 36. dicit, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. of the verb died, -ere, -dixi, - dictum , 3 ; 

historic pres., and agrees with Caesar, to be supplied, as subject-nom. Dum- 

norigl, dat. of the proper noun Dumnorix, - igis , m.; dat. of the indirect obj. after 

the verb ponit. custodes, acc. plur. of the noun custos, -odis, m. and f. ; acc. of 

the direct obj. after ponit. Consult A. & G. 225; B. 141 ; G. 345; II. 384, II. 

ponit, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. of the verb pond, -ere, posui, positum, 3; his- 
torical pres. ; it agrees with Caesar, to be supplied, as subject-nom. ut, telic 

conj.; it introduces the telic clause scire possit. 

Line 37. quae, acc. plur. of the interrogative pron. quis, quae, quid; it is the 

direct obj. of the verb agat. agat, 3d pers. sing. pres, subjunctive of the verb 

ago , -ere, egi, actum, 3; it agrees with a pron. implied in the ending as its subject- 

nom., referring to Dumnorigi ; subjunctive, because in an indirect question. 

quibuscum (quibus + cum), quibus is the abl. plur. of the interrogative quis, quae, 
quid ; it is the obj. of the enclitic cum , to which it is appended. As to the enclitic 

cum with pronouns, see A. & G. 99, e\ B. 79, 2; G. 413, rem. 1; H. 184, 6. 

loquatur, 3d pers. sing. pres, subjunctive of the deponent verb loquor , -i, locutus , 3; 
it agrees with Dumnorix, to be supplied, as its subject-nom. ; subjunctive, because in 

a clause containing an indirect question. scire, pres. inf. act. of the verb scio, 

scire, scivi (-if), scitum , 4; complementary inf. Consult A. & G. 271; B. 181; 
G. 423; H. 533, I, 2. As to synonyms, see note on scire , 1 . 4, above. 

Line 38. possit, 3d pers. sing. pres, subjunctive of the intrans. verb possum, 
posse, potui (potis, tz^-hsum); possit is subjunctive of purpose after ut. Consult 
A. & G. 317; B. 200, (b); G. 543, 3; H. 497, II. 


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158 


'CAESAR’S GALLIC WAR 


[CHAP. XXI. 


XXI. On the 
same day as that 
of this interview 
with Divitiacus, 
Caesar was in- 
formed by scouts 
that the enemy 
had encamped at 
the foot of a 
mountain eight 
miles distant 
from his own 
camp ; and he 


I /XXI. Eodem (lie ab exploratoribus 1 

* On the name day by scouts 

certior factus hostes sub monte 2 

more certain being made , the enemy under the mountain 

consedisse nnlia passuum ab ipslus 3 

to have encamped , thousands, of paces from his 

castrls octo, qufilis esset natura 4 

camp, eight, of what sort was the nature 


Line i. Eodem, abl. sing. m. of the iterative dem. pron. idem , eadem , idem , 

gen. eiusdem ; eodem is an attributive of the noun die. die, abl. sing, of the 

noun dies, diet, m. or f. in sing.; always m. in the plur. See A. & G. 256, 1 ; B. 171 ; 

G. 393; H. 429. ab, prep, with the abl. (d before consonants only, ad before 

either vowels or consonants). exploratoribus, abl. plur. of explordtor , -oris , m.; 

it is the abl. of the agent after the prep. ab. Consult A. & G. 246; B. 166; G. 401 ; 

11 . 415 , 1 . 

Line 2. certior, nom. sing, of the adj. comparative degree certior, -us; positive 

certus , superl. ceriissimus. certior is predicate adj. after factus. factus, perf. 

participle of fid, feri, factus, used as pass, of facio, -ere, feci, factum, 3; as a parti- 
ciple it agrees with Caesar, to be supplied as the subject-nom. of the verb mis it. 
For the acc. and inf. following the phrase certior factus, as an expression of telling, 

see A. & G. 336, I, and footnote (3) ; B. 194, 2 ; G. 527, 2 ; II. 535, 2. hostes, acc. 

plur. of the noun hostis, -is, m. and f.; it is the subject-acc. of consedisse. For 

synonyms, see note on hostium, 1 . 15, Chap. XI. sub, prep, with either the acc. 

or abl. ; here it takes the abl. For the meaning of the prep., see A. & G. 153, Sub, b; 

B. 120, 3; G. 418, 2, (b)\ II. 435, I, Sub. monte, abl. sing, of the noun mons, 

mofitis , m. monte is the object of the prep. sub. 

Line 3. consedisse, perf. inf. act. of the verb consido , -ere, -sedi, -sessum, 3 

(con, intensive -f sedere = lit. to sit doivn). milia, acc. plur. of the adj. mi lie, 

indeclinable in the sing., used substantively in the plur., and regularly declined like 
an /-stem — sometimes written millia. milia is the acc. of extent of space. A. & G. 

257; B. 153; G. 335; IL 379. passuum, gen. plur. of the noun passus, -us, m.; 

partitive gen. after milia. Consult A. & G. 216, 2; B. 134; G. 370; II. 397, 2. 

ab, prep, with the abl.; see note on ab, 1. 1, above. ipslus, gen. sing. m. of the 

intensive dem. pron. ipse, -sa, -sum; it refers to Caesar; it is expressed for emphasis; 
as a gen. it limits castris. 

Line 4. castris, abl. plur. of the noun castrum, n. ; in the sing, — a fortress; in 

the plur. =a camp ; castris is the obj. of the prep. ab. octo, an indecl. num. adj.; 

it modifies milia. Note the phrase ab ipsius castris embodied in the phrase milia 

passuum . . . octo, by which the entire group of words is made emphatic. 

qualis, predicate-nom. of the interrogative pron. qudlis, -e (quis); predicate after 

esset. esset, 3d pers. sing, imperf. subjunctive of the verb sum, esse,fui,futurus; 

it agrees with its subject-nom. natura; it is the subjunctive, because an indirect 

question. Consult A. & G. 334; B. 242; G. 467; II. 529, I. natura, -ae, nom. 

sing. f. ( ndscor , be born); hence ndtiira = lit. birth, rare; transf. = nature, the char- 
acter of a thing or person, ndtura is the subject-nom. of esset. 


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LINES 6-9.] 


BOOK I. 


159 


6 montis et 

of the mountain and 


qufilis 

of what sort 


in cireuitu 

in the circuit 


cognoscerent, misit. 

might ascertain he sent. 

facilem esse. De 

easy to be. In the course of 

T. Labienum, legatum 

Titus Labienus , the lieutenant 

9 pro praetore, cum duabus legionibus 

in the place of the praetor, with two legions\ 


6 ascensus qui 

the ascent (those) who 

7 Renuntiatum est 

It was reported 

8 tertiii vigilia 

the third watch 


sent men to find 
out what kind of 
amountainitwas, 
and what sort of 
an ascent there 
might be in some 
roundabout way. 
The ascent was 
reported to him 
to be easy. He 
ordered his lieu- 
tenant with prae- 
torial powers, Ti- 
tus Labienus, to 


Line 5. montis, gen. sing, of the noun nidus, montis , m. ; as a gen. it limits 

ndtura. et, cop. conj. ; connects the clauses. qualis, interrogative pron., 

predicate after esse/, to be supplied. in, prep, with the* acc. or abl. ; here it 

takes the abl. cireuitu, abl. sing, of the noun circuitus, -us, m. (circum -f ire) ; 

it is the obj. of the prep. in. The phrase in cireuitu = lit. in a circuit, i.e. all around, 
round about. 

Line 6. ascensus, nom. sing, of the noun ascensus, - iis , m. (ad + scendere = 
to ascend, opposed to descendere). ascensus is the subject-nom. of esset understood. 

qui, nom. plur. of the rel. pron. qui, quae, quod ; it refers to milites understood 

as its antecedent, but is the subject-nom. of cognoscerent. The supplied antecedent 

to the rel. milites is the direct obj. of misit. cognoscerent, 3d pers. plur. imperf. 

subjunctive of the verb cognosco, -ere,-ndi<i, -nitum, 3; it agrees with its subject-nom. 
qui; it is subjunctive mode, because in a clause expressing the purpose of misit. 

Consult A. & G. 317, 2; B. 233, 1 ; G. 630; H. 497, I. misit, 3d pers. sing. perf. 

ind. act. of the verb initio, -ere, misi, tnissum, 3; it agrees with its subject-nom. 
Caesar understood. 

Line 7. Renuntiatum est, 3d pers. sing. perf. pass, of renunt(c)id, -dre, -dvi, 
-dtum, 1 ; it is used here impersonally ; but the real subj. is the infinitive clause 
facilem esse (ascensum). est, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. of sum, esse, fui; here used 

as a part of the compound tense renuntiatum est. facilem, acc. sing. m. of 

the adj. facilis, -e; an f-stem; predicate-acc. after esse. esse, pres. inf. of the 

intrans. verb sum, esse, fui, futurus ; its subject-acc. is ascensum, to be supplied. 

De, prep, with the abl. ; here = in the course of; see note on de, 1 . 10, Chap. XII, 

and on de, 1 . 27 , Chap. XIX. 

Line 8. tertia, abl. sing. f. of the ordinal adj. tertius , -a, - um ; it is an attributive 

of vigilid. vigilia, abl. sing, of the noun vigilid, -ae, f. ; it is the obj. of the prep. 

de; see note on vigilid, 1. 11, Chap. XII. T., an abbreviation for the prae- 

nomen 7'itum. Labienum, acc. sing, of Labienus, -i, m.; in apposition with 

legdtum. Labienus is the cognomen; the nomen was Aitius; for the person alluded 

to was Titus Attius Labienus; see note on I^abienum, 1 . 12, Chap. X. legatum, 

acc. sing, of the noun legdtus, -i, m. (legere, to delegate), legdtum is subject-acc. of 
ascendere, 1. 11, below. 

Line 9 . pro, prep, with the abl. praet5re, abl. sing, of praetor, -oris, m. 

(prae itor [ire, to go]) ; praetore is the obj. of the prep. pro. Here the phrase pro 
praetore = with the authority of a praetor. The praetor had as his own right the 
power to command ; the legdtus only was temporarily invested with the power by 


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160 


CAESAR S GALLIC WAR 


[CHAP. XXI. 


ascend during the 
third watch the 
highest point of 
the mountain’s 
ridge, with two 
legions, and with 
those as guides 
who had recon- 
noitred the road ; 
he stated to him 
his plan ; and, 


et els ducibus, qui iter cognoverant, 10 

and those (as) guides , who the route had discovered , 

summum iugum montis ascendere iubet ; 11 

the highest ridge of the mountain to climb he orders; 

quid sui consilil sit, ostendit. Ipse 12 

what of his own plan is , he shows. He himself 


his general. Labienus had this power in his own right by special grant. He had 

authority, accordingly, in place of, i.e. as if he were praetor. cum, prep, with 

the abl. duabus, abl. sing. f. of the num. adj. duo, duae, duo ; dudbus is an 

attributive of legionibus. Note that iinus, duo and tres are the only cardinals up to 

centum that are declinable. legionibus, abl. plur. of the noun legid, -onis (lege re, 

to choose); hence the noun =a chosen number, legionibus is abl. of accompaniment 
with cum. A. & G. 248, a ; B. 168; G. 392, and REM. 1 ; II. 419, I. 

Line 10. et, cop. conj. els, abl. plur. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id, used as a 

personal pron. of the 3d pers. =them , connected by the conj. et with legionibus, and 

in the same grammatical construction. ducibus, abl. plur. of the noun dux , 

ducis (compare ducere , to lead), ducibus is in apposition with eis, used as a pron. 

cum ets ducibus = with them as guides. qui, nom. plur. m. of the rel. pron. qui, 

quae, quod; it refers to legionibus and ducibus , and is the subject-nom. of cdgttd - 

verant. iter, acc. sing, of the noun iter, itineris, n.; it is the direct obj. of 

cognoverant. cognoverant, 3d pers. plur. pluperf. ind. of the verb cdgnosco, -ere, 

-novi, - nitum , 3 (con+ [g]noscere, compare GK. yiyvdxTKui). cognoverant agrees with 
its subject-nom. qui. 

Line ii. summum, acc. sing. n. of the superl. degree of the adj. superus » 
comparative superior , superl. supremus or summus. summum is an attributive of 

iugum. iugum, acc. sing, of the noun iugum , -i, n. ( iungere , to join) ; hence the 

noun = lit. a yoke ; transf. = summit, the phrase summum iugum = the top of the 

ridge. montis, gen. sing, of the noun mons, montis , m. (radical min, compare 

iminens, a projecting) ; hence mons = lit. a projection, i.e. transf. a towering mass, 

a mountain, montis as a gen. limits iugum. as(d)cendere, pres. inf. act. of the 

verb ascendo, -ere, ascendt, ascensum, 3 (ad -|- scandere) ; differs fron escendere (e-|- 
scandere) in that the latter = to ascend front a place, to reach a high object by exertion. 

ascendere with its subject-acc. legatum depends on iubet. iubet, 3d pers. sing. 

pres. ind. of the verb iubeo, -ere, iusst, iussum, 2 ; it agrees with a pron. implied in 
the ending as subject-nom., referring to Caesar; iubet is an historical present. 

Line 12. quid, nom. sing. n. of the interrogative pron. quis, quae, quid; it is 

the subject-nom. of the intrans. verb sit. sui, gen. sing. n. of the poss. and 

reflexive pron. situs, -a, -um ; it refers to Caesar, but is an attributive of the noun 

cdnsilii. consilil, gen. sing, of the noun consilium, -i, n. consilii is predicate-gen. 

after sit. Consult A. & G. 214, c; B. 133; G. 366, and rem. 2; H. 401, and note 2. 
The student will note that quid sui consilii sit = quid suum consilium sit, nearly. 

sit, 3d pers. sing. pres, subjunctive of the neuter or intrans. verb sum , esse, fui, 

futurus; it is in the subjunctive mode, because the question is indirect. See 
A. & G. 334 ; B. 242 ; G. 467 ; H. 529, I. Observe that this indirect question as a 
noun-clause is the direct obj. of ostendit. ostendit, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act 


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LINES 13 - 16 .] 


BOOK I, 


161 


is de quarta 

vigilia 

eodem 

itinere, 

in the course of the fourth 

watch by the same route 

14 quo hostes 

ierant, ad 

eos 

contendit 

by which the enemy 

had gone , toward 

them 

he hastens 

15 equitatumque 

omnem 

ante 

se 

mittit. 

cavalry and 

an 

before 

him 

he sends. 

16 P. Considius, 

qui 

rel 


mllitaris 

Publius Considius, 

who 

in regard to science 

military 


during the fourth 
watch, Caesar 
himself hastened 
toward theenemy 
by the same road 
as they had gone, 
sending all his 
cavalry in ad- 
vance. Publius 
Considius, who 
was thought to 
be very expert in 
military affairs, 


of the verb ostendo , -ere, ostendi , os ten turn, 3 (ob + tendere). ostendit agrees with a 

pron. implied in the ending as subject-nom., referring to Caesar. Ipse, nom. 

sing. m. of the intensive dem. pron. ipse, - sa, -sum, gen. ipstus , dat. ipsi; it refers to 
Caesar; it is expressed for emphasis; and is the subject-nom. of contendit and mittit, 
lines 14 and 15, below. 

Line 13. de, prep, with the abl. quarta, abl. sing, of the ordinal quartus , 

-a, -um; it modifies vigilid. vigilia, abl. sing, of the noun vigilia , -ae, f.; it is 

the obj. of the prep, de . But see note on this phrase, 1 . 8, above. eddem, abl. 

sing. n. of the dem. pron. idem , eadem, idem ; it is an attributive of the noun itinere. 

itinere, abl. sing, of the noun iter , itineris , n. ; abl. of the way by which. 

Consult A. & G. 258,^; B. 167, 5, (b); G. 389; H. 420, 1, 3). For synonyms, see 
note on via, 1 . 2, Chap. IX. 

Line 14. qu 5 , abl. sing. n. of the rel. pron. qui, quae, quod; it is used both 
relatively and adjectively ; it refers to itinere as a rel. pron., and is also an attributive 
of itinere , to be supplied, which is in the same grammatical construction as the 

preceding itinere : way by which. hostes, nom. plur. of the noun hostis , -is, m. 

and f.; it is subject-nom. of the verb ierant. Synonyms: hostis — a public enemy; 

inimicus = a private foe. ierant, 3d pers. plur. pluperf. ind. act. of the verb 

eo, ire, ivi {it), iturn ; syncopated for iverant; syncopation without contraction. See 
A. & G. 128, 2; B. 251, end; G. 131, 2; II. 235, 1. ierant agrees with its subject-nom. 

hostes. ad, prep, with the acc. after a verb of motion. eos, acc. plur. m. of 

the dem. pron. is, ea, id, used as a personal pron. of the 3d pers. ; it is the obj. of 

the prep. ad. contendit, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. of the verb contetido , -ere, 

-di, - turn , 3; it agrees with a pron. implied in the ending as subject-nom., referring 
to Caesar. As to different significations of this verb, see note on contendunt, 1 . 18, 
Chap. I. 

Line 15. equitatumque (equitatum -b que). equitdtum is acc. sing, of the noun 
equit&tus, -us, m. (from equus through equitare). equitdtum is the direct obj. of the 

verb mittit. que, enclitic conj., connects contendit and mittit. omnem, acc. sing. 

m. of the adi. omttis , - e , an f-stem ; declined like lev is or mills, omnem is an attrib- 
utive of equitdtem. ante, adv. or prep. ; here prep, with the acc. se, acc. 

sing. m. of the reflexive pron. sui, sibi, se, se; it is the obj. of the prep, ante; it 

refers to Caesar. mittit, 3d pers. sing, historical pres. ind. act. of the verb mitto, 

-ere, mist , , missum, 3; it agrees with a pron. implied in the eliding, referring to 
Caesar. 

Line 16. P., an abbreviation for Publius, -i, m., a Roman praenomen. 

Considius, -1, m., subject-nom. of praemittitur, 1 . 19, below. Nothing more is known 


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162 


CAKSAR’S GALLIC WAR 


[CHAP. XXII. 


and who had had 
experience in 
Lucius Sulla’s 
army, and, sub- 
sequently, in 
that of Marcus 
Crassus, was sent 
ahead with the 
scouts. 


peritissimus habebatur 

moat skilled was held 


et in 

both in 


exercitu 17 

the army 


L. Sullae et postea in M. Crass! is 

of Lucius Sulla and afterwards in (that) of Marcus Crassus 


fuerat, cum exploratoribus praemittitur. 19 

had been , with the scouts is sent ahead . 


of Considius than that he served under Caesar in the first Gallic campaign, 58 B.c.; 
and that, as here intimated, Caesar supposed that he could be relied on, because of 

his experience under Sulla and Crassus. qui, nom. sing. m. of the rel. pron. 

(jut, (/uae> quod; it refers to Considius , but is the subject-nom. of habebatur. 

rel, objective gen. of the noun res, ret (stem re, shortened in gen. and dat. sing.); as 
a gen. it limits the adj . peritissimus. Consult A. & G. 218, a; B. 135; G. 374; 
H. 399, I. militaris, gen. sing. f. of the adj. mil i tar is, -re (miles) ; it is an attrib- 

utive of rei. 

Link 17. peritissimus, nom. sing. m. of the superl. degree of the adj., positive 
degree peritus, comparative peritior (radical peri, as seen in experior); hence peritus 
= lit. tested, peritissimus is predicate adj. after the pass, verb habebatur. habe- 

batur, 3d pers. sing, imperf. pass, of the act. verb habeb, -ere, -ui, -itum, 2 ; pass, parts : 

habeor, h abort , habitus ; habibdtur agrees with its subject-nom. qui. et, cop. 

conj.; it connects the verbs habebatur and fuerat. in, prep, with either acc. or 

abl. ; here it takes the abl. exercitu, abl. sing, of the noun ex ercitus, -us, m. ; 

it is the obj. of the prep. in. For synonyms, see note on exercitu, 1 . 31, Chap. III. 

Line 18. L., an abbreviation iox Luc ii, gen. sing, of the proper noun Lucius, 

-//, m. ; praenomen. Sullae, gen. sing, of the proper noun Sulla, -ae , m. ; cog- 

nomen; the nomen was Cornelius , and the full name Lucius Cornelius Sulla. 
Sullae, as a gen., limits exercitu. The allusion is to L. Cornelius Sulla Felix, the 
Roman dictator, the conqueror of Mithridates, and the celebrated opponent of 
Marius ; a doubtful Roman patriot, who rewarded his friends with confiscated 

estates, and punished his enemies with death through proscriptions. et, conj., 

a species of correlate, as we have here et . . . et. postea (post + ea), adv. ; it 

modifies fuerat. in, prep, with the acc. or abl. ; here it takes the abl. exercitu, 

to be supplied from the preceding phrase. Note how the notions are kept distinct 

by the repetition of the prep. M., an abbreviation for Marci, gen. of the proper 

noun Marcus, -i, m. ; praenomen. Crassi, gen. sing, of the proper noun Crassus, 

-i, m. ; as a gen. it limits exercitu understood. Marcus Crassus was a commander 
in the civil war, 71 n.c., and fought against Spartacus. Spartacus, it will be recalled, 
was a native of Thrace, a shepherd, a robber-chief, and then a leader of Roman 
slaves in plots of insurrection in Southern Italy. He was the most distinguished 
leader of slave insurrections of whom history gives any account. 

Line 19. fuerat, 3d pers. sing, pluperf. ind. of the intrans. verb sum, esse,fui, 
futurus; connected by the copulatives with the verb habebatur, and has the same 

subject-nom., viz. the rel. qui. cum, prep, with the abl. exploratoribus, 

abl. plur. of the noun ex plordtor, -oris, m.; abl. of accompaniment. Consult A. & G. 
248, a ; B. 168 ; G. 392, and rkm. i ; II. 419, I. For synonyms, see note on explord- 

idres, 1 . 7, Chap. XII. praemittitur, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. pass, of the verb 

praemitto, -ere, -mist, -missum, 3 ; pass, parts : praemittor , -mitti, - missus , 3 ; it agrees 
with P. Considius as its subject-nom., 1 . 16, above. Observe that from the 7th line 
the historical present is the tense of the leading verbs. 


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LINKS 1 — 4 .] 


BOOK I. 


163 


1 XXII. Prima luce, cum summus 

At the first lights when the top 

2 mons a Labieno teneretur, ipse 

of the mountain by Labienus was held, (Caesar) himself 

3 ab hostium castris non longius mille 

from the enemy's camp not farther than a thousand 

4 et qulngentis passibus abesset, neque, lit 

and Jive hundred paces was distant , nor , as 

Line i. Prima, abl. sing, of the adj. primus , - a , -um, superl. degree; comparative 

prior, prima is an attributive of the noun luce. luce, abl. sing, of the noun 

lux , lucis, f. ; abl. of time when. See A. & G. 256, 1 ; B. 171 ; G. 393; II. 429. 

cum, conj., temporal. summus, nom. sing. m. of summus , - a , -um; one form of 

the superl. degree of the adj. superus, positive; comparative superior; superl. supre- 
mus or summus. summus is an attributive of mans. Observe that the phrase 
summus mons = the top of the mountain. Consult A. & G. 193; B. 68, REM. 4; G. 291, 
rem. 2 ; H. 440, 2, notes i and 2. 

Line 2. m 5 ns, montis, m., subject-nom. of teneretur. a, prep, with the abl. 

(d before consonants, ab before either vowels or consonants). Labieno, abl. 

sing, of the proper noun Labienus , -/, m.j abl. of the agent after the prep. d. See 
A. & G. 246; B. 166; G. 401 ; H. 415, I. As 'to Labienus, see note on Labienum, 1 . 8, 

Chap. XXI. teneretur, 3d pers. sing, imperf. ’pass, of the verb trued, -ere, -ui, 

ten turn, 2 ; pass, parts : teneor, -eri, ten tits , 2. teneretur agrees with its subject-nom. 
mons ; it is subjunctive after cum temporal. A. & G. 325; B. 222; G. 585; II. 521, 

II, 2. ipse, nom. sing. m. of the intensive pron. ipse, -sa, -sum, gen. ipsius, dat. 

ipsi; it refers to Caesar; it is subject-nom. of abesset, 1 . 4, below. 

Line 3^ ab, prep, with the abl.; note its repetition after the verb abesset. 

hostium, gen. plur. of the noun hostis, -is, m. and f. ; as a gen. it limits castris. 

castris, abl. plur. of the noun castrum,-i, ri.; in the sing, it = castle, fort ; in the 
plur. it = camp, castris is the obj. of the prep. ab. non (ne-j- oe[u]num, apoc- 
opated), adv.; modifies the adv. longius. longius, adv., comparative degree of 

long?, rare form longiter; superl. longissime. longius modifies abesset. mille, 

indecl. num. adj., in the sing.; in the plur. mil id or millia ; it is regularly declined. 
mille is here, of course, in the abl. plur. case, modifying passibus. 

Line 4. et, cop. conj.; it connects the adjectives mille and quingentis. 1 

qulngentis, abl. plur. of the cardinal num. adj. quingenti, -ae, -a ; it, too, modifies 
the noun passibus. Observe that the hundreds from ducenti to nongenti inclusive are 

regularly declined like the plur. of bonus. passibus, abl. plur. of the noun passus , 

-us, m. passibus is the abl. after the comparative longius, quam (than) being omitted. 

Consult A. & G. 247; B. 70, 2; G. 398; II. 417. abesset, 3d pers. sing, imperf. 

subjunctive of the intrans. verb absttm , -esse, ab(a)fui, ab(d)futurus (ab-j-sum). 
abesset agrees with its subject-nom. ipse ; it is in the subjunctive, because still under 
the influence of cum. Observe the omission of the cop. conj. between the clauses 

(asyndeton). A. & G. 346, c; B. 123, rem. 6; G. 474, note; II. 636, I, 1. neque, 

conj. and adv. ; here it = et non, and connects the third clause in the series of three 

subordinate clauses. ut, with the ind., is a relative adv., and = as; with the 

subjunctive it is a conj., and = that. 


XXII. At day- 
break, when the 
summit of the 
mountain was in 
the possession of 
Labienus, and 
Caesar himself 
was not more 
than a mile and 
a half from the 
enemy’s camp; 
and, as he aft- 


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164 


CAESAR S GALLIC WAR 


[CHAP. XXII. 


erwards ascer- 
tained from the 
captives, neither 
his own arrival, 
nor that of I,abie- 
nus was known, 
Considius with 
his horse at full 
speed rode up to 
him and said that 
the mountain of 
which he desired 
Labienus to get 


postea ex captivis comperit, aut ipsnis e 

afterward s from prisoners he ascertained , either his own 


adventus 

coming 

Considius 

Considius 


aut Labienl cdgnitus esset, 6 

or (that) of Labienus known was , 

equo adnnsso ad eum 7 

(his) horse being let go towards him 


accurrit, dlcit montem, quem a Labiend 8 

runs (and) says the mountain , which by Labienus 


Line 5. postea, adv. (post + ea); it modifies comperit. ex, prep, with the 

abl. (e before consonants, ex before vowels or consonants). captivis, abl. plur. of 

the noun capttvus , -/, m. ( capere , to capture), captivis is the obj. of the prep. ex. 

comperit, 3d pers. sing. perf. ind. act. of the verb compero , -ire, comperi , -pertum, 4 ; 
it agrees with a pron. implied in the ending as its subject-nom., referring to Caesar. 

aut, conj.; aut . . . aut neither . . . or; see note on this particle, 1 . 19, Chap. I. 

ipsius, gen. sing, of the intensive pron. ipse , -sa, -sum; it refers to Caesar; it is 

expressed for emphasis, and limits adventus. 

Line 6. adventus, nom. sing, of the noun adventus , -us, m. (ad-f venire); it is 

the subject-nom. of cdgnitus esset. aut, see note on aut, preceding line. 

Labienl, gen. sing, of Labienus, -i, m.; as a gen. it limits adventus , to be supplied. 

Cdgnitus esset, 3d pers. sing, of the pluperf. subjunctive pass, of the verb 

cdgtiosco, -ere, -tidvi, -nitum, 3 ; pass, parts : cdgnoscor, cogndsci, cdgnitus. cogtiitus esset 
is connected by the conj. neque with the verb abesset, and is in the subjunctive for 
the same reason; teneretur , abesset and cdgnitus esset are under the influence, so to 
speak, of cum temporal or historical. Observe that the verbs in the subordinate 
clauses are put in the secondary tenses, because the verb accurrit of the main clause 
is an historical present. 

Line 7. Considius, -1, m. ; subject-nom. of the verb accurrit. See note on 

Publius Considius , 1 . 16, Chap. XXI. equo, abl. sing, of the noun equus, -i, m. ; 

in the abl. absolute with the participle admisso. admissd, abl. sing. m. of the 

participle admissus, -a, -um of the verb admitto, -ere, -misi, - missum , 3 (ad + mittere) ; 
hence the phrase equo admissd = lit. the horse being sent forward, i.e. being given 

loose reins to. But observe that this phrase is less emphatic than equo concitdto. 

ad, prep, with the acc. eum, acc. sing. m. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id, used as a 

personal pron. of the 3d pers. ; eum, i.e. Caesarem. 

Line 8. accurrit, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. of accurro, -ere, accucurri (- curri ), 
-cursum, 3 (ad+currere). accurrit agrees with the proper noun Considius as its sub- 
ject-nom. dlcit, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. of the verb died, -ere, dixi, dictum, 3; 

connected by et understood (asyndeton) with accurrit, and in the same grammatical 
construction. As to the omission of the conj., see A. & G. 346, c; B. 123, rem. 6; 

G. 474, note; H. 636, I, 1. montem, acc. sing, of the noun mons, montis , m. ; 

montem is the subject-acc. of teneri. quem, acc. sing. m. of the rel. pron. qui, 

quae, quod ; it refers to the noun montem ; it is the subject-acc. of occupdri. 

a, prep, with the abl. (d before consonants only, ab before vowels or consonants). 

Labiend, abl. sing. m. of Labienus, -i, m. ; abl. of the agent with prep, d after 

the pass, verb occupdri. See A. & G. 246; B. 166; G. 401 ; II. 415, I. As to 
Labienus, see note on Labienum, 1 . 8, Chap. XXI. 


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LINES 9-12.] 


BOOK I. 


165 


9 occupari voluerit, ab hostibus teneri; 

to be seized he wished , by the enemy to be (is) held ; 

10 id se a Gallicis armis atque 

this (fact) himself from the Gallic arms and 

11 Insignibus cogn5visse. Caesar suas c5pias 

ensigns to have known . Caesar his own troops 

\ 

12 in proximum collem subducit, aciem 

to the next hill draws off, a battle line 


Line 9. occupari (ob capere) = lit. to seize upon. voluerit, 3d pers. sing. 

perf. subjunctive of the irr. verb void, ve lie, volui; in the subjunctive mode, because 
in a subordinate clause in informal indirect discourse ; or, perhaps better, the relative 
clause may be considered an integral part of the sentence. Consult A. & G. 342 ; 
B. 235, rem. 1 ; G. 629; II. 529, II, note 1, 1). voluei-it agrees with a pron. implied 

in the ending, referring to Caesar as subject-nom. ab, see note on d, preceding 

line. hostibus, abl. plur. of the noun hostis , hostis, m. and f. ; abl. of the agent 

after the prep. ab. See grammatical references to Labieno, preceding line. 

teneri, pres. inf. pass, of the verb teneo, -ere, -ut, tentum , 2 ; pass, parts : teneor, -eri, 
tentus, 2. The subject-acc. of teneri is montem. 

Line 10. id, acc. sing. n. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id, used substantively; or, 
one may supply the word thing, and still conceive of id as having an adj. force; id is 

the direct obj. of cdgnovisse. se, acc. sing, of the reflexive pron. sui, sibi, se, se. 

se is subject-acc. of cdgnovisse. a, prep, with the abl. ; see note on d, preceding 

line. Gallicis, abl. plur. n. of the adj. Gallicus , -a, -urn (Gallia); it is an attrib- 
utive of armis. armis, abl. plur. of the noun arma, -drum ; abl. of cause with 

the prep. d. Consult A. & G. 245; B. 165 ; G. 408, 3, end ; H. 416, I, 1. For syn- 
onyms, see note on armis , 1 . 13, Chap. IV. atque (ad + que), conj.; connects 

armis and insignibus. 

Line ii. insignibus, abl. plur. of the adj. insignis, -e, used as a noun, insignibus 
is connected by the conj. atque with the noun armis, and is in the same grammatical 

construction. cogndvisse, perf. inf. act. of the verb cdgnoscd, -ere, -novi, - nitum , 3; 

its subject-acc. is the pron. se. Caesar, -aris, m.; subject-nom. of subducit and 

tnstruit. suas, acc. plur. f. of the poss. and reflexive pron. suus , -a, -um ; it is an 

attributive of copids. copias, acc. plur. of the noun copia , -ae, f. (copia in the 

sing. = abundance ; in the plur. = resources , troops). copids is the direct obj. of the 
verb subducit. The student will observe that lines 8-1 1 are informal ordtio obliqua. 
The ordtio recta of these lines is as follows : mons, quern a Labieno occupari voluisti, 
ab hostibus tenetur; hoc ego a Gallicis armis atque insignibus cogndvi. 

Line 12 . in, prep, with the acc. or abl. ; here it takes the acc. proximum, 

acc. sing. m. of the adj. proximus, -a, -um, superl. degree; comparative propior . 

proximum is the attributive of collem. collem, acc. sing, of the noun collis , 

-is, m. collem is the obj. of the prep. in. subducit, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. 

of the verb subdued, -ere, -diixi, - ductum , 3 (sub + ducere); hence subducere = lit. to 

lead from below, subducit agrees with its subject-nom. Caesar. aciem, acc. sing. 

of the noun acies, -ei, f., gen. sometimes acii and acie; compare Latin deer, sharp, 


possession was 
held by the ene- 
my ; that he had 
ascertained this 
fact from the 
gleam of the 
Gallic arms and 
decorations. Cae- 
sar, accordingly, 
withdrew his 
troops to the 
nearest hill, and 
put them in 
battle array. La- 


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166 


CAESAR'S GALLIC WAR 


[CHAP. XXII. 


bienus, as he had 
been directed by 
Caesar not to 
join battle un- 
less Caesar’s 
own forces were 
seen near the 
enemy’s camp, 
that on all sides 
at one and the 
same time an 


Instruit. Labienus, 

he forms, Labienus , 

a Caesare, ne 
by Caesar , that not 
ipsius copiae 

his own troops 

visae essent, ut 

should be seen , that 


ut erat el praeceptum 13 

as was to him ordered 


proelium committeret nisi 14 
battle he should join unless 
prope hostium castra 15 
near the enemy's camp 


undique un5 tempore ie 

on every side at one time 


and c.K. dfc/s, the edge of a thing; hence, in military language acer = a line, aciem 
is the direct obj. of instruit. Note the omission of the conj. between the compound 
predicate subducit and instruit '. Synonyms: acies — an army in battle array; dgmen 
= an army in motion ; whereas exercitus = a disciplined army. 

Line 13. instruit, 3d pers. sing, historical pres. ind. act. of the verb instruo, 
-ere, - striixi, -stnictum, 3 (in 4* struere, to build on); connected by the omitted et with 

subducit , and agrees with the subject-nom. Caesar. Labienus, -i, m., subject-nom. 

of exspectdbat and ab stine bat, lines 18 and 19, below. ut, adv. = as. erat, 

3d pers. sing, imperf. ind. of sum, esse,fui,futurus; here used in forming the com- 
pound tense, pluperf. pass, erat praeceptum ( praeceptum erat). el, dat. sing. m. 

of the dem. pron. is , ea, id, used as a personal pron. of the 3d pers. ; ei is dat. of the 
indirect obj. after the pass, erat praeceptum. Consult A. & G. 225, e\ B. 140 ; G. 344; 

H. 384, I. praeceptum, nom. sing. n. of the perf. pass, participle praeceptus, 

-a, -urn of the verb praecipid, -ere, -cepi, - ceptum , 3; it forms with erat the pluperf. 
ind. pass., used impersonally. 

Line 14. a, prep, with the abl. (d before consonants only, ab before vowels or 

consonants). Caesare, abl. sing, of Caesar, -aris, m. ; abl. of the agent after the 

prep. ab. See A. & G. 246; B. 166; G. 401 ; H. 415, I. ne, adv., primitive 

negative particle = that not. proelium, acc. sing, of the noun proelium, - i , n. ; 

direct obj. of committeret. For synonyms, see note on proeliis, 1 . 18, Chap. I. 

committeret, 3d pers. sing, imperf. subjunctive of the verb committo , -ere, - mist. , 
-mission, 3; subjunctive of negative purpose after ne. See A. & G. 317; B. 200; 
G. 545, 3 ; H. 497, II. nisi (ne + si = lit. not if), conj. 

Line 15. ipsius, gen. sing, of the intensive dem. pron. ipse , -sa, -sum; it refers 

to Caesar; as a gen. it limits copiae. copiae, nom. plur. of the noun copia , -ae, f. 

(co -f- ops) ; in the sing. = plenty; in the plur. = troops, cdpiae is the subject-nom. 

of visae essent. prope, adv., and prep, with the acc. ; here a prep. hostium, 

gen. plur. of hostis , hostis, m. and f. ; as a gen. it limits castra. Synonyms: hostis 

= lit. a stranger; and then an enemy , especially a public enemy; whereas inimicus 

= a private foe. castra, acc. plur. of the noun castrum , -i, n. ; in the sing. = 

a fort; in the plur. = a number of tents or huts located near each other; hence 
= a camp, castra is the obj. of the prep, prope. 

Line 16. visae essent, 3d pers. plur. pluperf. subjunctive of videor, -eri, visus , 2; 
or visae — seen may be taken as a participial predicate after essent. essent, 3d pers. 
plur. imperf. subjunctive of the intrans. verb sum, esse, fui, futurus ; or it might 
be taken as forming a part of the compound tense — pluperf. — visae essent; it 
is in the subjunctive mode after nisi in the protasis. Consult A. & G. 315,11; 
B. 204, 2 ; G. 591, 2, (b) ; II. 507, III ; the apodosis is involved in the purpose- 


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LINES 17-20.] 


HOOK I. 


167 


17 in hostes 

against the enemy 

is occupato 

having been seized 

19 proelioque 

from the battle and , 

20 die 

(being) the day , 


impetus 

an attack 

nostros 

ours 

abstinebat. 

he was refraining. 


monte 

the mountain 

exspeetiibat 

he was waiting for, 

Mult 5 denique 

Much at length 

Caesar 

Caesar 


per explorat 5 res 

through scouts 


fieret, 

might be made , 


outset might be 
made against the 
enemy, after get- 
ting possession 
of the mountain 
was awaiting our 
men and holding 
aloof from battle. 
At length, Cae- 
sar, late in the 
day, learned from 
scouts that the 


clause tte . . . committeret . Observe that the text from tie , 1 . 14, above, to essent , 
inclusive, 1. 16, above, is the logical subj. of erat praeceptum ( praeceptum era/), 
1. 13, above. lit, telic conj. undique (unde + que); hence = lit. whence- 
soever; it modifies fieret. un 5 , abl. sing. n. of the num. adj. fitius , -a, -urn ; gen. 

unius , dat. unt. uno is an attributive of tempore. tempore, abl. sing, of the 

noun tempus , -oris , n. ; abl. of time at which . A. & G. 256, 1 ; B. 171 ; G. 393; II. 429. 
For etymology of tempus , see note on tempore , 1 . 21, Chap. III. 

Line 17. in, prep, with the acc. or abl.; here it takes the acc. For different 

significations, see note on in, 1 . 1, Chap. I. hostes, acc. plur. of the noun hostis , 

•is, m. and f. hostes is the obj. of the prep. in. impetus, nom. sing, of the noun 

impetus , - iis , m. (im[n] + petere) ; hence ivipetere = to rush upon , and the noun impetus 

= an attack, impetus is the subject-nom. of the pass, verb fieret. fieret, 3d pers. 

sing, imperf. subjunctive of fid, fieri, f actus, used as the pass, of facid, -ere, feci, 
factum, 3; it agrees with the subject-nom. impetus ; subjunctive of purpose after ut y 

this clause expresses the purpose of the order. monte, abl. sing, of the noun 

nidus, montis, m. ; abl. absolute with the participle occupd/o. 

Line 18. occupato, abl. sing. m. of the participle occupdtus, -a, -urn of the verb 
occupo, -dre, dvi, -dturn, 1 (ob + capere = to seize upon), occupato is in the abl. 

absolute with monte. Consult A. & G. 255; B. 192; G. 409; II. 431. nostros, 

acc. plur. m. of the poss. pron. noster , - tra , -trum ; supply milites; or it may be taken 
substantively =ours; yet the modified subst. may always be supplied, nostros is 

the direct obj. of exspectdbat. exspectabat, 3d pers. sing, imperf. ind. of exspecto, 

-dre, -dvi, - dtum , 1 (ex + spectare = to look out for), exspectdbat agrees with its sub- 

ject-nom. Labienus , expressed in 1 . 1 3, above. 

Line 19. proeliSque (proelio + que). proelio, abl. sing, of the noun proelium , 
•i, n. ; abl. of separation after abstinebat; the simple abl. See A. & G. 243, b; B. 160; 
and rem. 1; G. 390, 2, note 3; H. 413. que, note how closely the enclitic joins 
abstinebat to exspectdbat. As to synonyms, see note on proeliis, 1 . 18, Chap. I. — — 
abstinebat, 3d pers. sing, imperf. ind. act. of abstined , -ere, -ui, - tentum , 2 (abs + 
tenere = /fc hold from), connected by the conj. -que with exspectdbat, and in the same 

grammatical construction. Multo, abl. sing. m. of the adj. multus, -a, -urn; 

comparative plus; superl. plurimus. multo is an attributive of the noun die. 

denique (deinde •+- que), conjunctive adv. ; as a conj. it connects the sentences; as 
an adv. it modifies cognovit. 

Line 20. die, abl. sing, of the noun dies , -ei, m. or f. in the sing.; always m. in 
the plur; abl. of time at which. See A. & G., 256, 1 ; B. 171 ; G. 393; II. 429; the 
phrase multo die = at much day, like prima luce which = at first light, i.e. at day- 


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168 


CAESAR 8 GALLIC WAR 


[CHAP. XXII. 


mountain was in 
the possession of 
his friends ; that 
the Helvetii had 
broken up their 
camp ; and that 
Considius, panic- 
stricken, had re- 
ported to him as 
fact a vision of 
his imagination. 


cognovit et montem a 
ascertained both the mountain by 
et Helvetios castra 

and the llelvetii (their) camp 


suls teneri 21 

his (men) to be (is) held 

movisse et 22 

to have moved and 


Considium 

Considius 

vidisset, 

he had seen, 


tim 5 re perterritum 

by fear greatly terrified 

pro vlso sibi 

for seen, to himself 


quod n 5 n 23 

what not 
renuntiasse. 24 
to have reported . 


break, die, however, might be taken as an abl. absolute with multo. The phrase 

multd die = the day being much , i.e. = late in the day. per, prep, with the acc. 

expldratQres, acc. plur. of the noun explorator, -oris, m. ; it is the obj. of the 

prep, per, i.e. the agent as means is expressed by per with the acc.; see A. & G. 
246, b; B. 166, rem. 1; G. 401 ; H. 415, I, 1, note i. As to derivation and syn- 
onyms, see note on explordtores , 1 . 7, Chap. XII. Caesar, -axis, m., subject-nom. 

of the verb cognovit. 

Line 21. cdgndvit, 3d pers. sing. perf. ind. act. of cogndscd, -ere, ndvi , - nitum , 3; 

it agrees with its subject-nom. Caesar. et, cop. conj.; here et . . . et = both 

. . . and. montem, acc. sing, of the noun nidus, montis , m. montem is subject- 

acc. of the verb teneri. a, prep, with the abl. (a before consonants only, ab 

before vowels or consonants). suls, abl. plur. of the poss. and reflexive pron. 

suus, -a, -um, used substantively ; or supply militibus. suis , conceived to be sub- 
stantive in use, is the obj. of the prep, d, i.e. an abl. of the agent. A. & G. 246; 

B. 166; G. 401; II. 415, I. teneri, pres. inf. pass, of the act. teneo, -ere, - ui , 

ten turn , 2; pass, parts: teneor, -ert, tentus, 2. 

Line 22. et, see note on et, preceding line. Helvetios, acc. plur. of the adj. 

Helvetius, -a, -um, used as a substantive. Helvetios is subject-acc. of mdvisse. 

Castra, acc. plur. of the noun castrum , -i, n. ; in the sing. = fort or redoubt; in the 

plur. = camp, castra is the direct obj. of movisse . mdvisse, perf. inf. act. of 

the verb moved, -ere, mdvi, niotum, 2 ; its subject-acc. is Helvetios. et, cop. conj. ; 

connects the infinitive-clauses. 

Line 23. Considium, acc. sing, of the proper noun Considius, -/, m. Considium 

is subject-acc. of renuntidsse , 1 . 24, below. timore, abl. sing, of the noun timor, 

-oris, m. timore is abl. of cause after the perf. pass, participle perterritum. Consult 
A. & G. 245, and 2 ,b\ B. 165, and rem. 4; G. 408, and note 2 ; H. 416, and note i. 

perterritum, acc. sing. m. of the perf pass, participle perterritus, -a, -um of the 

verb perterreo, -ere, ui, -Hum, 2. perterritum agrees with Considius in gender, num- 
ber and case. Observe the .force of per in composition — perterritum = greatly 

terrified. As to Considius, see note on P. Considius, 1 . 16, Chap. XXI. quod, 

acc. sing. n. of the rel. qui, quae, quod; it refers to id, to be supplied ; i.e. the thought 
expressed in lines 10 and 11, above, as its antecedent; but quod itself is the direct 
obj. of vidisset. Observe that in such construction id is generally expressed, but is 
sometimes omitted. Consult A. & G. 200, e, and note; B. 129, rem. 8; G. 614, 
rem. 2 ; H. 445, 7. non (ne -f unum, apocopated), adv. ; it modifies vidisset. 

Line 24. vidisset, 3d pers. sing, pluperf. subjunctive of the verb video, -ere, 
visi, visum, 2 ; it agrees with a pron. implied in the ending as subject-nom., referring 

to Considium ; subjunctive mode, because in informal indirect discourse. pro, 

prep, with the abl. vis5, abL sing. n. of the perf. pass, participle of the verb 


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LINES 25-27.] 


BOOK I. 


169 


25 Eo die, quo consuerat intervallo, 

That day , by which , he was accustomed , interval , 

26 hostes sequitur et mllia passuum tria 

the enemy he follows and thousands of paces three 

27 ab eorum castris castra ponit. 

from their camp (his) camp he pitches . 

videor , videri , visits ; viso is used substantively in >fte abl. n., and is the obj. of the 

prep .pro. prd viso = lit. for a seen (thing). /^sibi, dat. sing. m. of the reflexive 

personal pron. sul , sibi , se, se; dat. of the indirect obj. sibi = to himself \ i.e. Caesar. 

renuntiasse, perf. inf. act. of the verb renuntio, -drey -dvi, -dtuitiy i ; sometimes 

written renuncio ; contracted for renuntidvisse . See A. & G. 128, 2; B. 251; 

G. 131, 1; H. 235. Note that the subject-acc. of renuntiasse is Considium, 1 . 23, 
above. The ordtio recta of lines 21-24 is as follows: mons a mels tenetur et Helvetii 
castra moverunt et Cdnsidius timore perterritus quod non videraty pro viso mi hi 
reniintidt (reniintidvit). 

Line 25. E 5 , abl. sing. m. of the dem. pron. is, ea t id; it is an attributive of 

the noun die. die, abl. sing, of the noun dies , - el, m. or f. in the sing.; always 

m. in the plur. die is abl. of time at which. See A. & G. 256, 1 ; B. 171 ; G. 393; 

H. 429. quo, abl sing. n. of the rel. pron. qul, quae, quod; used here adjectively 

and modifies mtervallo. consuerat, 3d pers. sing, pluperf. ind. of the verb 

cdnsuescdy -ere -suevi, -suetum, 3 (con + suescere, to become used), consuerat agrees 
with Caesar understood, as subject-nom. Observe (a) that this is a species of 
preteritive verb in which the perf. is as a pres., and the pluperf. as an imperf.; 
(b) that consuerat is contracted for consueverat. Consult A. & G. 128, 2; B. 251; 

G. 1 31, 1 ; H. 235. intervallo, abl. sing, of the noun intervallum , - 1 , n. (inter -f 

vallum) ; hence the noun = the space between two palisades ; transf. = interval, 
intervalld is an abl. of manner. See A. & G. 248; B. 168; G. 399; II. 419, III. 

Line 26. hostes, acc. plur. of the noun hostisy -is t m. and f. ; it is the direct obj. 

of the deponent verb sequitur. sequitur, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. of the deponent 

verb sequory - 1 , secutus, 3 (sibilated from irrofiai). sequitur agrees with a pron. 
implied in the ending, referring to Caesar as subject*nom. et, cop. conj.; con- 
nects the verbs sequitur and ponit. mllia, acc. plur. n. of the adj. mille y in- 

declinable in the sing.; regularly declined in the plur.; used here as a noun, and in 

the acc. of extent of space. Consult A. & G. 257, b\ B. 153; G. 335; II. 379. 

passuum, gen. plur. of the noun passusy -its, m. ; partitive gen. after mtlia. Consult 

A. & G. 216, 2; B. 58, 3, and 134; G. 370; H. 397, 3. tria, acc. plur. n. of the 

num. adj. iris, tria; it is an attributive of the noun mtlia. 

Line 27. ab, prep, with the abl. (d before consonants only, ab before vowels or 

consonants). eorum, gen. plur. m. of the dem. pron. is, ea t id t used as a personal 

pron. of the 3d pers. — their or of them; as a gen. it limits castris. castris, abl. 

plur. of the noun castrum , n.; in the sing. = fort; in the plur. = camp. 

castra, acc. plur. of castrumy -f, n. ; direct obj. of the verb ponit. ponit, 3d pers. 

sing. pres. ind. act. of pondy -erey posuiy positumy 3; connected by the conj. et with 
sequitur t and has the same grammatical construction, i.e. agrees with Caesar under- 
stood. The first part of the sentence fully expressed is: Caesar , eo die , eo intervalldy 
quo consuerat , hostes sequitur , etc. 


On that day, Cae- 
sar followed the 
enemy at the 
usual distance, 
and pitched his 
camp three miles 
from their camp. 


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170 


CAESAR’S GALLIC WAR 


[CHAP. XXIII. 


XXIII. Caesar, 
on the following 
day, thought that 
he ought to be 
on the lookout 
for a supply of 
provisions, as 
only two days 
remained until 
the time when it 
would be neces- 
sary for him to 
distribute grain 
to the army ; 
and, as he was 


XXIII. 

Postridie 

eius die!, 

quod 1 


The day after 

this day, 

because 

omnino 

biduum 

supererat, 

cum 2 

in all 

the space of two days 

remained, 

when 


exercitul frumentum metiri oporteret, 3 

to the army corn {for him) to measure out it behooved , 

et quod a Bibracte, oppido Aeduorum 4 
and because from Bibracte , a town oftheAedui 

longe maximo et copidsissimo, non 5 

by far the greatest and the richest, not 


Line i. Postridie (poster! -|- die), adv. = lit. on the day after. eius, gen. 

sing, of the dem. pron. is, ea, id; as a gen. it limits diet. diet, gen. sing, of the 

noun dies , -et, m. or f. in the sing. ; always m. in the plur. This gen. depends on the 
noun die contained in the adv. postridie. Consult A. & G. 223, IV, e, and note 2; 
B. 134; G. 372, note 3; H. 398, 5. Observe that the phrase postridie die = lit. on 
the after day of that day (pleonasm), i.e. on the next day. Observe also that, though 

postridie and pridie are accounted adverbs, they are, in fact, locative ablatives. 

quod, conj. = because , or since, or as. 

Line 2. omnino (ornnis), adv. = lit. in all. biduum, nom. sing, of the noun 

bidttum, -i, n. (bis -|- dies), biduum is the subject-nom. of the verb supererat. 

supererat, 3d pers. sing, imperf. ind. of the intrans. verb super sum, - esse , fui, futurus 
(super -J- sum) ; hence superesse = to be over, to remain, supererat agrees with its 
subject-nom. biduum. cum, conj. =when, i.e. here = at the end of which time. 

Line 3. exercitul, dat. sing, of the noun ex ercitus, -its, m.; dat. of the indirect 

obj. after metiri. frumentum, acc. sing, of the noun frumentum, -/, n. (contracted 

from frug! -+- mentum). frumentum is the direct obj. of the deponent verb metiri 

metiri, pres. inf. of the deponent verb metior, -iri, mensus, 4; its subject-acc. 

is eum, i.e. Caesarem, omitted. oporteret, 3d pers. sing, imperf. subjunctive of 

oportet, -ere, oportuit, 2 ; used impersonally, or, strictly, the infinitive-clause ex ercitui 
frumentum metiri is the subj. oporteret is subjunctive after cum temporal. See 
A. & G. 325; B. 222; G. 585; H. 521, II, 2. 

Line 4. et, cop. conj.; connects the ^w^-clauses. quod, see quod, 1. 1, 

above. a, prep, with the abl. (d before consonants only, ab before vowels or con- 
sonants). Bibracte, abl. sing, of the proper noun Bibracte , -tis, n.; abl. after the 

prep. d. Observe that neuters in -e have usually the abl. in -i, but names of towns 
in -e have -e in the abl. Observe also that Bibracte was the principal town of the 
Aedui; this town, possibly, developed into the modern Autun. Observe, moreover, 

that the prep, is required with names of towns to denote measure of distance. 

cppido, abl. sing, of the noun oppidum, -i, n.; an appositive. Aeduorum, gen. 

plur. of the adj. Aeduus , -a, -um, used substantively; as a gen. it limits oppidd. 

Line 5. longe (longus), an adv., used to strengthen the superl. mdximo. Con- 
sult A. & G. 93, d\ B. 1 1 7. 1 ; G. 303; H. 444, 3. maximo, abl. sing. n. of 

the adj., superl. degree mdximus, -a, -um; positive magnus ; comparative mdior. 

mdximo is an attributive of oppidd. et, conj. ; connects the superlatives, as if of 

equal importance. copidsissimo, abl. sing. n. of the adj. superl. copiosissimus , -a , 


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LINES 6-9.] 


BOOK I. 


171 


6 amplius 

mllibus passuum 

octodecim 

farther than 

thousands of paces 

eighteen 

7 aberat, 

rel 

frumentariae 

he was distant , 

for the thing , 

frumentary 

8 prospiciendum 

existimavit ; 

iter ab 


it ought to be provided for bethought ; (his) course from. 

9 Helvetils avertit ac Bibracte Ire 

the Uelvetii he averted and to Bibracte to go 


not more than 
fifteen miles dis- 
tant from Bi- 
bracte, by far 
the largest and 
the richest town 
of the Aedui, 
he turned his 
course away from 
the Helvetii, and 
marched rapidly 
toward Bibracte. 


-um ; positive copidsus (copia) ; comparative cdpiosior. copidsissimo is connected by 
the conj. et with mdximo , and is also an attributive of oppidd. Observe that adjectives 

ending in -osus denote fulness. nfin (ne + oenum [unum]), adv., modifies the adv. 

amplins. 

Line 6. amplius, adv., comparative degree ; positive ample or ampliter. amplius 
modifies the verb aberat. mflibus, abl. plur. n. of the indecl. adj. mille ; declin- 

able in the plur. n., and used as a neuter noun, milibus is an abl. of comparison 
after the comparative degree, quant (than) being omitted. Consult A. & G. 247 ; 

B. 163; G. 398; H. 417. passuum, gen. plur. of the noun passus , - its , m.; 

partitive gen. after mllia. See A. & G. 216, 2; B. 134; G. 370; H. 397, 2. 

octodecim, cardinal num. adj.; it is an attributive of mtlibus. Observe that the 
Arabic 18 may be expressed in Latin in three ways: (1) as in our text; (2) by 
duodevlgend ; (3) by the Roman numerals XV III. 

Line 7. aberat, 3d pers. sing, imperf. ind. of absum , - esse , abfuT or dful, 
ab(d)f uturus (ab + sum), aberat agrees with a pron. implied in the ending as sub- 

ject-nom., referring to Caesar. rel, dat. sing, of the noun res , ret , f. (stem re, 

vowel shortened in the gen. and dat. sing.). ret is dat. after prdspiciendum. 

Consult A. & G. 227; B. 142, rem. 5; G. 346, 2; H. 385, II, 1. frumentariae, 

dat. sing. f. of the adj . friimentdrius, - a , -um (friimentum) ; it is an attributive of 
the noun ret. 

Line 8. prdspiciendum, supply esse, 2d periphrastic conjugation, pres. inf. of 
prospicid , -ere, spexi , -spectum ; used impersonally ; note that this verb is both trans. 
and intrans., and that as an intrans. verb it can only be used impersonally. Consult 
A. & G. 146, d; B. 142, rem. 1; G. 208, 2; H. 465, 1. Note further that the ger- 
undive thus used denotes necessity. See A. & G. 294; B. 185; G. 251; II. 234. 

existimavit, 3d pers. sing. perf. ind. act. of exlstimo , - dre , -dvt, -dtu?n, 1 ; it 

agrees with a pron. implied in the ending, referring to Caesar, as subject-nom. The 
rigidly literal translation of rel . . . existimavit is : he thought that it ought to be pro- 
vided by himself for the thing frumentary. Of course, sibi is to be supplied as dat. 

of the agent after the gerundive. iter, acc. sing, of the noun iter, itineris, n. 

(ire, Hunt); direct obj. of dvertit. For synonyms, see 1 . 2, Chap. IX. ab, prep. 

with the abl. (a before consonants only, ab before either vowels or consonants). 

Line 9. Helvetils, abl. plur. of the adj. Helvetius , - a , -um, used substantively; 
it is the obj. of the prep. ab. As to this clan, see note on Helvetii, 1 . 16, Chap. I. 

avertit, 3d pers. sing, historical perf. of dverto , -ere, -verfi, -versum, 3; supply 

Caesar as subject-nom. ac, abbreviated from atque (ad + que); it usually adds 

a notion with emphasis ; dc is used before consonants only ; ac here connects the 
verbs dvertit and contendit. Bibracte, acc. sing, of the proper noun Bibracte , 


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172 


CAESAR S GALLIC WAR 


[CHAP. XXIII. 


This incident was 
reported to the 
enemy by fugi- 
tives from Lucius 
Aemilius, a com- 
mander of the 
Gallic horse. The 
Helvetii, whether 


contendit. Ea res 

he hastened. This thing 


L. Aemilil, decurionis 

of Lucius Aemilius, adecurion 


per 

through 

equitum 

of the cavalry 


fugitivos 10 

the deserters 

Gallorum, n 

of the Gauls, 


hostibus nuntiatur. Helvetii, seu quod 12 

to the enemy is reported . The Helvetii, whether because 


-its, n. ; it is the acc. of the limit of motion after the verb ire. See A. & G. 258, b ; 

B. 174; G. 337; II. 380, II; and consult note on Bibracte , 1. 3, above. Ire, pres. 

inf. of the verb eo , ire , ivi (it), ituni ; complementary, depending on contendit. See 

A. & G. 271 ; B. 181 ; G. 423; II. 533, I, 1. 

Line 10. contendit, 3d pers. sing. perf. ind. of the verb contends , - ere , - tendi , 
•ten turn, 3; it agrees with the noun Caesar , to be supplied, as subject-nom. ; or, 
better, connect it with avertit by the conj. dc, and note that it is in the same gram- 
matical construction. For an explanation of the various meanings of this verb, see 
note on contendunt, 1. 18, Chap. I. Observe the omission of the conj. (asyndeton) 
before iter, i.e. before a clause coordinate with the preceding, and consult A. & G. 
346, c; B. 122, rem. 6; G. 473, rem.; II. 636, I, 1. Observe, further, that, so far as 
form goes, dvertit and contendit might be in the pres, tense; we infer that they are 
historical perfects from the doctrine of coordination and connection. As we look to 
the next sentence which is connected logically, not grammatically, with the preceding 

clause, represenidtiS fronts us ; the verb nuntidtur is the historical pres. Ea, 

nom. sing. f. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id. ea is an attributive of res. res, nom. 

sing, of the noun res, rei, f. res is subject-nom. of the verb nuntidtur ; it refers to 

the fact of Caesar’s changing his course. per, prep, with the acc. fugitives, 

(fugere, to flee), acc. plur. of the adj .fugitivus, -a, -urn, used substantively, fugi - 
tivos is the obj. of the prep, per, denoting agency as a noun. See A. & G. 246, b; 

B. 166, rem. 1; G. 401 ; H. 415, I, 1, note 1. fugitivos = not the cavalry, but 
slaves. See Chap. XXVII. 

Line ii. L., an abbreviation of Liictt, gen. sing, of Lucius , -it, m., praenomen. 

Aemilil, gen. sing, of the proper noun Aemilius , -ii, m.; a distinguished Roman 

nomen. But in the text, the name of Lucius Aemilius designates a Gallic cavalry 
officer in charge of a squad of ten men designated as decurio. L. Aemilii as a com- 
plex proper noun is a poss. gen. limiting fugitivos. decuriSnis, gen. sing, of the 

noun decurio, -onis, m. (decern through decuria ); an appositive of L. Aemilii. A 
decurid was originally a commander of a decuria : a squad of ten men ; but in Cae- 
sar’s time the centurid commanded the turma or troop consisting of thirty-two horse- 

.men. equitum, gen. plur. of the noun eques, - itis , m.; as a gen. it limits the 

noun decurionis. Gallorum, gen. plur. of the noun Galli , -drum ; as a gen. 

Gallorum limits equitum. 

Line 12. hostibus, dat. plur. of the noun hostis , -is, m. and f. hostibus is the 
indirect obj. of nuntidtur. A. & G. 225, e; B. 140; G. 345, under Passive Form; 

II. 384, I. nuntiatur, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. pass, of the verb nuntiS, -dre, -dvt, 

-dtum ; pass, parts: nuntior, -dri , -atus, 1. nuntiatur agrees with its subject-nom. 

res. Observe that nuntio is often spelled nuncio. Helvetii, nom. plur. m. of the 

adj. IJelvetius, -a, -urn; used substantively. Helvetii is subject-nom. of the verb 

coeperunt, 1. 21, below. seu or sive (si + ve), alternative conj.; seu . . . seu % or 

sive . . . sive = whether ,,, or. quod, causal conj. 


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Lines is-16.) 


BOOK I. 


173 


13 timore _ perterrit53 Romanos discedere a 

by alarm terrified the Homans to withdraw from 

14 se exlstimarent, eo magis, quod 

themselves they thought , for this reason the more , because 

is pridie superioribus locls occupatls 

on the day before the higher places having been occupied 

ie proelium n5n commisissent, slve eo, 

a battle they did not join, or for this reason , 


Line 13. timore, abl. sing, of the noun timor, - oris , m. timore is an abl. of 
cause after the perf. pass, participle perterritos . Consult A. & G. 245, and 2, b\ 
B. 165, and rem. 4; G. 408, note 2; II. 416, and note i. Synonyms : timor =f ear 
that results from cowardice or weakness ; whereas meius = fear that results from 

caution or reflection. perterritSs, acc. plur. m. of the perf. pass, participle per - 

territus , -a, - urn of the verb perterred, - ere , -ui, - itum , 2 ; as a participle it modifies the 

noun Romanos. Romanos, acc. plur. of the adj. Romanus , -a, -um, used as a 

substantive. Romdnos is the subject-acc. of the inf. discedere. discedere, pres. 

inf. act. of the verb discedo , -ere, -cessi, -cessum, 3 (dis -f- cedere = lit. to go apart). 
a, prep, with the abl. (d before consonants only, ab before vowels or consonants). 

Line 14. se, abl. plur. of the reflexive personal pron. sui , sibi, se, se (same form 
in sing, and plur.). se is the obj. of the prep, a; it refers to the subject-nom. of 

existimdrent. exlstimarent, 3d pers. plur. imperf. subjunctive of the verb 

existimo, -dre, -dvi, -dtum, 1 ; it agrees with a pron. implied in the ending as its sub- 
ject-nom., referring to Helvetii; it is in the subjunctive mode, because the statement 
is based on Caesar’s conjectures. Consult A. & G. 341, d, and rem.; B. 198, (b), and 
245, (£); G. 541 ; H. 516, II, and 528, 1. Observe that when a speaker thus repeats 
his conjectures, as if they were of doubtful authority, the discourse is practically 

oblique. eQ, abl. sing. n. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id; abl. of cause after magis ; 

lit. eo — on account of this (thing). The ed is the herald of the following quod- clause. 

magis, adv., comparative degree ; positive multo {mu Itum) ; superl. mdxime . 

Observe that magis is modified by eo, and that eo is modified by the first quod- 

clause, as a species of appositive — an explanatory modifier. quod, conj. = 

because. 

Line 15. pridie, adv. (pris+die). pridie modifies the verb commisissent. 

superioribus, abl. plur. of the comparative adj. superior, -oris; positive superus; 
used in plur. as a noun — superi = the gods above / superl. supremus or summus. 

superioribus is an attributive of locis. locis, abl. plur. of the noun locus, - i , m. in 

sing. ; in the plur. loci, m., or loca, n. For difference of meaning, see note on loci, 
1 . 10, Chap. II. locis is abl. absolute, with the perf. pass, participle denoting con- 
cession. occupatls, abl. plur. m. of the perf. pass, participle occupdtus , -a, -um 

of the verb occupo, -dre, -dvi, -dtum, 1 ; abl. absolute with locis. 

Line 16. proelium, acc. sing, of the noun proelium, -i, n. ; it is the direct obj. 

of the verb commisissent. non (ne + oenum [unum], apocopated), adv. ; note its 

normal Latin position — immediately before the word it modifies. commisissent, 

3d pers. plur. pluperf. subjunctive of the verb committo, -ere, -misi, -missum, 3 (com 
+ mittere = lit. to join together); it agrees with a pron. implied in the ending as its 


they thought 
that the Romans, 
struck with panic, 
were withdraw- 
ing from them, 
and this all the 
more, because the 
day before, al- 
though occupy- 
ing the higher 
position, they yet 
did not engage 
in battle, or for 


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174 


oaesak’s gallic war 


[CHAP. XXIII. 


this reason, be- 
cause they were 
confident that the 
Romans could 
be cut off from 
their supplies, 
the Helvetii, I 
say, changing 
their plan and 
altering their 
course, began to 


quod iv frumentaria intercludi posse n 

because for the thing frumentary to be hindered to be able 

conflderent, commutato consilio atque is 

they trusted , having changed (their) plan and 

itinere converso nostros a w 

the march being altered , our (men) on the side 


subject-nom., referring to the Romans, commtsissenl is in the subjunctive for the 
same reason as existimdrent , 1 . 14, above. See grammatical references there indicated. 

sive, see note on seu , 1. 12, above. eo, abl. sing, n.; abl. of cause — a herald 

of the following quod- clause. 

Line 17. quod, conj. — because. quod, the conj. with causal meaning, is really 
an adverbial acc. n. of the rel. pron. qut, quae , quod, and == as to 7 ohai, in that; it is 

often, as a conj., preceded by eo, or hoc , or proptered. re, abl. sing, of the noun 

res , ret, f. (stem re shortened in the gen. and dat. sing.) ; abl. of separation after inter- 
cludi. A. & G. 225, d; B. 160; G. 390, 2, note 3; II. 384, II, 2, ( 2 ), and footnote i. 
Of course, the obj. in the act. construction becomes the subj. in the pass., and the 

abl. of the thing is retained. frumentaria, abl. sing. f. of the adj. frumentdrius, 

-a, -um (frumentum). friimentdrid is an attributive of the noun re. intercludi, 

pres. inf. pass, of the verb intercludd , -ere, -cludt, -cliisum, 3 (inter + claudere, lit. = to 
shut between); hence intercludere = to cutoff, to hinder, intercludi is a complementary 

inf., depending on posse. Consult A. & G. 271 ; B. 181 ; G. 423; II. 533, I, 2. 

posse, pres. inf. of the intrans. verb possum , posse, potui (potis, able -J- sum) ; supply 
eds, i.e. KSmdnds, as subject-acc. 

Line 18. conflderent, 3d pers. plur. imperf. subjunctive of confido, -ere, -ftsus , 
neuter pass, or semi-deponent verb; in the subjunctive mode for the same reason as 

ex istimdrent, 1 . 14, above. See in loc. commutato, abl. sing. n. of the perf. 

pass, participle commutdtus , -a, -um of the verb commutd , -are, -dvi, -dturn, 1 ; pass 
parts: commutor, -dri, -dtus , 1. commutato is in the abl. absolute with consilio , 

denoting manner. consilio, abl. sing, of the noun consilium, -t, n. ; abl. absolute 

with the participle commutdto. Synonyms : concilium — an assembly for consulta- 
tion ; whereas consilium = the counsel taken in the assembly. There is often, how- 
ever, confusion in the use of these words. atque (ad -j- que), conj. ; it usually 

adds a more emphatic notion, and often = and also. 

Line 19. itinere, abl. sing, of the noun iter, itineris, n. itinere is in the abl. 
absolute construction with the participle converso. For synonyms, see note on iter, 

1 . 2, Chap. IX. COnversd, perf. pass, participle of the verb converts , -ere, - verti , 

-versum, 3; abl. absolute with the noun itinere. Consult A. & G. 255; B. 192; 
G. 409, 410; H. 431. Synonyms : commutdre = to change completely by some motion 
in any direction ; whereas convertere — to change by turning or wheeling around. 
But the words are often, so far as signification is concerned, used interchangeably. 

nostrds, acc. plur. of the poss. pron. noster, - tra , - trum ; used substantively ; or 

supply milites. nostros as a substantive is the direct obj. of hisequi dc lacessere. 

a, prep, with the abl. (d before consonants only, ah before either vowels or con- 
sonants). d here = on the side of, on; compare ab, 1 . 20, Chap. I. 


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LINES 20, 21.] 


BOOK I. 


175 


20 novissimo 
of the newest 

agmine Insequi 
line to follow on 

ac 

and 

lacessere 

to exasperate 

pursue and assail 
our troops in the 
rear. 

21 coeperunt. 
they began . 






1 XXIV. 

Postquam 
After that 

id 

this (thing) 

animum 
(his) mind 

XXIV. After 
Caesar noticed 
this manoeuvre 


Line 20. novissimd, abl. sing. n. of the superl. degree novissimus , -a, - urn ; 
positive novus ; compare gk. vio s. novissimd is an attributive of the noun dgmine . 

agmine, abl. sing, of the noun dgmen , -inis, n. (< agere , to set in motion) ; hence 

dgmen = a moving body , an army in motion . dgmine is the obj. of the prep. ab. 
Observe that the phrase d novissimd dgmine = on the newest or last line of an army 
in motion ; hence = on the rear, i.e. on the newest or nearest line to a pursuing 
enemy. Synonyms : dgmen as a military term = a procession of troops in a line ; 
cohors usually = the tenth part of a legion, but sometimes by synecdoche is put 
for an entire army ; copiae = troops consisting of several cohorts ; and exercitus = 

a disciplined army consisting of several legions. insequi, pres. inf. of the 

deponent verb insequor , - cutus , 3 (in + sequi = to follow on, to attack ). insequi is 

a complementary inf. and depends on coeperunt. ac, contracted from atque (ad 

+ que), conj. See note on atque , 1 . 18, above, dc connects the infinitives insequi 

and lacessere. lacessere, pres. inf. act. of the verb lacesso, -ere, -ivi (-ii), -Hum, 3 

(lacere, to move); a form of intensive verb of the 3d conjugation, but having the 
perf. and supine of the 4th. lacessere is also a complementary inf. See A. & G. 
271; B. 181; G. 423; H. 533, I, 1. 

Line 21. coeperunt, 3d pers. plur. perf. ind. of the defective verb coepi; used 
only in the perf. and cognate tenses, together with the fut. participle coepturus . 
Observe that the pass, of this verb is used with a pass. inf. coeperunt agrees with 
its subject-nom. Ilelvetii, 1 . 12, above. Note the periodic form of this long Latin 
sentence, and observe that the main clause of this sentence is : Helvetii nostros d 
novissimd dgmine insequi dc lacessere coeperunt; that this main clause is modified 
(1) by the quod . . . existimdrent-ciause, lines 12-14, above; (2) that a lacuna is to 
be supplied here thus : eoque magis id existimdrent ; that magis modifies existimd- 
rent, thus supplied ; (3) that magis is modified by eo; and (4) eo is modified by the 
second quod- clause — quod . . . commisissent, lines 14-16, above — as explanatory 
modifier; and (5) the principal clause is further modified by eo, 1. 16, above, whicn 
itself is modified by the quod-oi&xise quod . . . confiderent, lines 17 and 18, above; 
and (6) the main clause is still further modified by the abl. absolute construction : 
commfitdto consilid atque itinere converso. And observe, in fine, that these complex 
and compound modifiers of the predicate of the principal clause of the sentence have 
an adverbial force. 

Line i. Postquam (post + quam = lit. later than) = after, sometimes causal = 

since. id, acc. sing. n. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id, used substantively; obj. of 

the prep, ad in the compound advertit; id refers to the Helvetians* attack of Caesar’s 

rear-line. animum, acc. sing, of the noun animus, -i, m.; direct obj. of vertit, 

a part of the compound advertit. For the construction of id and animum after 
advertit, see A. & G. 239, 2 ,b\ B. 152, rem. 2j G. 331, rem. 1; H. 376. For 
synonyms, see note on animo, 1 . 2, Chap. X. 


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176 


CAESAR S GALLIC WAR 


[CHAP. XXIV. 


of the Helvetii, 
he withdrew his 
forces to the 
nearest hill, and 
sent his cavalry 
to withstand the 
enemy’s attack. 
He himself, 


advertit, 

he turns to , 

eollem 

I hill 


copias suas 

troops his 

subducit 

draws off , 


Caesar in proximum 2 

Caesar to the next 

equitatumque, qul 3 

cavalry and, who 


sustineret hostium impetum, misit. Ipse 4 
should sustain the enemy's attack , he sent . Ilimself 


Line 2. advertit, 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. act. of adverto, -ere, - verti , - versurn , 3; 
it agrees with a pron. implied in the ending as its subject-nom., referring to Caesar, 

Cdpias, acc. plur. of the noun copia , - ae , f. (con + ops) ; in the sing. = abundance ; 

in the plur., troops, cdpias is the direct obj. of the verb subducit. suas, acc. 

plur. f. of the poss. and reflexive pron. suus , -a , -um; it is an attributive of cdpias , 

but refers to Caesar. Caesar, -aris, m., subject-nom. of the verb subducit. 

Observe the order of the words, and how the emphasis is indicated by putting the 

direct obj. before the subj. in, prep, with the acc. and abl. ; here it takes the 

acc. after a verb of motion. For difference of signification, see note on in, 1 . i. 

Chap. I. proximum, acc. sing. m. of the adj. superl. degree proximus, -a, -uni ; 

the comparative is propior ; no positive; stem, however, is seen in the ad prope, 
near, proximum is an attributive of the noun eollem. 

Line 3. eollem, acc. sing, of the noun collis, -is, m. eollem is the obj. of the 
prep. in. Observe (a) that the abl. sing, of collis ends regularly in -e; that the gen. 
plur. is collium ; (b) that collis (radical seen in celsus, participle of cello, which = lit. 
driven to a high place) should not be confounded with nidus, whose radical is 
seen in mindre and eminere, and which gives the notion height as the essential mean- 
ing of the word ; although collis sometimes = the larger hill or the small mountain. 
If collis should not be confounded with mons, much less should nidus be confounded 

with collis , and rendered hill in the English tongue. subducit, 3d pers. sing. 

pres. ind. act. of subdued, -ere, -duxt, -ductum (sub -f- ducere) ; hence subducere — to 

lead from below. equitatumque (equitatum -|-que). equitatum , acc. sing, of the 

noun equitdtus, -us, m.; it is the direct obj. of the verb misit. que, enclitic conj.; it 

connects the verbs subducit and misit. qui, nom. sing. m. of the rel. pron. qui, 

quae, quod ; it refers to equitdtum as its antecedent, but is the subj.-nom. of sustineret. 

Line 4. sustineret, 3d pers. sing, imperf. subjunctive of the verb sustineo, -ere, 
-ui, - tentum , 2 (sub + tenere) ; hence sustinere — lit. to hold up from beneath, sus- 
tineret is in the subjunctive, because in a subordinate clause expressing purpose after 
qui —is ut. Consult A. & G. 317, 2 ; B. 233, 1 ; G. 630; H. 497, I. Observe that this 

relative clause expresses the purpose of misit. hostium, gen. plur. of the noun 

hostis , -is, m. and f. ; poss. gen. limiting impetum. Synonyms : hostis = lit. a stranger; 
then transf. = a public enemy; whereas inimicus (in, negative -|- amicus) = a private 

foe. impetum, acc. sing, of the noun impetus, -us, m. (in -f- petere, to fall); 

hence impetus — the falling on one, the attack, the onset, impetum is the direct obj. 

of sustineret. misit, 3d pers. sing. perf. ind. act. of the verb mitto, -ere, mist, 

missum, 3; it is connected by the enclitic -que appended to equitdtum with the verb 
subducit, and has the same subject-nom., namely Caesar. Observe the confusion of 
tenses, representdtio gives advertit — probably pres. — and subducit, historical pres- 
ent; while there is a change in the point of view between subducit and the historical 
perf. This change in the point of view in the same sentence creates liveliness of 
expression ; but such sudden change of tense sequence is not to be very frequently 
imitated by the modern writer of Latin prose. Ipse, nom. sing. m. of the 


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LINES 6-7.] 


BOOK I. 


177 


s interim 
meantime 

6 instruxit 

drew up 

7 sed in 

but on 


in colle medio triplicem aciem 

in the hill middle of , three-fold line 

legiSnum quattuor veteranarum, 

of the legions four veteran, 

summo iugo duas legiones, 

the top of the ridge the two legions , 


meanwhile, mar- 
shaled, half way 
up the hill, a 
triple line, con- 
sisting of the four 
veteran legions ; 
but he ordered 
the two legions 


intensive pron. ipse, - sa , - sum , gen. ipsius, dat. ipst; it refers to Caesar; is expressed 
for emphasis ; and is the subject-nom. of the verb instruxit. 

Line 5. interim, adv. (inter + im for eum, i.q. intend). in, prep, with the 

acc. and abl.; here it takes the abl. See note on in , 1 . 1, Chap. I. colle, abl. 

sing, of colli s, -is, m.; it is the obj. of the prep. in. See note on collem , 1 . 3, above. 

medio, abl. sing. m. of the adj. medius , - a , -um ; medio is an attributive of colle; 

but, in use, is here a species of partitive. Consult A. & G. 193; B. 128, rem. 9; 
G. 291, rem. 2; H. 440, note 1. Observe that colle medio might be used without 
the prep, in; see A. & G. 258,/, 2; B. 170, rem. 2; G. 388; II. 425, II, 2, note 2. 
Observe, further, that the phrase in colle medio = lit. in the middle of the hill , i.e. half 

way up the hill. triplicem, acc. sing. f. of the adj. triplex , - ids (tres + plicare, 

to weave , compare gk. ttXIku)-, hence triplex = lit. triple-ruoven. aciem, acc. sing. 

of the noun acies, -el, f. (compare gk. &kIs = the edge of a thing); transf. acies = the 
edge of an army , the line of battle. Usually, each legion was drawn up in three lines. 
aciem is the direct obj. of the verb instruxit. 

Line 6. instruxit, 3d pers. sing. perf. ind. act. of instruo , -ere, - struxi , - structum , 3 
(in + struere, to build); hence instruere — lit. to build on. instruxit agrees with its 

subject-nom. ipse. legidnum, gen. plur. of the noun legio , -on is, f. (legere, to 

choose) ; hence legio = lit. a chosen number, a levy. The legion, from 3000 to 6000 
strong, was the unit of the Roman army organization; it, was divided into ten cohorts. 
For further description, see the article Legion in any of the encyclopedias, legidnum 
is a poss. gen. of material limiting the noun aciem. Consult A. & G. 214, e\ B. 131, 
rem. 1 ; G. 368, rem.; H. 396, V. quattuor, num. adj., cardinal ; it is an attrib- 
utive of the noun legidnum. veteranarum, gen. plur. f. of the adj. veterdnus , -a, 

-um (vetus, digammated from £ros). veterdndrum is also an attributive of legidnum . 
These veterans were the 7th, 8th, 9th and 10th legions. 

Line 7. sed, the strongest of the adversative conjunctions; at expresses a mere 
contrast ; and the postpositive autem merely adds a different notion without contra- 
diction, and frequently merely designates a transition. in, prep, with the acc. 

or abl.; here it takes the abl. For various meanings, see note on in, 1 . 1, Chap. I. 

summo, abl. sing. n. of the adj. summus, - a -um ; positive superus, comparative 

superior, superl. supremus or summus. summo is an attributive of the noun iugo. 

iugo, abl. sing, of the noun iugum, -i, n. (iungere, to join), iugo is the obj. of 

the prep. in. Observe that iugum = lit. a yoke ; but that in a transf. sense it means 
many things; in the text it = the highest ridge of the mountain. Most commonly, 
as an epithet of a mountain it has reference to breadth or range ; whereas mons has 

reference to height. duas, acc. plur. f. of the numeral adj. duo, -ae, -o (compare 

gk . or di 'to). Note that the first three cardinals — unus, duo and tres — are 
declined; but that the remaining cardinals up to centum are indeclinable, duds . is 
an attributive of the noun legiones. These two legions were the nth and 12th. See 

lines 13 and 14, Chap. X. legidnes, acc. plur. of the noun legio, -onis, f. See note 

on legidnum , 1. 6, above, legidfies is subject-acc. of collocdri , 1. 9, below. 


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178 


caesar's gallic war 


[CHAI\ XXIV. 


which he had 
lately levied in 
citerior Gaul and 
all the auxiliaries 
to be stationed 
on the very crest 
of the ridge, and 
the entire moun- 
tain to be cover- 
ed with men, and 


quas 

which 


in Gallia citeriore 

in Gaul nearer 


proxime 8 

last 


conscripserat, et omnia auxilia collocarf, 9 

he had enrolled , and all the auxiliaries to be stationed , 


ac totum montem hominibus compleri 10 

and also the entire mountain with men to be filled 


Line 8. quas, acc. plur. f. of the rel. pron. qui, quae , quod ; it refers to legidnes 
as its antecedent in gender and number, but quds is the direct obj. of conscripserat. 

in, prep, with the acc. or abl. ; here it takes the abl. Gallia, abl. sing, of 

the proper noun Gallia , - ae , f. ; it is the obj. of the prep. in. citeriore, abl. sing. 

f. of the adj. citerior , -us, comparative degree; superl. citimus; citeriore is an attrib- 
utive of Gall id. Observe that the phrase in Gal lid citeridre = in Gallia Cisalpind , 
i.e. Gaul on the south side of the Alps — the side nearest to Rome. Ancient Gaul 
was divided into two parts by the historians: Gallia ulterior and Gallia citerior. The 
ulterior was Gaul on the west side of the Alps. Gallia citerior is often referred to 
as Gallia Cispaddna and Gallia Transpaddna, i.e. Gaul south, or Gaul north, of the 

river Po. proxime, adv. (adj .proximus); it modifies the verb conscripserat. Note 

that adverbs are regularly formed from adjectives of the first and second declension 
by changing the stem-vowel to - e ; stem of proximus is proximo. Singularly, the adv. 
proxime , superl. in form, is itself compared thus: proxvne (proxume), comparative 
proximius. 

Line 9. conscripserat, 3d pers. sing, pluperf. ind. act. of the verb conscribo, -ere, 
- scripst , - scriptum , 3 (con + scribere) ; hence conscribere = to call together by writing, 
to summon , to enroll, conscripserat agrees with a pron. implied in its ending as sub- 

ject-nom., referring to Caesar. et, cop. conj. ; it here connects the nouns legidnes 

and auxilia. omnia, acc. plur. n. of the adj. omnis , -e ; an adj. of the third declen- 

sion, an /-stem, parisyllabic, and of two terminations, declined like levis or mitis . 

omnia is an attribute of the noun auxilia. auxilia, acc. plur. of the noun auxi- 

lium , -it, n. (augere, to increase), auxilia is connected by et with legidnes, and is in 
the same grammatical construction, i.e. it is subject-acc. of collocdri. Observe that 
auxilia , in military usage = auxiliary troops , enrolled from the Roman allies, and 

were light-armed ; hence often used in contrast with legionary troops. collocari 

or conlocdri, pres. inf. pass, of col(n)loco , -dre, -avi, - dtum , 1 ; pass, parts : collocor , 
-dri, - dtus , 1 (con -|- locare = lit. to place together). 

Line 10. ac, conj.; shortened form of atque ; adds a notion, usually, of more 

importance ; it here connects the infinitive-clauses. totum, acc. sing. m. of the 

adj. iotus, -a, -urn, gen. todus, dat. toti. totum is an attributive of montem. For 

synonyms, see note on totius , 1 . 7, Chap. II. montem, acc. sing, of the noun 

rnons , montis, m. (from radical min, as seen in mindri and in eminere). See note on 

collem, 1. 2, above, montem is subject-acc. of compleri. hominibus, abl. plur. of 

the noun homo, hominis, m. and f. (kindred with humus, gk. x a M a ** an d the Hebrew 
adam ); hence homo == etymologically, the earth-born being ; possibly, as the Hebrew 
adam indicates, the ruddy being, hominibus is the abl. of means after compleri. 

Consult A. & G. 248, 2; B. 167, 3; G. 405; H. 421, II. compleri, pres. pass. inf. 

of the verb compled, -plere, -plezd, -pletum, 2 ; pass, parts: compleor , -eri, - pletus , 2 ; its 
subject-acc. is montem. Observe that the four acc. infinitive-clauses in lines 10-13 
depend on the verb iussit, 1. 13, below. 


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LINES 11-13.1 


BOOK I. 


179 


11 et interea sarcinas in unum locum 

and meantime (soldiers') packs into one place 

12 cdnferrl, et eum ab his, qul in 

to be brought and that (place) by those , who in 

13 superiore acie constiterant, muniri iussit. 

the higher line had stood, to be protected he ordered. 


meanwhile the 
soldiers* person- 
al baggage to be 
collected in a 
park, and the 
park to be de- 
fended by those 
men who were 
stationed in the 
upper line. The 


Line ii. et, conj.; connects the infinitives compleri and cdnferrl. interea, 

adv. (inter + ea) ; it modifies the verb cdnferrl. sarcinas, acc. plur. of the noun 

sarcina, -ae, f. (sarcire, to mend); usually in the plur. sarcinae, -drum, f. ; sarcinds 
is the subject-acc. of the verb cdnferrl. Synonyms : sarcitiae = the baggage of the 
individual soldier ; whereas impedimenta = the baggage of an army — the baggage- 

train including the animals. in, prep, with the ,acc. or abl. ; here it takes the 

acc. after a verb of motion, and = into. unum, acc. sing. m. of the cardinal adj. 

units, -a, -urn, gen. unlus , dat. uni. unum is an attributive of locum. locum, 

acc. sing, of the noun locus, - 1 , m. ; plur. loci, m., or loca, n. t but with difference of 
meaning. See note on loci, 1 . io, Chap. II. 

Line 12. cdnferrl, pres. inf. pass, of the verb conferd, ferre, -tuli, -col (or ton)- 
latum ; its subject-acc. is sarcinds. Observe that this infinitive-clause is connected 

by et with the preceding, and like that depends on iussit, 1. 13, below. et, cop. 

conj.; connects the infinitives conferri and muniri, 1. 13, below. eum, acc. sing. 

m. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id, used substantively; or supply locum, which latter is 

subject-acc. of muniri, 1. 13, below. ab, prep, with the abl. (d before consonants 

only, ab before vowels or consonants). This prep, usually —from; but after 

passive verbs with the abl. of the agent it = by. his, abl. plur. of the dem. 

pron. hie , haec, hoc , used substantively, his is here the abl. of the agent with the 
prep, ab, after the passive verb muniri. Consult A. & G. 246; B. 166; G. 401 ; 
H. 415, I. Observe that the reference in his is to legiones, 1 . 7, above, i.e. the two 

new legions. qul, nom. plur. of the rel. pron. qui, quae , quod; it refers to his 

as its antecedent, but is subject-nom. of constiterant. in, prep, with the acc. or 

abl. ; here it takes the abl. 

Line 13. superiore, abl. sing. f. of the adj., comparative degree superior, -us ; 
positive superus ; superl. supremus or summus. superiore is the attributive of the 

noun acie. acie, abl. sing, of acies, -ei, f. ; it is the obj. of the prep. in. Compare 

in superiore acie with in summo iugo, 1 . 7, above. Cdnstiterant, 3d pers. plur. 

pluperf. ind. act. of the verb ednsisto , -ere, -stiti, - stitum , 3; it agrees with its subject- 

nom. qui. muniri, pres. inf. pass, of the verb munio, -ire, -ivi (-ii), -itum, 4 

(moenia); hence muni re = lit. to defend with walls. The subject-acc. of muniri is 
eum, 1. 12, above, used as a substantive; or, better, locum, to be supplied, with which 

eum as an adj. agrees. iussit, 3d pers. sing. perf. ind. act. of the verb tubed, -ere, 

iiissi, ids sum, 2 ; its subject-nom. is a pron. implied in the ending, referring to 
Caesar. The critical reader will observe that the text in lines 7-10, above, is dif- 
ferent in different copies of Caesar that may come under his notice. Some copies 
after veterdndrum, 1 . 6 , above, read: ita, supra se . . . collocdret: ac totum, etc. 
Others read: veteranarum, atque suprd eds . . . cSnscripserat ; et omnia, etc. Others 
still after veterdndrum read: [ita uti suprd] ; sed, etc., precisely like the reading 
which is given in this edition. 


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180 


caesar’S Gallic war 


[CHAP. XXIV. 


Helvetii follow- 
ed with all their 
carts, and park- 
ed their imped- 
imenta; and the 
men themselves, 
after repelling 
our cavalry and 
forming a phal- 


Helvetii 

cum 

omnibus 

suis 

earns u 

The Helvetii 

with 

all 

their 

carts 

secuti, 


impedimenta 

in 

uniim 15 

having followed, 

(their) heavy baggage 

into 

one 


locum contulerunt; ipsl confertissima is 

place brought; themselves in the closest 

acie, reiecto nostro equitatu, phalange 17 

array , having been repulsed our cavalry , a phalanx 


Line 14. Helvetii, nom. plur. of the adj. Helvetius , -a, - um, used substantively. 

Helvetii is subject-nom. of the verb contulerunt '. cum, prep, with the abl. of 

accompaniment. omnibus, abl. plur. of the adj. omnis, -e, an i-stem, declined 

like levis; omnibus is an attributive of earns. suis, abl. plur. of the poss. and 

reflexive pron. suus, -a, - urn ; it also is an attributive of the noun c arris ; it refers to 

the subject of the proposition — Helvetii. cams, abl. plur. of the noun carrus , 

-t, m., or carrum y -t, n. ; abl. of accompaniment after the prep. cum. Consult A. & G. 
248, a ; B. 168, REM. 4 ; G. 392 ; H. 419, I. The reference in earns is to the heavy 
two-wheeled carts on which the Gallic impedimenta were carried. 

Line 15. secuti, nom. plur. m. of the perf. participle of the deponent verb 
sequor, -i, secutus, 3 (sibilated from the gk. stem iic, as seen in ivofiat). seciiti y as a 
participle, agrees with the noun Helvetii. Observe that deponent verbs have the 

participles in both voices, e.g. sequens = following; secutus — having followed. 

impedimenta, acc. plur. of the noun impedimentum y - i y n. (in + pes, through the verb 
impedire = lit. to entangle the feet); hence impedimentum = lit. a hindrance ; in 
Caesar’s use of the plur., impedimenta = the baggage-train , inclusive of animals. 

impedimenta is the direct obj. of contulerunt. in, prep, with either the acc. or 

abl. ; here it takes the acc. after a verb of motion, and = into. For signification, 

compare note on in, 1 . 1, Chap. I. unum, acc. sing. m. of the cardinal num. adj. 

unus , -a, -urn, gen. unius , dat. uni; unum is an attributive of the noun locum. 

Line 16. locum, acc. sing, of the noun locus, -i, m.; but see note on loci, 1 . 10, 
Chap. II. locum is the obj. of the prep. in. Compare in unum locum conferri, 

lines 1 1 and 1 2, above. contulerunt, 3d pers. plur. perf. ind. act. of conferb, -ere, 

contuli, col(n)ldtum (con -f- ferre = lit. to bring together), contulerunt agrees with its 

subject-nom. Helvetii. ipsl, nom. plur. of the intensive dem. pron. ipse, -sa, -sum, 

gen. ipsius, dat. ipsi. ipsi refers to the Helvetii ; is expressed for emphasis ; and is 

the subject-nom. of the verb successerunt. ednfertissima, abl. sing, of the adj., 

superl. degree confertissimus, -a, -um ; positive confertus, comparative confertior . 
confertus is, in fact, a participle of the verb cdnfercio, no perf. act., confertum, 4 
(con -f- farcere, to cram); hence the participle confertus = lit. pressed together, i.e. thick, 
close, conf ertissimd is an attributive of the noun acie. 

Line 17. acie, abl. sing, of the noun dcies, -ei, f. (compare deer, sharp, and the 
gk. &kIs). acie is an abl. of manner. Consult A. & G. 248; B. 168; G. 399 ; H. 419, III. 
Synonyms : acies = an army in line of battle; whereas dgmen ( agere)=an army in 

motion, while ex ercitus = a trained army. reiecto, abl. sing. m. of the perf. pass. 

participle reiectus , -a, -um of the verb reicio, -ere, - ieci , -iectum, 3 (re + iacere = lit. 
to hurl back), reiecto is in the abl. absolute construction with the noun equitatu, 

denoting the time when. nostro, abl. sing. m. of the poss. adj. pron. noster, - ira , 

•trum (nos); it is an attributive of the noun equitdtu. equitatu, abl. sing, of the 


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LINES 18 , 19 .] 


BOOK I. 


181 


is facta, sub primam nostram 

having been formed, close to first our 

19 successerunt. 

they advanced . 


aciem 

line 


anx, advanced to 
our lowest line in 
closest array. 


1 


XXY. Caesar primum 

Caesar first 


suo, deinde 

his own (horse), then t 


2 omnium ex conspectu remotis equis, 

of all from sight being removed the horses , 


XXV. Caesar, 
having first sent 
out of sight his 
own horse, and 
next the horses 
of all his aids, 


noun equitatus, -us, m. (equus through the verb equito); it is in the abl. absolute 

with the perf. pass, participle reiecto. phalange, abl. sing, of the noun phalanx , 

-ngisy f. (gk. (f>d\a y£, -ayyos). phalange is in the abl. absolute construction with the 
perf. pass, participle factd. Observe that the Greek acc. plur. of phalanx is pha- 
langasy and that phalanx = lit. a li?ie of troops , originally, but in later usage = troops 
in a solid mass. Probably there was only a very general resemblance between the 
phalanx of the Greeks and that of the Gauls ; from the next chapter, it would seem 
to be some sort of arrangement for keeping their lines unbroken by means of inter- 
locking their shields, when they met the onsets of the heavily-armed Roman legions. 

Line i 8. facta, perf. pass, participle, f. of the verb fio y fieri, f actus, used as the 
pass, of facid, -ere, feci, factum, 3. factd is in the abl. absolute construction with 
the noun phalange , denoting the time when. Consult A. & G. 255, d, 1 ; B. 192 ; G. 409, 

410 ; H. 431, 1. sub, prep, with the acc. or abl. ; here it takes the acc. after a verb 

of motion, and = close to. primam, acc. sing. f. of the adj., superl. degree 

primus, -a y -um ;. comparative prior (stem seen in the prep. prae). primam is an 
attributive of the noun aciem. As primam , lit. the first \ was nearest to the enemy, 
primam here =the lowest. Compare the phrase a novissimo agmine , lines 19 and 20, 

Chap. XXIII. nostram, acc. sing. f. of the poss. adj. pron. noster , - tra , -trum 

(nos), nostram is also an attributive of aciem. aciem, acc. sing, of the noun 

aciesy -ei, f. (see acie, 1. 17, above), aciem is the obj. of the prep, sub , denoting 
motion to. Consult A. & G. 152, c ; B. 120. 3 ; G. 418, 2 ; H. 435, 1. 

Line 19. successerunt, 3d pers. plur. perf. ind. of the neuter verb succedo, -ere, 
-cessiy - cessum , 3 (sub -f- cedere = lit. to go under), successerunt agrees with its subject- 
nom. ipsiy 1 . 16, above. Observe that the prep, sub in the phrase sub . . . aciem merely 
repeats and adds some degree of emphasis to sub in the compound sub(c)cessh"Ufit. 

Line i. Caesar, -aris, m., subject-nom. of the verb commisit , 1 . 5, below. 

primum, adv. (really, an adverbial acc. of the adj. primus , - a , -um) ; usually, as 

here, primu?n denotes the first in a series ; whereas primo = first in a contrast. 

suo, abl. sing. m. of the poss. pron. suus t - a , -um; it is an attributive of equo , to be 
supplied, which equo supplied is in the abl. absolute construction with remotdy to be 
supplied from the following remotis equis. As to the abl. absolute, consult A. & G. 

255; B. 192; G. 409, 410; H. 431, and 2. deinde, adv. (de-j- inde) = lit . from 

thence ; it indicates the second of the series. 

Line 2. omnium, gen. plur. m. of the adj. omnis , -e ; an /-stem; omnium is here 
used substantively; it limits the noun equis; or, if preferred, equitu?n might be sup- 
plied. ex, prep, with the abl. (e before consonants only, ex before vowels or 

consonants). conspectu, abl. sing, of the noun conspectus , -us, m. (conspicere. 


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182 


caesar’s gallic war 


[CHAP. xxv. 


in order that, by 
equalizing the 
danger of all, 
he might de- 
stroy the hope 
of flight, cheered 
his men with 
hopeful words 
and engaged in 
battle. His sol- 
diers, hurling 


ut aequatS omnium perlculS 

that being made equal , of all , the peril, 

fugae tolleret, cohortatus 

of flight he might take away , having encouraged 

proelium commlsit. Milites e 

the battle he joined. The soldiers from 


spem 3 
the hope 

suos 4 
his (men) 

loco 5 
the place 


perf. pass, participle conspectus = gazed at), hence conspectus , as a noun = sight, 
conspectu is the obj. of the prep. ex. Synonyms: adspectus = looking at, act.; 

whereas cdnspectus = the sight of, the appearance, pass. remotis, abl. plur. m. of 

the perf. pass, participle of the verb removed, -ere, - movi , -mo turn, 2; abl. absolute 

with equis. equis, abl. plur. of the noun equus , -i, m. (compare Gk. frriros). 

equis is in the abl. absolute construction with the participle remotis. 

Line 3. ut, telic conj. = /w order that. aequatd, abl. sing. n. of the perf. 

pass, participle aequdtus, -a, -urn of the verb aequo , -dre , -dvi, - dtutn , 1 (aequus) ; abl. 

absolute with periculd. omnium, gen. plur. of otnttis , -e, used substantively ; it 

limits the noun periculd. See note on omnium, 1 . 2, above. periculd, abl. sing. 

of the noun periculum, -i, n. (contracted periclum ; lit .= trial; transf. danger; for 
radical, see experior). periculd is in the abl. absolute construction with aequdto. 

spem, acc. sing, of the noun spes, -ei, f. (stem spe, vowel shortened in gen. and 

dat. sing.). spe?n is the direct obj. of the verb tolleret. 

Line 4. fugae, gen. sing, of the noun fuga , -ae, f. (gk. <f>vy ^)»* fugae, as a gen., 

limits spem. tolleret, 3d pers. sing, imperf. subjunctive of tolld, -ere, sustuli, sub - 

Idtum. tolleret agrees with a pron. implied in the ending as subject-nom., referring 
to Caesar; it is a subjunctive of purpose after ut. Consult A. & G. 317; B. 200; 
G. 545; H. 497, II. Caesar’s design was to remove all means of flight from his 

treacherous Gallic cavalry. cohortatus, perf. participle of the verb cohortor, 

-dri, - dtus , 1 ; as a participle it is nom. sing, m., and agrees with Caesar, 1 . 1, above. 

suos, acc. plur. m. of the poss. and reflexive pron. suus, -a, -um ; it is used here 

substantively; or milites may be supplied; direct obj. of the participle cohortdtus; 
participles take the same cases as their verbs ; as cohortdtus is the participle of a 
deponent verb, it is transitive; perf. participles of deponent verbs, however, are 
sometimes used in a pass, sense. 

Line 5. proelium, acc. sing, of the noun proelium, -i, n. ; it is the direct obj. of 

commisit. For synonyms, see note on proeliis, 1 . 18, Chap. I. commlsit, 3d pers. 

sing. perf. ind. act. of committd , -ere, - mist , - missum , 3. commisit agrees with its 

subject-nom. expressed — Caesar, 1 . 1, above. Milites, nom. plur. of the noun 

miles, - itis , m. ; subject-nom. of the verb perfregerunt. e, prep, with the abl. 

(e before consonants only, ex before vowels or consonants). 10 C 5 , abl. sing. 

of the noun locus, -i, m. in the sing. ; plur. loci, m., or loca, n. See note on loci, 
1 . 10, Chap. II. loco is the obj. of the prep. e. Synonyms: locus = space as a 
point; whereas tractus == space as an expansion; while regio (regere, to make 
straight, to mark by a line) = space enclosed as if by a line, including the en- 
vironment. 


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LINES 6-8.] 


HOOK I. 


183 


6 superiore pills missis facile liostiurii 

higher , the javelins having been sent, easily the enemy's 


7 phalangem 

phalanx 

8 gladils destrictis 

swords having been drawn , 


Ea disieeta 

This being hurled apart, 

in e5s impetum 

against them an onset 


perfregerunt. 

broke through. 


their javelins 
from the higher 
position, easily 
made an opening 
through the en- 
emy's phalanx. 
When this was 
thrown into con- 
fusion, Caesar’s 
men attacked 
the enemy with 


Line 6. superiore, abl. sing. m. of the adj. superior, -, ius , gen. superioris ; positive 
superus ; superl. degree supremus or summus. superiore is an attributive of locd. 

pills, abl. plur. of the noun pilum, -i, n. pilis is abl. absolute with the perf. 

pass, participle missis , denoting the means. See A. & G. 255; B. 192; G. 409; 

II. 431. missis, abl. plur. of the perf. pass, participle of the verb mi ltd, -ere, 

misi, missum , 3 ; abl. with the noun pilis. Observe that the pilum was a missile 
weapon about six feet in length ; it consisted of a shaft and shank, the former of 
wood, the latter of iron. The shaft was about four feet long, and the shank about 
two feet long which was pointed with a triangular-shaped head of steel about nine 

inches in length. facile, adv. (adj. facilis). facile is, in fact, an adverbial acc. 

n. of the adj. facilis. Consult A. & G. 148, d; B. 117. 6; G. 91, 1, (r); H. 304, 3, 1). 

facile modifies perfregerunt. hostium, gen. plur. of the noun hostis , -is, m. and f. ; 

as a gen. it limits phalangem. Synonyms : hostis = lit. a stranger, and then transf. 
a public enemy ; inimicus (in, negative + amicus) = a private foe. 

Line 7. phalangem, acc. sing, of the noun phalanx , - angis , f. (compare the 
GK. <f>d\ ayt, and the Greek acc. pi. phalangas which is common in Latin instead of 
the regular form phalanges), phalangem is the direct obj. of the verb perfregerunt. 
In the phalanx order of battle the infantry stood in compact mass with their shields, 
vertically arranged, protecting them in front ; above their heads these shields, to 
those who were behind the first line, were interlaced and overlapped, and formed a 

protection against the missiles of the foe. perfregerunt, 3d pers. plur. perf. ind. 

act. of the verb perfringo, -ere, -fregt, f radii m, 3 (per-J- frangere = to break through ); 
with frangere compare the ok. l>liyvvfxt, the ger. brechen, and the English break. 

perfregerunt agrees with its subject-nom. milites, expressed 1. 5, above. Ea, abl. 

sing. f. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id, used substantively, referring to phalangem ; or 
supply phalange ; abl. absolute with the pass, participle disieeta, denoting time when. 

disieeta, abl. sing. f. of the perf. pass, participle disiedus, -a, -um of the verb 

disicio, -ere, -ieci, -iedurn, 3 (dis -f iacere = lit. to hurl apart); the construction is 
abl. absolute with ed. 

Line 8. gladils, abl. plur. of the noun gladius, m. ; abl. absolute with the 
perf. pass, participle destrictis, denoting the manner. Synonyms : gladius is the 
usual, and ensis the poetic name for sword; pugio = the dagger openly worn; whereas 
sica = the poniard secretly carried. The sword of the Gauls was a long, two-edged, 
unwieldy affair, carried in a scabbard suspended on the right side, so as not to 

interfere with the shield side — the left. destrictis, abl. plur. m. of the perf. 

pass, participle destrictus, -a, -um ; in the abl. absolute construction with the noun 

gladiis. in, prep, with the acc. or abl.; here it takes the acc., and = against. 

e 5 s, acc. plur. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id, used as a personal pron. of the 

3d pers. eos is the obj. of the prep. in. impetum, acc. sing, of the noun 

impetus , - us , m. ; it is the direct obj. of the verb fecerunt. 


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184 


CAESAR S GALLIC WAR 


[CHAP. XXV. 


drawn swords. It 
greatly impeded 
the Gauls in fight- 
ing that many of 
their shields were 
pierced through 
and fastened to- 
gether by a single 
thrust of the jave- 
lins ; and since 
the iron point of 


fecerunt. 

they made . 

pugnam 

the fight, 

eorum 

of their 


Gallls 

As the Gauls , 

erat impediment*), 

was, hindrance, 

scutls • uno 


magno 

for a great, 

quod 

that 

ictu. 


shields 


by one 


ad 9 

in respect to 

pluribus 10 

very many 

pll5rum u 


stroke of the javelins 


transflxls et colligatls, cum ferrum 12 

having been transfixed and bound together, since the iron 


Line 9. fecerunt, 3d pers. plur. perf. ind. act. of the verb facio -ere, feet, 
factum , 3 ; it agrees with the subject-nom. militis understood. Observe that, instead 
of using the phrase-form in eos impetum fecerunt, Caesar might with greater concise- 
ness have written : eos aggressi sunt. See Eds . . . aggressus, lines 1 3 and 14, Chap. XII. 

Gallia, dat. plur. of the adj. Gallus , -a, - um , used substantively. Gallis is the 

dat. of the object to which after erat. Consult A. & G. 233; B. 147 ; G. 356; H. 390, 1 . 

magnft, dat. sing. n. of the adj. mdgttus, -a, -um ; comparative mdior ; superl. 

mdximus. mdgnd is an attributive of the noun impedimenta. ad, prep, with the 

acc. ; it = in respect to. 

Line 10. pugnam, acc. sing, of the noun piigna , -ae, f. pugnam is the obj. of 

the prep. ad. For synonyms, see note on proeliis , 1 . 18, Chap. I. erat, 3d pers. 

sing, imperf. tense, ind. mode of the intrans. verb sum, esse, f ut, futurus ; used im- 
personally, or rather the following quod-cla.use is the subj. impediments, dat. 

of the noun impedimentum, -i, n. (in -f- pes through the verb impedio); hence the 
noun = the condition of foot-entanglement, impediment, hindrance, impediment is 
here a dat. of service after the intrans. verb erat. Consult A. & G. 233, a; B. 147, 
rem. 2; G. 356; II. 390, I. The student will observe that erat here takes two 
datives: Gallts and impedimento — the one the object to which, and the other the end 

for which. quod, conj.; here it = that; it introduces the clause quod . . . . 

poterant, which is the logical subj. of erat, immediately preceding. pluribus, 

abl. plur. n. of the comparative adj. plures, -a, gen. plurium; the sing, plus is 
declined only in the neuter ; positive multus ; superl. plurimus . pluribus is an 
attributive of the noun scuEs. For declension of plures , see A. & G. 86, and b ; 
B. 72, 7; G. 89, REMS. 1, 2, 3; II. 165, NOTE I. 

Line ii. eorum, gen. plur. of the dem. pron. is, e a, id, used as a personal pron. 

of the 3d pers. ; as a gen. it limits scuEs. scutls, abl. plur. of the noun scutum , 

-i, n. (okvtos = tanned hide, leather ). scuEs is in the abl. absolute construction with 
the perf. pass, participles trdnsftxis and collogdEs, denoting time when. Synonyms : 
scutum = the oblong wooden shield, leather-covered; whereas the clypeus, or clipeus , 

or clipeum was a round brazen shield. uno, abl. sing. m. of the cardinal num. 

adj. iinus , -a, -um ; gen. iintus, dat. uni. uno is an attributive of the noun ictu. 

ictd, abl. sing, of the noun ictus, -us, m. (icere, to strike), ictu is an abl. of manner. 

See A. & G. 248 ; B. 168; G. 399 ; H. 419, III. pflorum, gen. plur. of the noun 

pilurn, -t, n. = the heavy javelin of the Roman infantry, pildrum , as a gen., limits 
the noun ictu. 

Line 12. transflxls, abl. plur. n. of the perf. pass, participle trdnsfixus, -a, -um 
of the verb trdnsfigd, -ere, fixi, -fixum, 3 (trans -|- flgere = lit. to pierce through). 

trdnsftxis is in the abl. absolute construction with the noun scuEs. et, cop. 

conj.; connects words and phrases and clauses of equal importance, et here connects 


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LINES 13 - 15 .] 


BOOK I. 


185 


is se inflexisset, neque 

itself had bent , neither 

14 sinistra impedlta 

the left hand being impeded, 

is pugnare poterant, 

to fight were they able, 


the two participles. col(n)ligatis, abl. plur. n. of the perf. pass, participle col- 

ligdtus, - a , - um of the verb col(n)ligd, -are, -art, -dtum, i (con -f- ligare = lit. to bind 
together); colligatis is connected by the conj. et with trdnsfixis, and is in the same 

grammatical construction. cum, causal conj. ferrum, nom. sing, of ferrum, 

-i, n. = like gk. <rl 8 rjpos , anything made of iron . ferrum is the subject-nom. of the 
verb infexisset. 

Line 13. se, acc. sing, of the reflexive pron. sui, sibi, se, se — same form in both 
numbers; it refers to ferrum , and = itself ; it is the direct obj. of the verb in - 

flexisset. inflexisset, 3d pers. sing, pluperf. subjunctive act. of the verb inflecto , 

-ere, -flext, flexum, 3 (in -f- flectere = lit. to bend in); it agrees with its subject-nom. 
ferrum; it is in the subjunctive after cum causal. Consult A. & G. 326; B. 223; 
G. 586; H. 517. Observe that cum . . . inflexisset express the reason why the Gauls 

could not fight successfully. neque (ne -f- que = lit. and not); but neque . . . 

neque = neither . . . nor; in this use, a species of correlative conjunctions. When 

neque = and not, it is a conjunctive adv. evellere, pres. inf. act. of the verb 

eve lid, -ere, -velli, - vulsum , 3 (e -f- vellere = to pluck out), evellere is a complementary 
inf., depending on poterant, 1 . 15, below. See A. & G. 271 ; B. 181 ; G. 423; H. 533, 
I, 2; supply earn, i.e. ferrum, as direct obj. of evellere. neque, see neque, im- 

mediately preceding. 

Line 14. sinistra, abl. sing. f. of the adj. sinister, -tra, - trum , used substantively; 
or supply tnanu. sinistra, as a subst., is in the abl. absolute construction with the 
participle impeditd, denoting the cause. See A. & G. 255, d, 2; B. 192; G. 409, 410; 

h. 431, 2, (3). Observe that the left hand was hampered, because the soldier wore 
the shield on the left arm, and one soldier’s shield was fastened to the shield of 

another by the heavy Roman javelins that pierced it. impedlta, abl. sing. f. of 

the perf. pass, participle impeditus, -a, -um of the verb impedio, -ire, -ivi (-//), -Hum, 4 
(in -f- pcs) = 'with the foot in it; hence to ensnare, impede. impeditd is in the abl. 

absolute with sinistrd, used as a noun. satis, adv., comparative sartius = lit. 

more satisfying, i.e. better, satis as an adv. modifies the adv. commode. com- 

mode, adv. (from adj. commodus = advantageous) ; it modifies the verb pugndre. 

Line 15. pugnare, pres. inf. act. of the verb piigno, -dre, -dvi, -dtum, 1; con- 
nected by the conj. neque with evellere, and in the same grammatical construction, 

i. e. complementary inf., and depends on poterant. poterant, 3d pers. plur. imperf. 

ind. of the intrans. verb possum, posse, potui; and it agrees with Galli understood, 
as the subject-nom. multi, nom. plur. m. of the adj. multus , -a, -um, used sub- 

stantively; or supply milites ; subject-nom. of the verb praeoptarent. Observe its 
emphatic position; usually the conj. ut, in a clause of result, stands at the head of it. 

ut, ecbatic conj. diu, adv. (dies), comparative diutius, superl. diutissime. 

did, as an adv., modifies iactdtd . 


evellere neque 
to pluck it out nor, 

satis commode 

enough advantageously 

multi ut diu 
many, so that, long 


the weapon bent 
itself, the Gauls 
could neither pull 
the javelin out, 
nor, as the left 
hand was encum- 
bered with the 
shield, could they 
fight with any 
ease ; so that 


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186 


CAESAR S GALLIC WAR 


[CHAP. XXV. 


many, after toss- 
ing their arms 
about for a long 
time, preferred 
to throw their 
shields away, and 
fight without 
protection. At 
length, exhaust- 
ed with wounds, 
they began to 
fall back, and, as 
there was a moun- 


iactato braclii5 praeoptarent scutum i6 

hamng been tossed about the arm , preferred the shield 

manu emittere et nudo corpore 17 

from the hand to. throw and with the nude body 

pugnare. Tandem vulneribus defessl et is 

to fight. At length by wounds worn out both 

pedem referre et, quod m5ns suberat 19 

the foot to bear back and, because a mountain was near , 


Line 16. iactato, abl. sing. n. of the perf. pass, participle iactdtus , -a, -um of 
the verb iacto, -dre, -dvt, -dtum, i (frequentative of iacio, 3). iactato is in the abl. 

absolute construction with the noun brdchid . brachid, abl. sing, of the noun 

brdchinm y -ii y n. (compare gk. fipaxluv). brachium = lit. the forearm y but here it = 
the entire arm . brdchid is abl. absolute with the participle iactato, denoting time 

when. praeoptarent, 3d pers. plur. imperf. subjunctive of the verb praeopto, 

-dre, -dvT y -dtum, 1 (prae + optare) ; hence = lit. to wish for one thing before another 
= io prefer, praeoptareyit is subjunctive of result after ut. Consult A. & G. 319; 

B. 201 ; G. 552, 1 ; H. 500, II. scutum, acc. sing, of the noun scutum , -t, n.; it 

is the direct obj. of the verb emittere. As to derivation and synonyms, see note on 
scutis, 1. 9, above. 

Line 17. manu, abl. sing, of the noun mantis, -us, f. by exception ; see A. & G. 
69: B. 48, REM. 5, EXC. 1 ; G. 62, exc. ; H. 1 18, exc. (1.). manu is an abl. of separation 

after the verb emittere. Consult A. & G. 243, b; B. 160 ; G. 390, 2 ; H. 413. 

emittere, pres. inf. act. of the verb emitto , - ere y - mist, - mtssum , 3 (e-f- mittere = lit. 
to send out), emittere is a complementary inf., depending on praeoptarent. Consult 

A. & G. 271 ; B. 181 ; G. 423; II. 533, I, 1. et, cop. conj.; connects emittere and 

pugndre. nudo, abl. sing. n. of the adj. ntidus, -a, - um . nudo , lit. naked, is an 

attributive of the noun corpore. corpore, abl. of the noun corpus, - oris , n. ; abl. 

of manner. See A. & G. 248; B. 168; G. 399; II. 419, III. The phrase nudo cor - 
pore = with the body unprotected by a shield, i.e. without a shield. 

Line 18. pugnare, pres. inf. act. of the verb piigno, -are , -avi, - dtum , 1, pugnare 
is connected by et with emittere, and is also a complementary inf., depending on 
praeoptarent. Note that praeoptarent is transitive, and that the complementary 
infinitives, with their objects, form object-clauses, which are in the nature of direct 
objects. Note also the unique and, therefore, emphatic position of praeoptarent; 

its normal position in the sentence would be immediately after pugndre. 

Tandem, ad v. (tarn -f-dem); hence = lit. fust so far, i.e. at length, tandem modifies 

coeperunt, 1. 21, below. vu(o)lneribus, abl. plur. of vu(o)lnus, -eris, n. ; abl. of 

cause. Consult A. & G. 245, and 2, b; B. 165, and rem. 4; G. 408, and note 2; 

H. 416, and note i. defessl, nom. plur. m. of the perf. participle defessus, -a, 

-um of the deponent defetiscor, -t, -fessus , 3, agreeing with Gallt understood — the 
omitted subject of coeperunt, 1 . 21, below. But note that defesst is a perf. participle 
of a deponent verb ; it is here used in a passive sense. et, a species of cor- 

relative conj. here, followed by another et connecting the object-clauses. 

Line 19. pedem, acc. sing, of the noun pes, pedis, m. ; direct obj. of the verb 
referre. referre, pres. inf. act. of the verb refero, -ferre, - tuli , - latum . Observe 


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LINES 20-22.] 


BOOK I. 


187 


20 circiter nrille passuum spatio, e5 

about a thousand of paces in respect to space, thither 

21 se recipere coeperunt. Capto 

themselves to betake they began . Being reached 

22 monte et succedentibus nostris, Boil 

the mountain and coming on our (men), the Boii 


tain near — about 
a mile off — they 
began thither to 
retreat. When 
the mountain had 
been reached by 
the enemy, ana 
our men were 
approaching it in 
pursuit, the Boii 


that this inf. with its direct obj. forms an object-clause that depends on coeperunt. 
Observe, further, that pedem referre = lit. to bear the foot back , i.e. to retreat; and = 
terga vertere or terga dare , except that pedem referre = to retreat in good order; 

whereas terga vertere or terga dare ■= generally, to retreat in confusion . et, see 

note on et, preceding line ; but note that et here connects the object-phrases pedem 

referre and se recipere. quod, conj., causal (really an adverbial acc. of the rel. 

pron. qui, quae , quod, and =as to which, in that, because). mdns, nom. sing, of 

the noun mdns, motitis, m. (from the root min, as seen in minari , eminere, lit. a pro- 
jecting object), mdns is the subject-nom. of the verb suberat. suberat, 3d pers. 

sing, imperf. ind. of the intrans. verb subsum, -esse, no perf., futurus (sub+ sum); 
hence subesse = lit. to be under, i.e. near , or at hand, suberat agrees with its subject- 
nom. mons. 

Line 20. circiter, adv. (circus, circum—a circular line, in a ring, compare 

GK. slpKo s). circiter modifies the adj. mille. mille, an indecl. adj. in the sing.; 

but sometimes used as a noun in the nom. and acc. sing., e.g. in the phrase mille 
passuum, of the text, mille is here an acc. of extent of space. A. & G. 257 ; B. 153; 

G. 335 ; H. 379. passuum, gen. plur. of the noun passus, -us, m. passuum is 

partitive gen. after mille. See A. & G. 216, 2; B. 134; G. 370; H. 397, 2. 

spatio, abl. sing, of the noun spatium, -it, n. (compare English space), spatio is abl. 

of specification. Consult A. & G. 253; B. 162; G. 397; II. 424. eo, adv. (old 

dat. of the pron. is, ea, id); supply loco, and the phrase eo loco = to that place, 
thither, eo refers to mdns. Observe that, as often place by metonymy = the persons 
at the place, eo may sometimes in English = on it, him or them, as the context may 
require. 

Line 21. se, acc. plur. of the reflexive pron. sut, sibi, se, se — same form in both 
numbers; se refers to the subj. of the proposition, but is the direct obj. of recipere. 

recipere, pres. inf. act. of the verb recipio, -ere, -cept, -ceptum, 3 (re -f- capere) ; 

hence recipere = to take back; with se — to take one's self back — to retreat. 

coeperunt, 3d pers. plur. of the defective verb coept, coepisse , fut. participle coepturus; 
with the exception of the fut. act. participle used only in the perfect and cognate 
tenses, act. and pass.; when followed by a pass. inf. the pass, form coeptus sum is 
used instead of coepi. coeperunt agrees with its subject-nom. Galli, to be supplied. 

Capto, abl. sing. m. of the perf. pass, participle captus, -a, -urn of the verb 

capio , -ere, cept, captmn , 3. capto here = occupd/o, and is in the abl. absolute con- 
struction with the noun monte , denoting time when. See A. & G. 255, d, 1 ; B. 192; 
G. 409, 410; II. 431, I, 2, (3). 

Line 22. monte, abl. sing, of the noun mdns, montis, m. ; abl. absolute with the 
perf. pass, participle capto. et, cop. conj.; connects the phrases. succeden- 

tibus, abl. plur. m. of the pres, participle succedens, -ntis of the verb succedo, -ere, 
-cessi, -cessum, 3 (sub -f- cedere) = lit. to go under, succedentibus is in the abl. absolute 


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188 


CAESAR 8 GALLIC WAR 


[CHAP. XXV. 


and Tulingi who, 
with about fifteen 
thousand men, 
closed the ene- 
my's line and 
served as a rear- 
guard, attacked, 
on the unprotect- 
ed flank, our 
soldiers while 
still advancing, 


et Tulingi, qul hominum mllibus 23 

and the Tulingi, who with, of men, thousands 

circiter qulndecim agmen hostium 24 

about fifteen, the line of march of the enemy 

claudebant et novissimls praesidio 26 

closed, and to the newest (the rear) for a protection 

erant, ex itinere nostros a latere aperto 26 

were, on the march ours on the flank open , 


construction with nostrls , used substantively; or supply militibus. nostris, abl. 

plur. m. of the poss. pron. noster , - tra , - trum ; used substantively, and abl. absolute 
with the pres, participle succedentibus , denoting time when. See grammatical ref- 
erences to Cap to, preceding line. B5ii, -drum, m., a Celtic people, occupying a 

district lying between the rivers Loire and Allier; some of them settled in Cisalpine 
Gaul; otners migrated to Germany; while others cast in their lot with the Helvetii, 
and were with them on this migration. Boil is subject-nom. of the historical inf. 
circumvenlre , 1 . 27, below. 

Line 23. et, cop. conj.; it here connects Boil and Tulingi. Tulingi, -orum, 

m., a German tribe east of the Rauracl. Tulingi is connected by the conj. et with 

the proper noun Boil, and is in the same grammatical construction. qui, nom. 

plur. m. of the rel. pron. qul, quae , quod; it refers to the Boil et Tulingi, and is the 

subj. of the verb claudebant. hominum, gen. plur. of the noun homo, - inis , m. 

or f.; partitive gen. after mllibus. See A & G. 216, 2; B. 134; CL 370; II. 397, 2. 

For synonyms, see note on homines, 1. 20, Chap. I. mllibus, abl. plur. of rnilia, 

-, ium , plur. of the adj. mille ; in the plur. it is used as a nenter noun, mllibus is the 
abl. of accompaniment without the prep. cum. Consult A. & G. 248, a, note; 
B. 168, rem. 4; G. 399; II. 419, III, 1, x). 

Line 24. circiter, adv. (circus, circum ) = about; circiter modifies the cardinal 

num. adj. qulndecim. qulndecim, num. adj. (quinque + decern), qulndecim is 

an attributive of mllibus, used as a noun. agmen, acc. sing, of the noun dgmen, 

-inis, n. (agere, to agitate), dgmen is the direct obj. of the verb claudebant. For 

synonyms, see note on dgmen, 1. 9 , Chap. XV. hostium, gen. plur. of the noun 

hostis, hostis, m. and f.; as a gen. it limits the noun dgmen . Synonyms: hostis — a 
public enemy; inimlcus (in -f- amicus) = a private foe. 

Line 25. claudebant, 3d pers. plur. imperf. ind. act. of the verb claudo, -ere, 
clausl, clausum , 3; it agrees with its subject-nom. qul. et, cop. conj.; it con- 
nects the two clauses. novissimls, dat. plur. n. of the adj. superl. degree novis- 

simus, -a, -um ; positive no?>us ; comparative wanting, novissimls is here used 
substantively ; or we may supply agminls = lit. the newest, i.e. latest, last; hence = 

the rear, novissimls is the dat. of the obj. to which after erant. praesidio, dat. 

of the noun praesidium, -il, n. (praeses). praesidio is the dat. of service or dat .for 
which after erant. Consult A. & G. 233, a; B. 147, REM. 2; G. 356; H. 390, I. 

Line 26. erant, 3d pers. plur. imperf. ind. of the intrans. verb sum, esse, fut, 
futurus; it is connected by the conj. et with the verb claudebant, and has the same 

subject-nom. qul. ex, prep, with the abl. (e before consonants only, ex before 

vowels or consonants). itinere, abl. sing, of the noun iter, itineris, n. (Ire, itum); 

hence = lit. a going, itinere is the obj. of the prep. ex. nostros, acc. plur. of 


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LINES 27 - 29 .] 


BOOK I. 


189 


27 aggress! circumvenlre ; et id 

having attacked, to surround (them tried) ; and that 

28 conspicatl Ilelvetii, qu! in montem 

having seen , the Ilelvetii , who to the mountain 


29 sese receperant, 

themselves had betaken , 


rursus instare et 

again to press on and 


and tried to sur- 
round them. On 
observing this 
manoeuvre, the 
Helvetii, whohad 
retreated to the 
mountain, began 
again to draw 
near and renew 


the poss. pron. noster , - tra , - trum , used substantively, or supply milites; nostros is 

the direct obj. of the deponent participle ag(d)gressi. a, prep, with the abl. 

(d before consonants only, ah before vowels or consonants). d here = on . See 

note on ab, 1 . 24, Chap. I. latere, abl. sing, of the noun latus , - eris , n. latere is 

the obj. of the prep. d. aperto, abl. sing. n. of the participle apertus , -a , um of 

the verb aperto , -ire, -til, - pertum , 4 (ab + parere). aperire = lit. to bring forth — to 
drop as of animals ; hence in participle = uncovered \ bare, apertd is an attributive 
of the noun latere. 

Line 27. aggressi, perf. participle of the deponent verb ag(d)gredior , -gredi, 

-gressus (ad -f* grad!) = lit. to take a step toward; hence — to attack. circumvenlre, 

pres. inf. act. of the verb circumvenio , -Ire, -vent, - veutum , 4 (circum 4* venio) = lit. 
to come around; hence = to surround; historical inf. having as its subject-nomina- 
tives Boil and Tuliugi , or we may supply condti sunt. Consult A. & G. 275; B. 182, 
and rem.; G. 647, and note i ; II. 536, 1. Supply eos as direct obj. of circumvenlre , 
and observe that the historical inf. = circumvenebant — conative imperf. Some 
texts read here circumvenere , 3d pers. plur. perf. ind.; and some texts have not 
even a comma between circumvenlre and et; the inf., of course, is made in this 

construction to depend on coeperunt ', 1. 30, below* et, cop. conj.; it connects the 

sentences. id, acc. sing. n. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id, used substantively ; the 

direct obj. of the deponent participle conspicdU. id refers to the movement of the 
Boil and the Tulingi. 

Line 28. conspicatl, nom. plur. of the perf. participle cdnspicdtus , -a, -um of 
the deponent verb conspicor, -dri, - cdtus , 1 ; as a participle it agrees with the noun 

Ilelvetii in gender, number and case. Helvetii, nom. plur. of the adj. Helvetius, 

-a, -um, used substantively. Helvetii is the subject-nom. of the verb coeperunt, 1 . 30, 

below. As to this clan, see note on Helvetii , 1 . 16, Chap. I. qui, nom. plur. of 

the rel. pron. qui, quae, quod; it refers to the noun Helvetii ; it is the subj. of the 

verb receperant. in, prep, with the acc. or abl. ; here it takes the acc. after a 

verb of motion. For different significations, see note on in, 1 . 1, Chap. I. 

montem, acc. sing, of the noun mons, montis , f. (root in min dri, and in eminere); 
hence lit. it = a projecting body. Observe that the i in the root min is short by 
nature. Query : How does the i which passes into 0 in the stem mont become, in 
any case, long by nature? montem is the obj. of the prep. in. 

Line 29. sese, acc. plur. of the pron. se reduplicated; acc. plur. of the reflexive 
pron. sui, sibi, se, se — same form in both numbers, sese is the direct obj. of the 

verb reciperant. receperant, 3d pers. plur. pluperf. ind. of the verb recipio , -ere, 

-cepi, - ceptum , 3 (re + capere) ; hence = lit. to take back ; transf. = to get back. But 
lit. se recipere — to take one's self back, to withdraw, to go anywhere; in military lan- 
guage, to retreat, receperant agrees with its subject-nom. qui. rursus, adv.; 

another form rursum (contracted from revorsus, a participle of revortor, -i,^ver\yor\ 
sus, 3) ; hence rursus = lit. turned back , i.e. = again , anew. instare, pres. inf. 


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190 


caesar’s gallic war 


[CHAP. xxv. 


the battle. The 
Romans wheeled 
and advanced to 
the attack in two 
divisions: the 
first and second 
lines, to oppose 
the Helvetii who 
had been pre- 
viously vanquish- 
ed and routed; 


of the verb ins to, -stare, -stiff, fut. participle -staturus (in -f- stare) ; hence instdre = 
lit. to stand on or near, i.e. to press on, be urgent instdre is here a complementary 
inf., depending on coeperunt. Consult A. & G. 271 ; B. 181 ; G. 423; H. 533, I, 1. 
et, cop. conj.; it connects the infinitives instdre and redintegrdre. 

Line 30. proelium, acc. sing, of the noun proelium, -/, n.; it is the direct obj. of 

the verb redintegrdre. For synonyms, see note on proeliis, 1 . 18, Chap. I. 

redintegrare, pres. inf. act. of the verb redintegro, -are, -dvt, -dtum, 1 (re[d]+ in- 
tegrare [in + tangere], through integer); hence integrare — lit. to be untouched , i.e. 
sound ; and with re- = to be whole again; i.e. to recover their courage — to renew the 
fight, redintegrdre is connected by the conj. et with the inf. instare, and is in the 

same grammatical construction ; depends on coeperunt. coeperunt, 3d pers. 

plur. of the defective verb coepi, which is used only in the perf. and cognate tenses. 
See note on coeperunt, 1 . 21, above, coeperunt agrees with its subject-nom. Helvetii , 
1 . 28, above. Romani, nom. plur. of the adj. Rdmdnus, -a, -urn, used substan- 

tively. Romdni is the subject-nom. of the verb intulerunt . 

Line 31. conversa, acc. plur. of. the perf. pass, participle conversus, -a, -um of 
the verb converto, -ere, -verff, -versum, 3. conversa, as a participle, agrees with the 

noun signa. signa, acc. plur. of the noun signum, -i, n. (sibilated from the 

gk. elKiuv, an image, a likeness); hence = lit. that by which anything is known ; in 
military language = the sign of a division of an army, a standard, signa is the 
direct obj. of the verb intulerunt Observe the strictly lit. translation of the phrase 

conversa signa ; it = the standards having been turned about bipertito, adv. 

(bis -f- partltus [pars]) ; hence bipertito = in bipartition, i.e. in two parts, ways, direc- 
tions. intulerunt, 3d pers. plur. perf. ind. act. of the verb infero, -ferre , -tuli, 

-Idtum. intulerunt agrees with its subject-nom. Romani. Observe that the lit. 
translation here of Romdni conversa signa bipertito intulerunt = The Romans bore in 
the standards having been turned about in two parts, i.e. The Romans wheeled about 
and advanced in two directions. The reader will observe that the rear, or third line, 
wheeled about and attacked the Boii and Tulingi who were approaching the Roman 
rear; while the second and third lines engaged the Helvetii who were approaching 
the Romans from the mountain to which they had retreated. It is interesting to 
note the technical military phrases in use among the Romans, in which ferre and 
compounds play a part, signa ferre = to march ; signa inferre = to bear the stand- 
ards into the fray, to advance to the attack; while signa referre = to retreat; and 
signa conferre = to engage in a conflict. 

Line 32. prima, nom. sing. f. of the ordinal adj. primus, -a, -um ; superl. degree 
primus; comparative degree prior, prius. prima is an attributive of the noun acies. 

et, cop. conj.; connects the adjectives prima and secunda. secunda, nom. 

sing. f. of the adj. secundus, -a, -um. secundus is properly a participle of the verb 


proelium redintegrare coeperunt. Romani 30 

the battle to renew began. The Homans (then) 

conversa signa bipertito intulerunt ; 31 

turned about standards in two divisions advanced (bore in) ; 

prima et secunda acies, ut vlctls 32 

the first and second line , that the vanquished 


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LINES 33, 34.] 


BOOK I. 


191 


33 ac submotls resisteret, tertia, 

and dislodged it might resist , the third , 

34 venientes sustineret. 

(those) coming it might withstand. 

l XXVI. Ita ancipitl proeli5 

Thus in the two-headed battle 


Ut the third line, to 
withstand the 
that shock of the Boii 
and Tulingi who 
were then ap- 
proaching the 
Romans* unpro- 
tected flank. 


diu 

long 


XXVI. Thus 
this double-front- 
ed battle was 


sequor = following ; hence = next, second , in time or order, secunda is connected 
by et with pritna, and has the same grammatical construction; it is an attributive 

of acies. acies, nom. sing, of the noun acies, -el, f. (d*f$, the edge of a thing); in 

military language = the line of battle, acies is the subject-nom. of intulit , to be 
supplied. As the first and second lines did not wheel, but faced the enemy only, 

sign a intulit fills the lacuna here. ut, telic conj. here. victis, dat. plur. m. 

of the perf. pass, participle vlctus, -a, -uni of the verb vinco, -ere, vici, victum. vlctls 
is used substantively here, and is in the dat. after resisteret — a verb of resistance 
that takes the dat. Consult A. & G. 227 ; B. 142 ; G. 346; II. 385, 1. Of course these 
participles here used may be regarded as such, and be made to agree with hostibus , 
to be supplied; which latter, in that case, would be datives after resisteret. 

Line 33. ac, shortened form of atque (ad + que) ; usually adds a more emphatic 

notion. submotls, dat. plur. of the participle submotus, -a, -um of the verb 

submoved, -ere, -, movi , -mdtum (sub -f* movere). submdtis is connected by the conj. dc 
with vlctls, and is in the same grammatical construction. Observe that these 
participles are essentially predicative, and are equivalent to a relative and a finite 

verb. resisteret, 3d pers. sing, imperf. subjunctive of the verb resistd , -ere , 

-■ stiti , - stitum , 3 ; it agrees with a pron. implied in the ending as subject-nom., 
referring to acies ; it is the subjunctive of purpose after ut, telic. Consult A. & G. 

317; B. 200; G. 545, 3; H. 497, II. tertia, nom. sing. f. of the ordinal adj. 

teriius, -a, -uni ; it is the attributive of acies , to be supplied; which latter is the 
subject-nom. of intulerit, to be supplied. Indeed, the full lacuna here to be supplied 

is : tertia acies conversa sign a intulerit , as the tertia acies only wheeled about. 

ut, telic conj. 

Line 34. venientes, acc. plur. of the pres, participle veniens, -ntis of the verb 
venid, -ire, vein, ventum, 4; venientes agrees with eos, i.e. Boios et Tulingos , to be 

supplied, eos thus supplied is the direct obj. of sustineret. sustineret, 3d pers. 

sing, imperf. subjunctive of the verb sustineo, -ere, -ul, - tentum , 2 (sub + tenere) ; 
hence = lit. to hold up from beneath, i.e. to sustain; sustineret is the subjunctive of 
purpose after ut, telic. Observe that, as to the position of the parties, the Romans 
fronted the west; the Helvetii, the east; while the Boii and Tulingi from a northerly 
direction were approaching the Romans on the right, or unprotected flank ; that the 
Roman forces were drawn up' in three parallel lines; that the first and second lines 
were striving to resist the renewed attack of the Helvetii, who had been previously 
routed and driven off; and that the third line, by wheeling to the right, were meet- 
ing the flank attack of the Boii and Tulingi. 

Line i. Ita, adv. (radical /, whence is 4* ta); hence = in such a manner ; here 
the adv. = as thus described; and the writer immediately repeats the idea in ancipiti 
proelio. ancipitl, abl. sing. n. of the adj. anceps, ancipitis , abl. always ending in 


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192 


CAESAIt’s GALLIC WAR 


[CHAP. XXVI. 


fought long and 
courageously. 
When the enemy 
was unable to en- 
dure longer the 
onsets of our 
soldiers, one par- 
ty — the Helve- 
tii — retreated to 
the mountain, as 
they had begun; 


atque acriter pugnatum est. Diutius cum 2 

and bitterly it was fought. Longer when 

sustinere nostr5rum impetus non possent, 3 

to sustain our ' attacks not they were able , 

alter! se, ut coeperant, in montem 4 

the one themselves , as they had begun , to the mountain 


i (a contraction from ambo -+- caput = lit. double-headed) ; hence sometimes = doubt- 
ful, and double, ancipiti is an attributive of proelio. proelio, abl. sing, of the 

noun proelium , -//, n. (pro or prae + ire) ; proelio is an abl. of manner See A. & G. 
248; B. 168; G. 399; H. 419, III. proelium is often written praelium. For syn- 
onyms, see note on proelils , 1 . 18, Chap. I. diu (dies), adv.; comparative diutius. 

Line 2. atque (ad -f- que), conj.; adds a notion of greater importance usually; 

it here connects the adverbs diu and dcriter. acriter, adv. (adj. deer , sharp) ; 

formed by adding -ter to the stem dcri. Observe that there are three adverbs and 

one adverbial phrase preceding the verb pugndtum est , and modifying it. 

pugnatum est, 3d pers. sing. perf. ind. pass, of the verb pugno, -are, -avi, - dtum , i ; 
here pugtidtum est is strictly an impersonal verb = it was fought; but as it is here a 
verb of complete predication with proelio , it may be rendered as if proelio were 
proelium — the subject-nom. For synopsis of pugndtum est, as an impersonal verb, 

see A. & G. 145; B. 114, 115; G. 208, 2; H. 301, 1. Diutius, adv. ; comparative 

degree of diu (dies); superl. degree diutissime. diutius modifies the verb sustinere. 

cum, conj., historical. Observe that both cum and diutius are made emphatic 

by exchange of positions. 

Line 3. sustinere, pres. inf. act. of the verb sustineo, -ere, -ut, -tentum, 2 (sub -f- 
tenere). sustinere is a complementary inf., depending on possent. Consult A. & G. 

271 ; B. 181 ; G. 423; H. 533, I, 2. nostrorum, gen. plur. m. of the poss. pron. 

noster, -tra, - trum , used substantively, or supply militum ; as a gen. it limits impetus. 

impetus, acc. plur. of the noun impetus, -its, m. impetus is the direct obj. of 

sustinere. non (ne -f- oe[u]num, apocopated), adv.; it modifies possent. Observe 

its natural position immediately before the word it modifies. possent, 3d pers. 

plur. of the intrans. verb possum, posse , potui (potis, able + sum) ; it agrees with its 
subject-nom. Galli or hostes understood, possent is in the subjunctive after cum, 
denoting both time and cause. Consult A. & G. 325; B. 222; G. 585; H. 521, II, 2. 

Line 4. alter!, nom. plur. m. of the pron. alter, -era, - erum , gen. alterius, dat. 
alteri; observe that alterius has the ictus on the antepenult, alteri refers to one 
division — the Ilelvetii; it is the subject-nom. of receperunt. As to synonyms, 
consult note on alius , 1 . 13, Chap. I. alteri . . . alteri, as in the text = the one party 

. . . the other party . se, acc. plur. of the reflexive pron. sui, sibi, se, se — same 

form in both numbers, se refers to the subj. of the proposition, but it is the direct 

obj. of the verb receperunt. ut, adv. = as, and generally when used with the 

ind. coeperant, 3d pers. plur. pluperf. ind. act. of the defective verb coepi, fut. 

participle coepturus; used in the perfect and cognate tenses; it agrees with a pron. 

implied in the ending as subject-nom., referring to Galli or hostes. in, prep. 

with either the acc. or abl. ; here it takes the acc. ; after a verb of motion it = into. 


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LINES 5 - 7 .] 


BOOK I. 


193 


5 receperunt, 

betook , 

alter! 
the other 

ad impedimenta et 

near the baggage-train and 

e carr5s 

suds 

se 

contulerunt. Nam hdc 

carts 

their, 

themselves 

collected . For in this 

7 toto 

proelid, cum 

ab horn septima 

whole 

battle, 

, though 

from hour the seventh 


the other party 
— the Boii and 
Tulingi — made 
towards the bag- 
gage and the 
waggons. For 
during this entire 
battle, although 
it lasted from one 
o’clock till eve- 


For different significations of the prep., see note on in, 1. i, Chap. I. montem, 

acc. sing, of the noun mons, montis, m. (root in mindri and eminere ); hence mdns=. 
a projecting body. 

Line 5. receperunt, 3d pers. plur. perf. ind. act. of recipio y -ere y -cepi, - ceptum y 3 
(re -f- capere) ; hence = to take back ; with se = to withdraw y to retreat, receperunt 
agrees with a pron. implied in the ending as subject-nom., referring to Galli or hostes . 

alter!, nom. plur. m. of the adj. pron. alter ; see note on alteri^ preceding line. 

alteri here = Boii et Tulingi. Observe that, as alteri in the preceding line refers to 
one division of the enemy, alteri here denotes the other division, alteri here is the 

subject-nom. of the verb contulerunt. ad, prep, with the acc. impedimenta, 

acc. plur. of the noun impedimentum , -i y n. (in + pes through the verb itnpedio). 
impedimenta is the obj. of the prep. ad. Observe that impedimenta — the baggage of 

an army, including horses and carts ; whereas sarcinae = personal baggage. 

et, cop. conj. 

Line 6. carr5s, acc. plur. of the noun carrus y m. ; sometimes the form car- 
rum y -/, n., occurs ; but not in Caesar, carrds is connected by the conj. et with 
impedimenta , and is in the same grammatical construction. The lexicons teach us 
that carrus is a Gallic word, and denotes a species of four-wheeled waggon. A copy 
of notes in my possession pictures it as a two-wheeled affair. The lexicons are 

supposed to be true sources of information. suds, acc. plur. of the poss. and 

reflexive pron. suus y -a t -urn; it agrees, logically, with both impedimenta and carros, 

but grammatically only with the latter. se, acc. plur. of the reflexive pron. sui y 

sibi y se y se-~ same form in both numbers; se is the direct obj. of the verb contulerunt '. 

contulerunt, 3d pers. plur. perf. ind. of the verb confero, -ferre y -tuli y col(n)ldtum . 

contulerunt agrees with a pron. implied in the ending as subject-nom., representing 
'Galli or hostes. Observe the words se receperunt y lines 4 and 5, above, and compare 
them with se contulerunt. Etymologically, se receperunt = they took themselves back ; 
while se contulerunt = they brought themselves together. Practically, however, these 
forms of expression are identical in meaning, i.e. they = the English they retreated 
in an orderly manner. He uses these modes of expression to indicate that there 
was no disorder. If Caesar had wished to express that idea, he would have written 
fiigerunt. Nam, conj.; introduces the following statement to explain the pre- 

ceding statements as to the orderly retreat. Observe that nam introduces an 

objective reason; whereas enivi a subjective. h6c, abl. sing. n. of the dem. pron. 

hic y haec y hoc; hoc is an attributive of the idea involved in the phrase toto proelid. 

Line 7. t5t5, abl. sing. n. of the adj. totus , -a y - um y gen. toHus y dat. toti. toto is 

an attributive of the noun proelid. proelid, abl. sing, of - the noun proelium y - ii 9 n. 

(prae or pro -f- ire). For derivation and synonyms, see note on proeliis y 1. 18, Chap. I. 
proelid is a locative abl. of manner without a prep. See A. & G. 258,/, 2 ; B. 170, 
rem. 2 ; G. 388; II. 425, II, 1, 1), and 2. Observe that the English word throughout gives 


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194 


CAESAR S GALLIC WAR 


[CHAP. XXVI. 


ning, no one could 
see the back of 
an enemy. Till 
late at night, 
even up to the 
baggage, the 
battle raged, be- 
cause the enemy 


ad 

vesperum 

pugnatum sit, 

aversum s 

to 

evening 

it was fought, 

turned away 

hostem 

videre 

nemo potuit. 

Ad multam 9 

an enemy 

to see , 

no one was able. 

Till much 

noctem 

etiam ad 

impedimenta pugnatum est 10 

night 

even to 

the baggage-train 

it was fought, 


the idea of toto in the complex phrase: hoc toto proelio; and that the best English 

for the entire phrase is : throughout this battle. cum, concessive conj. = though 

ox although. Consult A. & G. 326; B. 223; G. 587; H. 515, III. Observe that the 
////^-notion is involved in cum concessive, but it has largely faded out ; so also 
the causal notion ; the concessive notion can only be ascertained by considering the 
construction, and also the sense. Sometimes, however, we are aided in our deduc- 
tions by noticing a tauten expressed, as an adversative, in the principal clause. 

ab, prep, with the abl. (ab before vowels or consonants, d before consonants only). 

hdra, abl. sing, of the noun hora, -ae , f. (gk. &pa). hdrd is the obj. of the prep. 

ab. septima, abl. sing, of the ordinal adj. septimus, -a, -urn (scptem, compare 

gk. iirra). septima is an attributive of the noun hdrd. Observe that, as the day, 
among the Romans, was reckoned as twelve hours, from sunrise to sunset, the hours 
were of varying lengths, according to the season of the year; and that ab hord 
septima, according to our mode of designating time = 1 h. 15 m. o’clock. 

Line 8. ad, prep, with the acc. ; usually = to or toward ; but here it = until. 

vesperum, acc. sing, of the noun vesper , va peris or vesperi , m. (compare 

ok. ?<nrepo$); abl. vespere , or adverbially vesperi. vesperum , as an acc., is the obj. 
of the prep. ad. pugnatum sit, 3d pers. sing. perf. subjunctive; a verb of com- 

plete predication, used impersonally ; see note on pugndtum est, 1. 2, above ; sub- 
junctive after cum concessive; see grammatical references to cum, preceding line. 

aversum, acc. sing. m. of the participle dversus , -a, - urn of the verb dverto , -ere, 

- verst , -versum, 3. aversum agrees with the noun hostern. 

Line 9. hostem, acc. sing, of the noun hostis , hostis , m. and f. hostem is the 
direct obj. of the verb videre. Synonyms: hostis = lit. a stranger; transf., a public 
enemy ; whereas inimicus (in -j- amicus) — a private enemy. Observe that dversuty 

hostem = lit. an enemy turned away, i.e. in flight. videre, pres. inf. act. of the 

verb video, -ere, vidi, visum, 2 (digammated from radical IS, as seen in the 2d aorist 
participle IS&v). videre is a complementary inf., depending on potuit. Consult 

A. &. G. 271 ; B. 181 ; G. 423; H. 533, I, 2. nemo, nom. sing, of the noun nemo, 

neminis (ne + homo), nemo is subject-nom. of potuit. But observe that the gen. 

neminis and the abl. nemine are not used ; instead, nullius and n ul Id are used. 

potuit, 3d pers. sing. perf. ind. of the intrans. verb possum, posse, potui (potis -f- sum). 

potuit agrees with its subject-nom. nemo. Ad, prep, with the acc. ; not towards 

here; that would be expressed by the prep, sub; as sub vesperum would = toward 

evening ; but ad here, like ad in the phrase ad vesperum —till. multam, acc. 

sing. f. of the adj. mulius, -a, -um ; comparative degree plus; superl. degree p lit rim us. 
multam is an attributive of noctem. 

Line 10. noctem, acc. sing, of the noun nox, noctis, f. (compare ok. vv%, wtcrSt). 
noctem is the obj. of the prep. ad. Observe that the phrase ad multam noctem — to 

or till much night , i.e. till far in the night. etiam (et -f~ iam), conj. adv. ; here 

with ad it — even up to. impedimenta, acc. plur. of impedimentum , -i, n. (in -+- 


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BOOK I. 


195 


LINES 11-13.] 


11 propterea 

quod 

pr5 

vallo 

carros 

for this reason 

because 

for 

a rampart the carts 

12 obiecerant 

et 

e 

loco 

superiore 

they had opposed 

and 

from 

the place 

higher 

13 in nostros venientes 

tela 

coniciebant, 

against our 

(men) 

coming, 

weapons 

they threw. 


had placed in 
front their wag- 
gons as a ram- 
part; and from 
them, as a high- 
er position, kept 
hurling their mis- 
siles on our men, 
as they were com- 
ing up ; and some 


pes through the verb impedio); it is the obj. of the prep. ad. pugnatum est, 

3d pers. sing. perf. ind. pass, of the verb pugno , -are, -dvi, -dtutn, 1 ; pass, parts : 
pugtior , -dri, - atus , 1. See note on pugnatum est, 1 . 2, above. 

Line ii. propterea (propter ea), adv. = lit. on account of these things ; hence 
sometimes — therefore; the long d in the ultima is anomalous. Here proptered — 
for this reason, and is the herald, so to speak, of the following quod- clause; it is 

often better omitted in the translation. quod, here a conj. — because ; quod is 

really an adverbial acc. sing. n. of the rel. pron. qui, quae, quod = in respect to what, 
in that, because, quod is frequently preceded by hdc and ob hanc causam, as well as 

by proptered. pr5 (gk. irpb), prep, with the abl. vallo, abl. sing, of the noun 

vdllum, -i, n. valid is the obj. of the prep. pro. pro valid — lit. for a defense. 
Primarily vdllum = a palisaded rampart; hence = a wall, a rampart ; compare 

English wall. carros, acc. plur. of the noun carrus, -i, m. carros is the direct 

obj. of the verb obiecerant. See note on carros, 1 . 6, above. 

Line 12. obiecerant, 3d pers. plur. pluperf. ind. of obicio, -icere, -ieci, -iectum, 3 
(ob + iacere) ; hence ob icere = lit. to throw or set against, obiecerant agrees with a 
pron. implied in the ending as subject-nom., referring to Galli or hostes understood. 
It will be recalled that the term Galli in Caesar often includes the Ilelvetii and 

other racially allied nations or clans. et, cop. conj.; connects obiecerant and 

coniciebant, 1. 13, below. e, prep, with the abl. (e before consonants only, ex 

before vowels or consonants). loc5, abl. sing, of the noun locus, -i, m. ; plur. 

loci, m., and loca, n. See note on loci, 1 . 10, Chap. II. loco is the obj. of the prep. e. 

super io re, abl. sing. m. of the adj. comparative degree superior , - ius , gen. -oris; 

positive superus; superl. supremus or summus. superidre is an attributive of the 
noun loco. 

Line 13. in, prep, with the acc. or abl.; here it takes the acc., and = against. 

nostros, acc. plur. of the poss. pron. noster, -ira, drum, used substantively ; or 

supply milites. nostros, as a subst., is the obj. of the prep. in. venientes, acc. 

plur. m. of the participle veniens, -ntis of the verb venio, -ire, vent, ventum, 4; 
venientes agrees with the pron. nostros used as a noun, and is an attributive participle 
denoting the attendant circumstances. Consult A. & G. 292; B. 191, 1; G. 668; 
H. 549, 4. It will be observed that the participle thus used is the equivalent of a 

relative clause, and is essentially predicative. tela, acc. plur. of the noun telum , 

-i, n. tela is the direct obj. of the verb coniciebant. Observe that telum was a 
weapon for fighting at a distance ; while arma = arms for defense or close fighting. 
But arma is a broad term denoting weapons of any kind, arma is usually derived 

from gk . &pu>, to fit to, i.e. = armor; but transf. it = implements of war — arms. 

coniciebant, 3d pers. plur. imperf. ind. act. of the verb conicio, -ere, - ieci , - iectum , 3 ; 
connected by */with obiciebanl, and in the same grammatical construction. 


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196 


[CHAP. XXVI. 


caesar’s gallic war 


kept thrusting up 
from below their 
lances and jave- 
lins between the 
waggons and 
wheels, and thus 
kept wounding 
our soldiers. Af- 
ter fighting a long 
time, our men 
gained posses- 
sion of the ene- 
my’s baggage 


et nonnulli inter- carros rotasque mataras u 

and some between the carts wheels and , lances 

ac tragulas subiciebant, nostrosque is 

and javelins hurled from beneath , our (men) and , 

vulnerabant. Diu cum esset pugnatum, ie 

they wounded. For long when it had been fought, 

impedlmentls castrlsque nostrl 17 

of the baggage-train camp and , our (men) 


Line 14. et, cop. conj.; connects the verbs coniciebant and subiciebant \ 1 . 15, 

below. nonnulli, nom. plur. of the adj. ndnnullus , -a , -um (non -f nullus) ; hence 

ndnnullus = not none, i.e. some ; the two negatives = a positive, ndnniilli is used 
substantively; or milites may be supplied; and is the subject-nom. of the verb 
subiciebant. inter, prep, with the acc. carros, acc. plur. of the noun carrtts , 

m. ; but see note on carros , 1. 6, above, carros is here the obj. of the prep, inter . 
rotasque (rotas + que) ; rotas is the acc. plur. of the noun rota , - ae , f. ; con- 
nected closely by the enclitic conj. -que with the noun carros , and in the same gram- 
matical construction. Observe that rota — lit. a wheel; compare the English rotary ; 

sometimes rota — pars prd tdio — = a car. mataras, acc. plur. of the noun 

matara , - ae , f. (a Celtic word = a species of heavy javelin), mataras is a direct obj. 
of the verb subiciebant. 

Line 15. ac, shortened form of the conj. atque (dc only before consonants in 
classical Latin) ; like atque , dc usually adds a notion of more importance, dc in our 

text connects matards with tragulds. tragulas, acc. plur. of the noun tragula , 

-ae y f. (a Celtic word) ; it is connected by the conj. dc with matards , and is also the 

direct obj. of subiciebant. subiciebant, 3d pers. plur. imperf. ind. act. of the 

verb subicio , -ere y - ieci , - iectum , 3 (sub + iacere). subiciebant agrees with a pron. 
implied in the ending as subject-nom., referring to Helvetii et Boil et Tulingt , i.e. Gallt 

used broadly. nostrosque (nostros + que). nostros , acc. plur. of the poss. pron. 

noster y -tra y -trum y used substantively; or supply milites; direct obj. of vulnerdbant. 
que , enclitic conj.; connects very closely the verbs subiciebant and vulnerdbant 

Line 16. vulnerabant, 3d pers. plur. imperf. ind. of the verb vulnero, - are , -dvt , 
-dtum, 1 (1 vulnus , a wound) ; it agrees with Gallt or hostes as subject-nom. Observe 
that the imperf. tenses in lines 11-16 denote repeated action. See A. & G. 277; 
B. 95, II ; G. 231 ; H. 469, II. Diu (dies), adv. = lit. a space of time ; hence in- 

tensively, a long time , long. diu y as an adv., is compared thus: comparative diiitius; 

superl. diutissime. cum, temporal conj. Note the emphasis that is put on both 

cum and diu by exchange of position, cum, ordinarily, stands first in introducing 

a subordinate clause. esset pugnaf um (pugnatum esset). 3d pers. sing, pluperf. 

subjunctive pass., used impersonally, of the verb pugno y - dre , - dvt , - dtum , 1 ; it is in 
the subjunctive mode after cum. Consult A. & G. 325; B. 222; G. 585; H. 521, II, 2. 

Line 17. impedlmentls, abl. plur. of impedimentum, -i y n. ; abl. after the verb 
potiti sunt. Consult A. & G. 249; B. 167, 1 ; G. 407; H. 421, I. As to derivation and 
synonyms, see note on impedimenta , 1 . 5, above. Observe that potior sometimes, 
though rarely, takes the gen. ; see Galliae sese podri posse sperant, lines 36 and 37, 


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LINES 18-21.] 


BOOK I. 


197 


is potiti sunt. Ibi Orgetorigis fllia 

gained possession. There Orgetorix' s daughter 

19 atque unus e filils captus est. / Ex e 5 

and also one of (his) sons was captured ./ After that 

20 proelio circiter nrilia hominum centum et 

battle about thousands of men one hundred and 

21 tnginta superfuerunt eiique t 5 ta nocte 

thirty remained , in that and , entire night 


and camp. The 
daughter of Or- 
getorix and one 
of his sons were 
captured in this 
camp. About one 
hundred and thir- 
ty thousand men 
survived this 
battle, and dur- 
ing the entire 


Chap. III. oastrisque (castris -}- que). castris is the abl. plur. of the noun 

castrum, -i, n.; in the sing, —fort ; in the plur., camp, castris is closely connected by 
the enclitic conj. with impediments , and is in the same grammatical construction. 

nostri, nom. plur. of the poss. pron. nosier, -tra, drum, used substantively; or 

supply milites ; subject-nom. of the verb potiti sunt. 

Line i8. potlti sunt, 3d pers. plur. perf. ind. of the deponent verb potior, potirt, 

potitus, 4. potiti sunt agrees with its subject-nom. nostri. Ibi (radical i, whence 

is- J- loc. ending bi); hence = lit. in that place, there; the place alluded to is the 

Helvetian camp. Orgetorigis, poss. gen. of the noun Orgetorix, - rigis , m. ; as a 

gen. it limits f ilia . Orgetorix was a Helvetian chief; see note on Orgetorix , 1 . 2, 

Chap. II; and read again Chapters III and IV. fllia, nom. sing, of the noun 

filia , -ae. filia is subject-nom. of the verb capta est, to be supplied from the follow- 
ing captus est. Observe that by exception the dat. and abl. plur. of filia and dea 
ends in - Abus . Why ? To distinguish between the dat. and abl. plur. of these words 
and the dat. and abl. plur. of filius and deus. 

Line 19. atque (ad -f- que), conj. ; adds a notion of more importance = and also. 

unus, cardinal num. adj., gen. unitts , dat. uni, used substantively, and subject- 

nom. of the verb captus est. e, prep, with the abl. (e before consonants only, ex 

before vowels or consonants). filils, abl. plur. of the noun filius, -i, m.; abl. 

after the prep, e, instead of the gen. partitive. Consult A. & G. 216, e; B. 134, 

REM. 2; G. 372, 2; H. 397, 3, NOTE 3. captus est, 3d pers. sing. perf. ind. pass. 

of the verb cap id, -ere, cept, captum, 3. captus est in fact belongs to both subjects — 
filia and filius, but agrees with the latter ; or may be explained, as in the preceding 

line. Ex, prep, with the abl.; see note on e, 1 . 12, above. eo, abl. sing. n. 

of the dem. pron. is, ea, id. eo is an attributive of the noun proelio. 

Line 20 . proelio, abl. sing, of the noun proelium , -i, n. (prae or pr 5 4* ire). 

proelio is the obj. of the prep. ex. circiter, adv. (circus, circuni); it modifies 

centum et trigintd. mllia, nom. plur. of the adj. mille. mille is indeclinable in 

the sing., and only used in the nom. and acc. cases ; in the plur. milia, -ium is declin- 
able throughout, and with partitives it is used substantively, milia, in our text, is 

the subject-nom. of the verb superfuerunt. hominum, gen. plur. of the noun 

homo, hominis, m. and f. ; partitive gen. after milia. Consult A. & G. 216, 2; B. 134; 

G. 370; II. 397, 2. For synonyms, see note on homines, 1 . 20, Chap. II. centum, 

cardinal num. adj., indecl.; it is an attributive of milia which is used as a noun. 

et, cop. conj. 

Line 21. tnginta, cardinal num. adj., indecl.; connected by the conj. et with 

centum, and in the same grammatical construction. superfuerunt, 3d pers. plur. 

perf. ind. of the intrans. verb supersum, -esse, -fui, futiirus (super + esse) ; hence 
superesse = lit. to be over, i.e. to remain, to survive, superfuerunt agrees with its 


i 


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198 


CAESAR S GALLIC WAR 


[CHAP. XXVI. 


night after it, 
they fled inces- 
santly — their 
march ceasing 
during no part of 
the night ; and 
they arrived at 
the borders of 
the Lingones on 
the fourth day; 


continenter ierunt ; nullam 

continuously they went; during no 


partem noctis 22 

part of the night 


itinere intermisso 

the march being intermitted 


in fines 23 

into the territory 


Lingonum die quarto pervenerunt, 24 

of the Lingones on day the fourth they came through. 


subject-nom. milia. eaque (ea -f- que). ed is abl. sing. f. of the dem. pron. is, 

ea, id; ed is an attributive of the noun node . Observe how closely the verbs super- 

fuerunt and ierunt are connected by the enclitic conj. -que, t5ta, abl. sing. f. of 

the adj. lotus , -a, -um, gen. totius , dat. tod. told is also an attributive of the noun 

node. node, abl. sing, of the noun nox, noctis, f. (compare gk . vv £, vvkt 6 s). node 

is an abl. here denoting the extent of time — rather anomalous — but the abl. is 
sometimes thus used. Consult A. & G. 256, b\ B. 153, rem. 2; G. 393, rem. 2; 
H. 379, 1. 

Line 22. continenter, adv. (continens [con + tenere]) ; hence continens = a hang- 
ing together ; and the adv. continenter = in space or time, close together , successively 

as to space, and, in time, continuously, continenter modifies the verb ierunt. 

ierunt, 3d pers. plur. perf. ind. act. of the verb ed, ire , ivi {it), itum. ierunt is con- 
nected by the enclitic -que with the verb superfuerunt, and has the same subject- 
nom. milia. Observe that ierunt is for the full form iverunt; the v is syncopated. 

See A. & G. 128, 2; B. 251 ; G. 131, 1 ; H. 235, 1. nullam, acc. sing. f. of the adj. 

niillus, -a, -um, gen. niillius, dat. niilli (ne + ullus) ; hence = lit. not any, i.e. none , 
no. nullam is an attributive of the noun partem. — partem, acc. sing, of the noun 
pars, partis, f. partem is the acc. of time how long. See A. & G. 256, and 2; B. 153; 

G. 335; II. 379. noctis, gen. sing, of the noun nox, noctis, f. (compare gk . vv£, 

yv/cris). noctis, as a gen., limits the noun partem. 

Line 23. itinere, abl. sing, of the noun iter, itineris, n. (from the radical i as 
seen in ire, itum). itinere is in the abl. absolute with the perf. pass, participle 

intermisso, denoting time. See A. & G. 255; B. 192; G. 409, 410; H. 431. 

intermisso, abl. sing. n. of the perf. pass, participle intermissus, -a, -um of the verb 

intermitto, -ere, -rnisi, mis sum , 3; in the abl. absolute with the noun itinere. in, 

prep, with the acc. and abl. ; here it takes the acc. after a verb of motion. fines, 

acc. plur. of the noun finis, -is, m.; it is the obj. of the prep. in. For synonyms, see 
note on agrum, 1. 12, Chap. II. 

Line 24. Lingonum, gen. plur. of the noun Lingones, -um, m.; as a gen. it 
limits the noun fines. The Lingones were a Gallic clan, dwelling in the vicinity of 

the Vosges mountains — the Ilaute-Mame department of modern France. die, 

abl. sing, of the noun dies, -ei, m. and f. in the sing.; always m. in the plur. die is 

the abl. of time in which. Consult A. & G. 256, 1 ; B. 171 ; G. 393; H. 429. 

quarto, abl. sing. m. of the ordinal adj. quartus, -a, -um. quarto is an attributive of 

the noun die. pervenerunt, 3d pers. plur. of the verb pervenid, -ire, - vent , -ven- 

tum, 4 (per -f- venire), pervenerunt agrees with a pron. implied in the ending as 
subject-nom., referring to Helvetii et Boii et Tulingi; or, if preferred, make hostes 
understood the subject-nom. Observe the force of the prep, per in composition. 
in fines Lingonum pervenerunt = lit. they came through into the territory of the 
Lingones. 


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LINES 25-29.] 


BOOK I. 


199 


25 cum et propter vulnera militum et 

since both because of the wounds of the soldiers and 

28 propter sepulturam occlsorum nostri 

because of the burial of the slain our (men) 

27 trlduum moratl eos sequl 

the space of three days having delay ed, them to follow 

28 non potuissent. . Caesar ad Lingonas 

not had been able . Caesar to the Lingones 

29 litteras nuntiosque mlsit, ne eos frumento 

letters messengers and , sent , that not them with grain 


since our men, 
as they delayed 
their march for 
'three days, to 
care for the woun- 
ded soldiers and 
to bury the slain, 
could not pursue 
them. Caesar 
sent letters by 
messengers to in- 
form the Lin- 
gones that they 
were not to assist 
the Helvetii with 


Line 25. cum, conj., denoting both time and cause. et . . . et, a species 

of correlative conjunctions, repeated between co-ordinate phrases; — both . . . and . 

propter, prep, with the acc. vulnera, acc. plur. of the noun vulnus, -eris, n. 

vulnera is the obj. of the prep, propter, propter vulnera — the cause exciting the 
action, instead of the abl. of cause. Consult A. & G. 245, b\ B. 165, rem. 4; G. 408, 3; 

H. 416, I, a). militum, gen. plur. of the noun miles , -itis, m.; poss. gen., limiting 

the noun vulnera. et, see note on et, immediately preceding. 

Line 26. propter, see note on propter, preceding line. sepulturam, acc. 

sing, of the noun sepultura , -ae, i. (compare sepetire , to bury), sepulturam is the 

obj. of the prep, propter. occlsorum, gen. plur. of the participle occtsus, -a, - um 

of the verb occido, -ere, -cidi, \ cisum , 3 (ab -f- caedere). occisdrum is used substan- 
tively -=the slain; as a gen., used as a noun, it limits the noun sepulturam ; or we 

may supply edrum, i.e. militum. nostri, nom. plur. of the poss. pron. nosier, - tra , 

drum , used substantively ; or supply tnilites ; subject-nom. of the verb potuissent. 

Line 27. trlduum, acc. sing, of the noun triduum, -i, n. (tres + dies), triduum 

is the acc. of extent of space. Consult A. & G. 257; B. 153; G. 336; H. 379. 

moratl, nom. plur. m. of the perf. participle moratus, -a, -um of the deponent verb 
moror, -dri, -dtus, 1. mordd agrees with nostri, conceived to be used substantively. 

eos, acc. plur. m. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id, used as a pron. of the 3d person. 

eos is the direct obj. of the deponent verb sequi. sequl, pres. inf. of the deponent 

verb sequor, -i, secutus, 3. sequi is a complementary inf., depending on potuisse?it. 

Line 28. ndn, adv. (ne + oe[u]num). Observe its normal Latin position — 

immediately before the verb it modifies. potuissent, 3d pers. plur. pluperf. sub- 

junctive of the intrans. verb possum, posse, potui (potis -f- sum), potuissent agrees 
with its subject-nom. nostri, and is in the subjunctive after cum, 1. 25, above, denot- 
ing both time and cause, and especially cause. Consult A. & G. 326; B. 223; G. 586; 

H. 517. Caesar, -aris, m., subject-nom. of the verb rnisit. ad, prep, with the 

acc. Lingonas, Greek acc. plur. of the proper noun Lingones, -um, m., instead 

of the Latin form Lingones. See A. & G. 6 3,/; B. 248; G. 65, note 4; II. 68. 
Lingonas is the obj. of the prep. ad. 

Line 29. litteras, acc. plur. of the noun littera, -ae, f. litteras is the direct obj. 
of the verb misit. Observe that littera in the sing. = a letter of the alphabet ; in the 
plur. it = the gk. iiriaroX^, an epistle as composed of words and letters. Sometimes, 
however, litterae, plur. = letters, i.e. epistles. Whether litterae — one epistle or epistles 
must be determined by the context. nuntiosque (nuntios + que). nutaids , acc. 


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200 


CAESAR’S GALLIC WAR 


[CHAP. XXVI. 


grain or with any- 
thing else; and 
if they should do 
so, he would re- 
gard them in the 
same light as the 
Helvetii. He in 
person began to 


neve alia re iuvarent ; qui si a> 

nor with another thing • should they aid; who if , 

iuvissent, se eodem loco, quo 31 

should have aided , himself in the same place , in which 

Helvetios, habiturum. Ipse, 32 

the Helvetii, to he about to regard (them). He himself , 


plur. of the noun nuntius , -/, m. (sometimes written nunc ins). nunt(c)ius (novem + 
tio or cio); hence nuntius = one who brings news , a messenger; but often, abstractum 
pro c oner e to, nuntius = the message . nuntios is connected by the enclitic conj. -que 

with the noun litterds, and is in the same grammatical construction. mis it, 

3d pers. sing. perf. ind. act. of the verb mi ltd, -ere, mist, missum, 3. mis it agrees 

with its subject-nom. Caesar expressed. ne, primitive negative ; used with the 

imperative, and the subjunctive used for the imperative. eos, acc. plur. m. of 

the dem. pron. is, ea, id, used as a pers. pron. of the 3d pers.; it stands for Helvetios, 

and is the direct obj. of iuvdrent. frumentd, abl. sing, of the noun frumentum, 

-i, n. (frugl, from f rux -}- mentum). frumentd is an abl. of means. A. & G. 248, c, 1 ; 
B. 167; G. 401 ; H. 420. 

Line 30. neve or neu (ne -j- ve); hence = lit. or not; conjunctive adv. Observe 
that neve or neu is used as a continuative after ne, and may be rendered either or, 
or nor; if ne in the preceding line be conceived as throwing its force on both fru- 
mentd and alid re, neve may be translated simply or. alia, abl. sing, of the adj. 

pron. alius, -a, -um, gen. alius, dat. alii. alid is an attributive of the noun re. 

re, abl. sing, of the noun res, rei, f. (stem re, but shortened in gen. and dat. sing.). 

re is an abl. of manner. Consult A. & G. 248; B. 168; G. 399; H. 419, III. 

iuvarent, 3d pers. plur. imperf. subjunctive act. of the verb iuvo, -are, iuvi, iutum , 1 
(perf. stem formed irregularly). iuvdrent agrees with Lingones, to be supplied, as 
subject-nom. ; it is in the hortatory subjunctive indirect discourse representing the 
imperative form in direct discourse, i.e. ne iuvdrent in ordtio obliqua = ne iuveritis — 
perf. subjunctive — in ordtio recta, as tie with the 2d pers. of the perf. subjunctive 

is the regular form in classic prose for expressing prohibition. qui, nom. plur. 

of the rel. pron. qui, quae, quod ; it refers to the Lingones, but it is the subject-nom. 
of the verb iuvissent. qui, at the beginning of the sentence = et ei. Consult A. & G. 

180,/; B. 129, rem. 9; G. 610; H. 453. si (archaic form set, sibilated from the 

gk. el); conditional conj. 

Line 31. iuvissent, 3d pers. plur. pluperf. subjunctive of iuvo, -dre, iuvi, iutum; 
it agrees with its subject-nom. qui; it is the pluperf. subjunctive after si in the 

protasis — ordtio obliqua, for si iuveritis — fut. perf. ind. — in ordtio recta . 

se, acc. sing, of the reflexive pron. sui, sibi, se, se — same form in both numbers. 

se is the subject-acc. of the verb habiturum (esse); se refers to Caesar. eodem, 

abl. sing. m. of the dem. pron. idem, eadem, idem, eodem is an attributive of the 

noun loco. loco, abl. sing, of the noun locus, m. ; loci, m., or loca, n., in the 

plur. See note on loci, 1 . 10, Chap. II. loco is a locative abl. Consult A. & G. 258, 
/, 1 and 2; B. 170, rem. 3; G. 385, note i ; H. 425, II, 2. Observe that locus here 

= position. qu6, abl. sing, of the rel. pron. qui, quae, quod; it refers to loco, as 

its antecedent, and agrees with loco understood, which latter is also a locative abl. 

Line 32. Helvetios, acc. plur. of the adj. Helvetius, -a, -um, used substantively. 
Helvetios is the direct obj. of habeat, to be supplied. As to this clan, see note on 
Helvetii, 1 . 16, Chap. I. habiturum (esse), fut. inf. act. of the verb habeo, -ere. 


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LINES 33 , 34 .] 


BOOK I. 


201 


33 triduo intermisso, 

the space of three days hating been let pass, 

34 omnibus copils eos sequi coepit. 

all the troops them to follow began . 


CUm follow them with 
all his forces af- 
with ter t h e interval 
of three days. 


1 


XXVII. 


Helvetii omnium rerum inopiil 

The Helvetii by the of all things scarcity 


XXVII. As the 
Helvetii were in 
want of every- 


-«/, - Hum , 2 ; its subject-acc. is the pron. se expressed; its direct obj. is the pron. eos , 
i.e. Lingonas, to be supplied. The ordtio recta of lines 29-32 reads : ne eds frumento 
neve alia re iuveritis; si eos iuveritis, ego vos eddem loco, quo Helvctios, ha held. 
Observe that the first clause of the above might be put into the following foim: 

vel eos frumento vel alia re noltte iuvdre. Ipse, nom. sing, of the intensive dtm. 

pron. ipse , -sa, - sum , gen. ipsius, dat. ipsi; ipse is subject-nom. to the verb coepit; it 
is expressed for emphasis. 

Line 33. triduo, abl. sing, of the noun trtduum , -/, n. (tres + dies), tridud is in 
the abl. absolute construction with the perf. pass, participle intermissd y denoting the 

time. Consult A. & G. 255, d y 1 ; B. 192 ; G. 409, 410; H. 431, and 2. intermisso, 

abl. sing. n. of the perf. pass, participle intermissus , -a y -um of the verb intermitto , 
-ere, - mist, - missum (inter + mittere). intermisso is in the abl. absolute construction 
with the noun tridud. Synonyms: intermittere (to send between , i.e. to leave off, inter- 
mit ) =to give over for a time ; but omittere = to leave off altogether. cum, prep. 

with the abl. 

Line 34. omnibus, abl. plur. f. of the adj. omnis , -e (an /‘stem; abl. sing, always 

omtti). omnibus is an attributive of the noun copiis. cdpiis, abl. plur. of the 

noun copia , - ae , f . ; in the sing. = plenty ; in the plur., troops. cdpiis is the abl. of 
accompaniment with the prep. cum. Consult A. & G. 248, a ; B. 168, REM. 4; G. 399; 
H. 419, 1 . Observe that cum is not absolutely necessary with words denoting military 

movements ; it is often omitted, in such cases. e 5 s, acc. plur. m. of the dem. 

pron. is, ea y id, used as a personal pron. of the 3d pers. eds, i.e. I/elvetios , is the 

direct obj. of sequi. sequi, pres. inf. of the deponent verb sequor , -/, secutus , 3 

(compare gk. tiroftai [gk. radical ct r, and Latin seq.]). sequi is a complementary inf., 

and depends on coepit. Consult A. & G. 271 ; B. 181 ; G. 423; H. 533, I, 1. 

coepit, 3d pers. sing, of coept, coepisse , coepturus , coeptus — defective preteritive verb. 
Consult A. & G. 143, a; B. 113, and rkm. i ; G. 175, 5, a; H. 297, and 1. Observe 
that with pass, infinitives the pass, form coeptus sum , etc., is generally used, e.g. urbs 
oppugtidri coepta est. 

Line i. Helvetii, nom. plur. of the adj. Helvetius , -a y -urn, used substantively, 

and subject-nom. of the verb miserunt. omnium, gen. plur. f. of the adj. omnis, 

-e, an /-stem, omnium is ati attributive of rerum. rerum, gen. plur. of the noun 

res , ret, f. (stem te shortened in the gen. and dat. sing.), rerum is an objective gen., 

limiting the noun inopid. inopia, abl. sing, of the noun inopia , -ae, f. (from in + 

opis through the adj. inops'), inopid is an abl. of cause after the perf. pass, participle 
adduett. Consult A. & G. 245, and 2, b\ B. 165, and rem. 4; G. 408, and note 2; 
H. 416, and note i. 


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202 


caesar’s gallic war 


(CHAP. XXVII. 


thing, they were 
induced to send 
ambassadors to 
Caesar to ascer- 
tain the terms of 
surrender. Now 
when these en- 
voys had met 
Caesar on the 
road, and had 
cast themselves 
at his feet, and, 


adducti legatos de deditione ad eum 2 

having been led envoys concerning surrender to him 


mlserunt. 

sent. 


Qui cum 

Who , when 


eum 

in 

itinere 3 

him 

on 

the road 


convenissent seque ad pedes proiecissent 4 

had met themselves and, to (his) feet had thrown 


Line 2. adducti, nom. plur. m. of the perf. pass, participle adductus , -a, -urn of 
the verb .adduco, -ere, - duxi , - ductum , 3; adducti , as a participle, agrees with the noun 

Helvetii in gender, number and person. legatds, acc. plur. of the noun legdtus , 

-t, m. { legere , to despatch), legdtos is the direct obj. of the verb mis it. de, prep. 

with the abl. Synonyms : de = from, as if from a fixed point ; ab = from, as if from 

a mere external point ; while ex = a going forth from the interior of an object. 

deditione, abl. of the noun deditio , -dnis, f. ( dedere , to give up), deditione is the abl. 

after the prep. de. ad, prep, with the acc. after a verb of motion. eum, acc. 

sing. m. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id, used as a dem. pron. of the 3d pers. ; it is the 
obj. of the prep. ad. 

Line 3. mlserunt, 3d pers. plur. perf. ind. act. of the verb mitto , -ere, misi 
missum , 3. mlserunt agrees with Helvetii expressed as subject-nom. Observe that 
mlserunt has here the construction of a verb of motion, taking the acc. with ad; but 
this verb takes also, in connection with the direct obj., the obj. to which , and the 
end for which , in the dat. Compare equitdtui , quern auxilio Caesari Aedui mis e rant, 

lines 48 and 49, Chap. XVIII. Qui, nom. plur. m. of the rel. pron. qui, quae , 

quod; at the beginning of a sentence = et ei; here = Helvetii; subject-nom. of the 
verb convenissent. For the force of the relative, see A. & G. 180 ,f; B. 129, rem. 9; 

G. 610; H. 453. cum, conj., temporal. Observe that qui precedes cum, because 

the idea expressed by the relative is the emphatic notion in the writer’s mind. 

eum, acc. sing, of the dem. pron. is, ea , id, used as a personal pron. of the 3d person. 

eum refers to Caesar, and is the direct obj. of the verb convenissent. in, prep. 

with either the acc. or abl. ; here it takes the abl., and = on. See on this prep, the 

grammatical references to in, 1 . 1, Chap. I. itinere, abl. sing, of the noun iter , 

itineris, n. (ire, Hum). itinere is here the obj. of the prep, in; and the phrase in 
itinere = on the march. For synonyms, see note on iter, 1 . 2, Chap. IX. 

Line 4. convenissent, 3d pers. plur. pluperf. subjunctive; it agrees with its 
subject-nom. qui; it is in the subjunctive after cum, temporal or historical. Consult 

A. & G. 325; B. 222 ; G. 585 ; H. 521, II, 2. seque (se + que). se, acc. plur. of 

the reflexive pron. sui, sibi, se, se — same form in both numbers; it refers to the 
subject of the proposition, qui, i.e. Helvetii; but it is the direct obj. of the verb pro- 
iecissent. Note how closely the verbs convenissent and proiecissent are connected by 

the enclitic - que . ad, prep, with the acc. ; here it = at. pedes, acc. plur. of 

the noun pes, pedis, m. (compare gk. itoi/s, vodbs, radical rcS). pedes is the obj. 

of the prep, ad; of course, eius, i.e. Caesaris, is to be supplied. proiecissent, 

3d pers. plur. pluperf. subjunctive act. of the verb proicio, - ere , - ieci , -tectum, 3 (pro 
+ iacere); hence prdicere =■ lit. to throw forward, proiecissent is very closely con- 
nected by the enclitic - que with convenissent, and is in the subjunctive mode for the 
same reason. 


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LINES 5-7.] 


BOOK I. 


203 


5 suppliciterque locutl flentes pacem 

suppliantly, and (him) having addressed weeping peace 

6 petissent, atque eos in eo loco, quo turn 

had sought , and them in that place , where then 

7 essent, suum adventum exspectare iussisset, 

they were, his arrival to wait for he had ordered, 


addressing him 
humbly, had, 
in tears, begged 
for peace ; and 
Caesar, through 
them, had or- 
dered the Hel- 
vetian forces to 
await his arrival 
at their pres- 
ent halting-place, 


Line 5. suppliciterque (suppliciter + que). suppliciter , adv. (derived from the 
adj. supplex [sub -f- plicare, compare <;k. ttXIkuj]) ; hence, as supplex — lit. bending 
the knees to receive punishment; or submission as a suppliant, the ad — humbly, 

suppliantly. suppliciter, as an adv., modifies the perf. participle locutl. locutl, 

nom. plur. m. of the perf. participle locutus , -a, - um of the deponent verb loquor, -i, 
-cutus, 3; loculi, as a participle, agrees with the subj. of the proposition, qui, i.e. Hel- 

vein. Supply eum as the direct obj. of the participle loctiti. flentes, nom. plur. 

m. of the pres, participle flens,flentis of the verb fled, flere, fieri, fletum , 2. flentes 
also agrees with the subj. of the proposition, qui, i.e. Helvetii, and denotes the 
manner of the Helvetians’ procedure. Observe that loculi , a perf. participle of a 
deponent verb, is used here with flentes, a pres, participle, with nQ appreciable dif- 
ference, i.e. locuii is used in the sense of a pres, participle. As to distinctions of 
tense in participles, see A. & G. 290 ff.; B. 98, 3, and 109, 2; G. 113, 128; H. 231, 
and 550, note 1 ; it agrees with the subject-nom., i.e. Helvetii; its direct obj. is se, 

i.e. Caesarem, to be supplied. pacem, acc. sing, of the noun pax, pads, f. (from 

radical pac, as seen in pacisci, to covenant); here pax —peace between parties at 
variance, pacem is the direct obj. of petissent. 

Line 6. petissent, 3d pers. plur. pluperf. subjunctive for pelivissent of the verb 
peto, -ere, -ivi (-H), -Hum, 3. As to syncopation and contraction, see A. & G. 128, 2 ; 
B. 251; G. 1 31 , 1; H. 235. petissent is connected by the enclitic -que with pro- 
iecissent, and is still under the influence of cum, historical, and so in the subjunctive. 

atque, conj. (ad-f que); adds a notion of more importance usually, and = and 

also. Observe that the shortened form ac is used only before consonants. eos, 

acc. plur. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id, used as a personal pron. of the 3d pers.; it is 
the subject-acc. of ex spectdre ; it refers to the entire body of the Helvetii, and not 

merely to the Helvetian ambassadors. in, prep, either with the acc. or abl.; 

here it takes the abl. See note on in, 1. 1, Chap. I. e5, abl. sing. m. of the 

dem. pron. is, ea, id; it is an attributive of loco. loco, abl. sing, of the noun 

locus, -i, m. in the sing.; in the plur. loci, m., or loca, n. See note on loci, 1. 10, 

Chap. II. loco is the obj. of the prep. in. quo, abl. sing, of the rel. pron. qui, 

quae, quod, used here both relatively and adjectively ; as a rel. it refers to loco; as 
an adj. it is an attributive of loco, to be supplied, which latter is in the abl. locative 

case ; or the prep, in might be regarded as understood. turn, adv. ; it modifies 

the verb essent. 

Line 7. essent, 3d pers. plur. imperf. subjunctive of the intrans. verb sum , esse , 
fut,futurus; its subject-nom. is Helvetii understood; it is in the subjunctive, because 
it is in a subordinate clause in informal indirect discourse. But note that this clause 
is an essential partoi the sentence, and consult A. & G. 342 ; B. 245, (/'); G. 629; H. 529, 
II, NOTE 1, 1 ). suum, acc. sing. m. of the reflexive pron. suus, -a, -um; it refers to 


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204 


CAESAR S GALLIC WAR 


[CHAP. XXVII. 


they obeyed. 
When Caesar, 
subsequently, 
reached the ren- 
dezvous, he de- 
manded hos- 
tages, their arms, 
and the fugitive 
slaves belonging 
to the Romans. 
W hile these chat- 


paruerunt. 

Eo postquam 

Caesar 

pervenit, 8 

they obeyed . 

Thither after that 

Caesar 

arrived, 

obsides, 

arma, serv 5 s, 

qui 

ad eos 9 

hostages , 

arms, slaves, 

who 

to them 

perfugissent, poposcit. 

Dum 

ea 10 

had fled, 

he demanded. 

*IF7 die 

these things 


Caesar, but it is an attributive of the noun adventum. adventum, acc. sing, of 

the noun adventus , -us, m. (ad + venire) ; adventum is the direct obj. of the verb 

exspectare. exspectare, pres. inf. act. of the verb exspecto, - dre , -dvi, -dtum, i (ex 

+ spectare = lit. to look out ) ; its subject-acc. is the pron. eos, in the preceding line. 

Observe that eos . . . exspectdre is the obj. of the verb iussisset. iussisset, 

3d pers. sing, pluperf. subjunctive of the verb iubeo, -ere, iftssi , ids sum , 2; iussissent 
agrees with a pron. implied in the ending as subject-nom., referring to Caesar; it is 
connected by the conj. atque with the preceding verbs, and is under the influence of 
cum ; and hence it is in the subjunctive mode. 

Line 8. paruerunt, 3d pers. plur. perf. ind. act. of the verb pdreo, -ere, pdrui, 
pdritum , 2 ( pardre , to bring forth, to appear) ; hence parere = to appear at one’s 
command, to obey . pdruerunt agrees with Helvetii understood as its subject-nom. 
The ordtid recta of the informal indirect discourse of lines 6 and 7, above, is as 

follows : vos, in hoc loco, quo nunc estis , meum adventum exspectare iubeo. 

E6, adv. (old dat. of the adj. pron. is) ; here = thither, i.e. in eo loco , 1 . 6, above. 

postquam (post + quam), adv. ; it usually takes the historical pres. ind. ; here it 

takes the historical perf. Caesar, -aris, m., subject-nom. of pervenit. 

pervenit, 3d pers. sing. perf. ind. act. of the verb pervento, -ire, -vent, -ventum, 4 (per 
+ venire = lit. to come through ); pervenit agrees with its subject-nom. Caesar. 

Line 9. obsides, acc. plur. of the noun obses , - idis , m. and f. (ob + sedere, to sit, 
to remain) ; hence the noun = lit. one that remaitis as a pledge of conditions to be 

met. arma, -drum, or armiim , n. (usually derived from &pa>, to fit to); hence 

arma = lit. things fitted to the body ; then transf. arms for warfare both offensive and 
defensive, arma is connected by et understood with obsides, and is in the same 
grammatical construction. servos, acc. plur. of the noun serous, -t, m.; con- 

nected by et understood with arma, and in the same grammatical construction, 
i.e. direct obj. of poposcit. These slaves, of course, belonged to the Romans. Note 
the omission of the conj. here between these nouns (asyndeton). Consult A. & G. 

208, b; B. 123, rem. 6; G. 474, note; H. 554, 6. qui, nom. plur. m. of the rel. 

gut, quae, quod; qui refers to the three preceding nouns, but takes the gender of the 

last ; it is the subject-nom. of the verb perfugissent. ad, prep, with the acc. 

e 5 s, acc. plur. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id, used as a personal pron. of the 3d person ; 
it is the obj. of the prep. ad. eos refers to the Helvetians. 

Line 10. perfugissent, 3d pers. plur. pluperf. subjunctive of the verb perfugio, 
-ere, fiugi, 3 ; it is in the subjunctive mode, because in a subordinate clause in 
informal indirect discourse. Consult A. & G. 341, and d; B. 235 and 245, (£); G. 628; 

* Perspicuous English requires the following arrangement of the clauses : While these chattels 
were being hunted up . . ., it was ascertained that about six thousand men . . . had, in the first 
part of the night, left the Helvetian camp, and had gone hastily towards the Rhine and the 
country of the Germans ; and they did so, either because they were greatly alarmed lest, . . .; 
or would be wholly unnoticed. 


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LINES 11-13.] 


BOOK I. 


205 


11 conquiruntur 

are being sought 

12 intermissa, 

having passed , 


et 

and 

circiter 

about 


conferuntur, 

being collected, 


hominum 

of men 


nrilia 

thousands 


nocte 

a night 

sex 

six , 


13 eius pagi, qul Verbigenus appelliitur, 


of that district , which Verbigenus 


is called, 


tels were being 
hunted up and 
brought together, 
and when the 
night was passed, 
(it was ascer- 
tained that)about 
six thousand men 
of that canton 
which was call- 
ed Verbigenus, 


H. 528. 1. Observe that Caesar the historian has not the fullest confidence in 

Caesar the imperdtor. poposcit, 3d pers. sing. perf. ind. act. of the verb posed ', 

-ere, poposci , reduplicated, no supine, poposcit agrees with a pron. implied in the 

ending as subject-nom., referring to Caesar. Dum, conjunctive adv. = while, 

and it usually takes after it the pres. ind. regardless of the law of sequence of tenses. 
Consult A. & G. 276, e\ B. 228, rem. i ; G. 570; H. 467, 4. dum is sometimes used 

as a restrictive particle = provided, and then takes the subjunctive. ea, nom. 

plur. n. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id, used substantively, and subject-nom. of the verbs 
conquiruntur and conferuntur ; ea refers to obsides, arm a and servos, conceived of 
as chattels ; and the pron. is in the neuter gender. 

Line ii. conquiruntur, 3d pers. plur. pres. ind. pass, of the verb conquiro, -ere, 
-quisivi (-sit), - quisitum , 3 (con -f-quirere = lit. to search for carefully), conquiruntur 
agrees with its subject-nom. ea . et, cop. conj.; it here connects the verbs con- 
quiruntur and conferuntur. cSnferuntur, 3d pers. plur. pres. ind. pass, of the 

verb confero, ferre, -tuli, col(n)ldtum (con + fero) ; it is connected by the conj. et 

with the verb conquiruntur, and has the same subj., namely ea. nocte, abl. sing. 

of the noun nox, noctis, f. (gk. vC£, yv/erbs). nocte is in the abl. absolute construction 
with the perf. pass, participle intermissd . 

Line 12. intermissa, abl. sing. f. of the perf. pass, participle intermissus, -a, -um 
of the verb intermitto, -ere, -mist, -mis sum, 3 (inter + mittere) = lit. to let go between, 
intermissd is abl. absolute with nocte, denoting the time. Consult A. & G. 255, d, 1 ; 

B. 192; G. 409, 410; H. 431, 2, (3). circiter (circus, circtim), adv.; it modifies the 

adj. sex. hominum, gen. plur. of the noun homo, -inis, m. and f. ; hominum, as 

a partitive gen., limits milia. As to this construction, see A. & G. 216, 2 ; B. 134; 

G. 370; H. 397, 2. milia, nom. plur. of mille, an indecl. num. adj. in the sing.; 

in the plur. it is regularly declined, and is used as a neuter noun. See A. & G. 94, e; 
B. 64, rem. 9; G. 293; II. 178, and note, milia , as a subst., is the subject-nom. of 

contenderunt, 1. 22, below. sex, cardinal num. adj. (gk. V$). sex is an attributive 

of the noun milia. 

Line 13. eius, gen. sing. m. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id; eius is an attributive 

of the noun pagi. pagi, gen. sing, of the noun pdgus, -i, m.; poss. gen., and 

limits hominum. qul, nom. sing. m. of the rel. qui, quae , quod; it refers to the 

noun pdgi, but is subject-nom. of the verb appellatur. Verbigenus, -i, m., proper 

noun; one of the four Helvetian clans; it is here predicate-noun. Consult A. & G. 

176, a; B. 130, 3; G. 206; H. 362, 2, 2). ap(d)pellatur, 3d pers sing. pres. ind. 

pass, of the verb appello, -dre, -did, *atum, 1 (ad -f- pellere) = lit. to drive to; hence 
to go near , to accost, or call, or name. Synonyms : a p pel l dre — to call, or name one 
by his title ; voedre = to call one by the utterance of his name ; sometimes, to summon; 
whereas nomindre = to call one by his name; sometimes =to name, give a name. 
But observe, these distinctions are largely etymological ; often these words meaning 
to call, to name, are used without any appreciable difference in meaning. 


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206 


caesar’s gallic war 


tCHAl*. XXVIt. 


either because 
they were great- 
ly alarmed, lest, 
after surrender- 
ing their arms, 
they might be 
tortured ; or, led 
by the hope 
of safety, they 
thought that, a- 
mid so great a 
number of pris- 
oners, their own 


slve tinidre perterriti, ne annLs u 

whether by alarm being terrified , lest, (their) arms 

traditls supplicio afficerentur, 

being delivered up with punishment they would be affected , 

slve spe salutis inductl, quod in 

or by the hope of safety being led, because in 

tanta multitudine deditlciorum suam fugam 

.so great a multitude of captives their flight 


Line 14. sive (sT + ve, contracted^//); conj. = lit. or if; but sive . . . sire = 

whether . . . or; sometimes they = either ... or. timore, abl. of the noun 

timor , - oris, m. ; abl. of cause after the perf. pass, participle perterriti. Consult 
A. & G. 245, and 2 ; B. 165, and REM. 4 ; G. 408, and note 2 ; II. 416, and note 1. 
Synonyms : timor = the fear that results from weakness or cowardice ; sometimes, 
however, it — a rational fear; whereas metus = fear as a rational emotion, arising 

from reflection or caution. perterriti, nom. plur. of the perf. pass, participle 

perterritus, -a, - um of the verb perterreo , -ete, - id , -/turn, 2. perterriti \ as a participle, 

agrees with the pron. et, representing hominutn milia , 1. 12, above. ne, conj. = 

lest; it follows the phrase timore perterriti as if the phrase were = veriti; and, of 
course, it = that or lest; if the phrase were followed by ut instead of ne, the ut would 
= that not. Consult A. & G. 331,/; B. 200, REM. 6; G. 550, 2, and note i ; If. 498, 

III, note 1. armls, abl. plur. of the noun arma , -drum , n. See note on arma , 

1. 9, above, armis is in the abl. absolute construction with the perf. pass, participle 
trdditis , denoting condition. See A. & G. 255, d, 4; B. 192 ; G. 409, 410; H. 431, 2, (3). 

Line 15. traditls, abl. plur. n. of the perf. pass, participle trdditus,-a, - um of 
the verb trado, -ere, -didi, -ditum, 3 (trans dare, lit. to give oz<er). trado is some- 
times written trdnsdo. trdditis is in the abl. absolute construction with the noun 
armis , denoting condition. See grammatical reference to armis , preceding line. 

supplicio, abl. sing, of the noun supplicium , -i, n. (supplex [sub -f- plico] = 

kneeling as a suppliant or for punishment) ; hence supplicium = sometimes suppli- 
cation ; oftener, transf. = punishment, supplicio, in the text, is an abl. of means. 

afficerentur, 3d pers. plur. imperf. subjunctive pass, of the verb officio, -ere, feci, 

fectum, 3; it agrees with ei, referring to hominum milia, 1. 12, above, as the subject- 
nom. ; it is a clause of purpose after the particle ne; hence in the subjunctive mode. 
Consult A. & G. 331,/; B. 200, REM. 6; G. 550, 2 ; II. 498, III, note i. 

Line 16. sive, see note on sive, 1 . 14, above. spe, abl. sing, of the noun 

spes, -ei, f. (stem spe, vowel shortened in the gen. and dat. sing.), spe is an abl. of 

cause after the participle indued. salutis, gen. sing, of the noun salus , -iitis, f. 

(salvus). salutis limits the noun spe. induct!, nom. plur. m. of the perf. pass. 

participle inductus, -a, -um of the verb indued, -ere, -duxi, -ductum, 3 (in + ducere = 
to lead on), indued , as a participle, agrees with ei, referring to hominum milia , 

1. 12, above. quod, conj. = because. in, prep, with the acc. or abl.; here it 

takes the abl., and = among or amid. 

Line 17. tanta, abl. sing. f. of the adj. tantus, -a, -um ; tantd is an attributive 

of multitudine. multitudine, abl. sing, of the noun multitudo, - dinis , f. (multus); 

it is the obj. of the prep. in. Observe that multitudd , as derived from multus = lit. 


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LINES 18-20.1 


BOOK I. 


207 


is aut occultari ~ ommn5 ignorari 

either to he concealed or entirely to he unobserved 

19 posse existimarent, prima nocte 

to be possible they thought , in the first part of the night, 

20 e castris Helvetiorum egress! 

from the camp of the Ilelvetii having gone forth 


flight would be 
concealed long 
enough to enable 
them to escape, or 
would be wholly 
unnoticed, had, 
in the first part 
of the night, left 
the Helvetian 
camp, and had 


a great number; whereas numerus , -*, m., from the same radical as the gk. v 6 /jlos 

(vifieiv, to distribute ) = lit. anything measured or distributed , i.e. any number. 

deditlciorum, gen. plur. of the adj. dediticius , -a, - um (dedere, to give up); hence 
the adj. in a pass, sense = one given up ; as a subst. = one surrendered , i.e. a- pris- 
oner; used here substantively; it limits multitudine. suam, acc. sing. f. of the 

poss. adj. pron. suits, -a, -um ; suam is an attributive of the noun fugam. fugam, 

acc. sing, of the noun fuga , - ae , f. fugam is the subject-acc. of the verb posse. 

Line i 8. aut, conj. — or (kindred with the postpositive Greek adv. ab = back , 
again); but aut . . . aut = either ... or. These particles thus used denote that 
the difference is exclusive ; if the difference is neither important nor exclusive, vel 

. . . vel are used. occultari, pres. inf. pass, of the verb act. voice occulio , -are, 

-dvi, -dtum, i (an intensive verb derived from oc[b]culo , 3). occultari is a complement- 
ary inf., depending on the verb posse. Consult A. & G. 271; B. 181; G. 423; 

H. 533, I, 2. aut, see note on aut, immediately preceding. omnino (omnis), 

adv., modifies the verb ignordri. ignorari, pres. inf. pass, of the verb act. voice 

ignoro, - dre , -dvi, -dtum, 1 (ingnorus, like agnotus from gnotus) ; hence ignordre = to 
be ignorant of a thing; in the text tgnordrt = to be unknown to anybody, ignorari 
is also a complementary inf., depending on posse. 

Line 19. posse, pres. inf. of the intrans. verb possum , posse, potui (potis, able 
-|-sum); its subject-acc. is fugam. Observe that the infinitive-clause is the obj. of 

the verb existimarent. existimarent, 3d pers. plur. imperf. subjunctive of the 

verb ex istimo, -dre, -dvi, -dtum, 1 ; it agrees with a pron. implied in the ending as 
subject-nom., referring to hominum milia, 1. 12, above; existimarent is in the sub- 
junctive mode in a quod- clause, because the writer suggests doubtfully; the writer is 
giving a suggestion, not making a statement as absolute fact. See A. & G. 341, d, 

and rem.; B. 198, (b)-, G. 541 ; H. 516, II. prima, abl. sing. f. of the adj .primus, 

-a, -um, superl. degree ; comparative degree is prior, prima is an attributive of the 
noun nocte. prima with nocte = the first part. See A. & G. 193; B. 128, rem. 9; 

G. 291, rem. 2; H. 440, note 2. nocte, abl. sing, of the noun nox , tioctis, f. 

(ia/£, vvkt 6 s); nocte is the abl. of time when. Consult A. & G. 256, 1 ; B. 153, rem. 2; 
G. 393; H. 429. 

Line 20. e, prep, with the abl. (e before consonants only, ex before vowels or 

consonants). castris, abl. plur. of the noun castrum, -i, n. ; in the sing. = fort 

or castle; in the plur. =ca?np. castris is the obj. of the prep. e. Helvetiorum, 

gen. plur. of the adj. Helvetius , -a, -um, used substantively. Helvetiorum is a poss. 
gen., limiting the noun castris. As to the Helvetian clan, see note on Helveiii , 

I . 16, Chap. I. egress!, nom. plur. m. of the perf. participle egresstis, -a, -um of 

the deponent verb egredior , egredi, egresstis, 3 (e + gradi [gradus]), hence egredi — 
lit. to step out; as a participle, egressi agrees with the subject-nom. of the verb 
contenderunt. 


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208 


CAESAR’S GALLIC AVAR 


[CHAP. XXVIH. 


gone hastily to- 
wards the Rhine 
and the country 
of the Germans. 


ad Rhenum 

toward the Rhine 

contenderunt. 

hastened . 


territory and, 


Germanorum 21 

of the Germans , 

22 


XXVIII. When 
Caesar discover- 
ed this move- 
ment, he gave 
orders to those, 
through whose 
territory the fu- 
gitives had gone, 


XXVIII. 

Quod 

ubi Caesar 

resciit, 1 


Which 

when Caesar 

found out , 

quorum per 

fines 

ierant, 

his, uti 2 


whose through , territory they had gone , to those , that 


Link 21. ad, prep, with the acc. ; compare gk. eh. Rhenum, acc. sing, of 

the noun Rhettus , -i, m. Rhenum is the obj. of the prep. ad. Really, however, 
Rhenum is in apposition with the noun Jiumen understood, which is the obj. of the 
prep. ad. The Rhine river is generally the boundary between Gaul and Germany. 

finesque (fines -|- que) ; fines , acc. plur. of the noun finis , -is, f. fines is very 

closely connected with Rhenum by the enclitic conj. -que, and like Rhenum is the 
obj. of the prep. ad. Observe that fines in the sing. = the end ; in the plur .fines 

= limits, borders , country. Germanorum, gen. plur. of the noun Germ ant, 

-drum, m. (Yepiiavol). The Germans were a people occupying the territory between 
the Rhine, the Danube and the Vistula. Germdnorum , as a gen., limits the noun 
fines. 

Line 22. contenderunt, 3d pers. plur. perf. ind. act. of the verb contends, -ere, 
-tends, -tentum, 3 (con -|- tendere). contenderunt agrees with its subject-nom. milia 
— adj. used as noun — 1 . 12, above. For different meanings of this verb, see note 
on contendunt, 1 . 18, Chap. I. 


. Line 1. Quod, acc. sing, of the rel. pron. qui, quae , quod; it refers to the sally 
of the Helvetii, as related in the preceding chapter; it is the direct obj. of the verb 
resciit. quod at the beginning of a sentence = et hoc. Consult A. & G. 180, f\ 

B. 129, rem. 9; G. 610; H. 453. ubi (quo, old dat. of qui + bi), adv. and conj. 

= lit. in which place; hence where; and then transf. = when. Observe that tem- 
poral clauses with ubi, postquam, etc., take after them the perf. ind., or the historical 
present. Consult A. & G. 324; B. 224; G. 551 ; II. 518. Caesar, -aris, m., sub- 
ject-nom. of the verb resciit. resciit, 3d pers. sing. perf. ind. act. of the verb 

rescisco, -ere, -scivi (-it), - scitum , 3 (re -|- sc scere) ; hence, as an inchoative verb = to 
find out a thing, bringing it from concealment into light again ; resciit agrees with 
its subject-nom. Caesar expressed. 

Line 2. quSrum, gen. plur. m. of the rel. pron. qui, quae, quod; it refers to the 
following dem. pron. his, used as a subst. ; but, as a gen., it limits fines. Observe 

that, in the Latin arrangement of clauses, the relative clause often stands first. 

per, prep, with the acc. fines, acc. plur. of the noun finis, -is, m. fines is the 

obj. of the prep. per. Observe that finis in the sing, — end, limit; in the plur ., fines 

= boundaries, territory. For synonyms, see note on agrum, 1 . 12, Chap. II. 

ierant, 3d pers. plur. pluperf. ind. of the verb eo, ire, ivi (it), itum; ierant is synco- 
pated for iverant. Consult A. & G. 128, 2; B. 251 ; G. 131, 1 ; H. 235. his, dat. 

plur. f. of the dem. pron. hie , haec, hoc, used substantively ; or rather supply getitibus . 


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LINUS 3-6.] 


BOOK I. 


209 


3 conquirerent 

they should seek out 


et reducerent, 

and lead back , 


4 purgatl esse vellent, 

free of blame to be they wished , 


5 reductos in 

those having been brought back among 


si sibi 

if to himself 

imperavit ; 

he gave orders; 

hostium 

the enemy's 


to hunt them up 
and bring them 
back if they 
wished in his 
eyes to be free 
from suspicion. 
And he regard- 
ed those brought 
back as enemies ; 


the dat. plur. of gens , -ntis, f. ; his is the dat. after the verb imperdvit — a verb of com- 
manding. See A. & G. 227; B. 142; G. 346, 2; IL 385, 1 . uti, conj., the original 

form ; it = ut, that, in order that. 

Line 3 . conqulrerent, 3d pers. plur. imperf. subj. act. of the verb conquiro, -ere, 
-sivi (-it), -si turn , 3 (con + quarere) ; hence = lit. to search for carefully ; it agrees 
with a pron. implied in the ending as subject-nom., referring to his; it is subjunctive 
of purpose after uti , i.e. this clause expresses the purpose of imperdvit. Supply eos, 
\.e. f ugitivds as direct obj. of conquirerent et reducerent. See A. & G. 317; B. 200; 
G. 543, and 3 ; II. 497, II. et, cop. conj. ; connects the verbs conquirerent and re- 
ducerent. reducerent, 3d pers. plur. imperf. subjunctive of redded, -ere, -duxi, -due- 

turn, 3 (re + ducere) ; hence = lit. to lead back, reducerent is connected by the conj. 
et with conquirerent, and is, in every respect, in the same grammatical construction. 

si, conj., conditional; obsolete form sei, sibilated from the gk. el. sibi, 

dat. sing, of the reflexive pron. sut, sibi, se, se — same form in both numbers ; sibi is 
here the dat. of reference. Consult A. & G. 235, a; B. 145; G. 352; H. 384, 4. This 
is the usual explanation; but I suggest that it is the dat. of the agent after the perf. 
participle purgati, used in the adj. sense of excused or pardoned. Consult A. & G. 
232, a; B. 148, rkm. 2; G. 354; H. 388, 1. 

Line 4. purgatl, nom. plur., predicate after esse, of the participle pdrgdtus, -a, 
-um of the verb purgo, -are, -avi, -dtum, 1. Observe that the predicat e-ad j. is reg- 
ularly in the same case as the subject-nom. of vellent. esse, pres. inf. of the verb 

sum, esse, fui, futurus; here the copula. vellent, 3d pers. plur. imperf. sub- 

junctive of the irr. verb void , velle, volui. vellent agrees with its subject-nom. ei, 
referring to the persons denoted by the pron. his as a subst., 1. 2, above, vellent is 
in the subjunctive, because it is in protasis after si; the apodosis is involved in the 

compound purpose-clause uti conquirerent et reducerent. imperavit, 3d pers. 

sing. perf. ind. act. of the verb impero , -are, -dvi, -dtum, 1 ; it agrees with a pron. 
implied in the ending, referring to Caesar. The student will observe that the con- 
struction is virtual ordtio obliqua. What Caesar said, in direct form was: conquirete 
et reddeite f ugi tiros, si mi hi purgatl esse vultis. The English order of the Latin 
here is: imperdvit his, per quorum fines ierant, uti conquirerent, etc. 

Line 5. reduct 5 s, acc. plur. of the perf. pass, participle reductus, -a, -um of the 
verb reduco, -ere, -duxi, -due turn, 3 (re -|- ducere). reductos agrees with the pron. eos, 

to be supplied, which latter is the direct obj. of habuit. in, prep, with the acc. 

or abl.; here it takes the abl., and = among. See note on in, 1 . 1, Chap. I. 

hostium, gen. plur. of the noun hostis, -is, m. and f. ; as a gen. it limits the noun 
numero. Observe its position between the prep, and nurnerd; hostium is thus made 
emphatic. Synonyms: hostis == lit. a stranger; as a stranger is an object of sus- 
picion, hostis easily passed into the meaning of enemy; transf. =a public enemy; 
whereas inimicus (in, negative -{-amicus) = a private foe. 


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210 


caesar’s gallic war 


[CHAP. XXVIII. 


but all the rest, 
after thehostages 
and arms and de- 
serters had been 
delivered up, he 
allowed to sur- 
render. He or- 
dered the Helve- 
tii, Tulingi and 
the Latovici to 
return to the re- 
spective territo* 
ries from which 
they had migrat- 


numero habuit ; reliquos omnes obsidibus, e 

number he held; the rest all , hostages , 

armis, perfugls traditis in deditionem 7 

arms, deserters being delivered up into surrender 

accepit. Helve tios, Tulingos, Latovlcos in 8 

he received. The Helvetii, Tulingi , Latovici into 

fines suos, unde erant profecti, reverti 9 

territories their own, whence they had set out, to return 


Line 6. numerd, abl. sing, of the noun ttumerus , -i, m. numerd is the obj. of 

the prep, in habuit, 3d pers. sing. perf. ind. act. of the verb habed , -ere, - ui , 

•Hum, 2. Observe that the Latin habed , ger. haben , and English have are closely 
related words; they =to have , in the widest sense: to have in hand — to possess; to 

have in mind = to think , esteem , reckon. reliquds, acc. plur. of the adj. reliquus , 

1 a , - um , used substantively, and is the direct obj. of the verb accepit. For synonyms, 

see note on reliqua , 1 . 7, Chap. V. omnes, acc. plur. of the adj. omnis , - e , an 

i-stem; abl. ends in -i, gen. plur. in -ium. omnes is an attributive of reliquds , used 

as a noun. Obsidibus, abl. plur. of the noun obses , -idis, m. and f. (ob + sedere) ; 

hence the noun=tf//* ivho sits or remains against the fulfillment of some demand. 
obsidibus is in the abl. absolute construction with the perf. pass, participle trdditis. 

Line 7. armis, abl. plur. of anna , -drum, n. plur. armis is also abl. absolute 

with trdditis. perfugls, abl. plur. of the noun perfuga, - ae , f. (per + fugere). 

perfugls is used here loosely for fugitivis; perfugis is also in the abl. absolute con- 
struction with trdditis. Observe the omission of the conj. here between this series 
of words (asyndeton). See A. & G. 208, b , and 346, c; B. 123, REM. 6; G. 474, note; 

H. 554, 6. traditis, abl. plur. of the perf. pass, participle trdditus, -a, -um of the 

verb trddo, -ere, tradidi, traditum , 3; trdditis is in the abl. absolute with the three 

preceding nouns. Consult A. & G. 255; B. 192; G. 409; II. 431. in, prep, with 

the acc. or abl. ; here it takes the acc., and = into. deditionem, acc. sing, of the 

noun deditio, -on is, f. {tied ere, to give up); hence deditio — lit. a giving up to one, sur- 
render. deditionem is the obj. of the prep. in. 

Line 8. accepit, 3d pers. sing. perf. ind. act. of the verb accipio, -ere, -cepi, -< cep - 
turn, 3 (ad + capere) ; hence accipere = lit. to take to one's self, accepit agrees with a 

pron. implied in the ending as subject-nom., referring to Caesar. Helvetios, acc. 

plur. of the adj. Helvetius , -a, -um, used substantively, and as such the subject-acc. 
of the verb reverti, 1 . 9, below. As to this clan, see note on Helvetii, 1 . 16, Chap. I. 

Tulingos, acc. plur. of the proper noun Tulingi, -drum, m. Tulingos is also 

subject-acc. of the verb reverti. The Tulingi were a German people occupying ter- 
ritory immediately to the east of the Rauraci. Latovlcos, acc. plur. of the 

proper noun Latovici, -drum, m. Latovlcos is also a subject-acc. of the verb reverti. 
Observe in this series of words the omission of the conj. (asyndeton). The Latovici 

were also a German clan; they dwelt north of the Tulingi. in, prep, with the 

acc. or abl. ; here it takes the acc. ; after a verb of motion it indicates the limit of 
the motion. 

Link 9. fines, acc. plur. of the noun finis, -is, m. fines is the obj. of the prep. 
in. suds, acc. plur. m, of the poss. and reflexive pron. suus, -a, -um. suds is an 


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LINKS 10-12-1 


BOOK 1. 


211 


10 iussit ; 

he ordered; 

11 amlssls 

having been 


et, quod omnibus 

and , because, all 

doml nihil erat, 

lost, at home nothing was, 


frugibus 

the fruits 

quo 

by which 


12 famem tolerarent, Allobrogibus imperavit, 

hunger might be borne, to the Allobroges he gave orders, 


ed; and, as all 
the crops were 
destroyed and 
there was noth- 
ing at home to 
relieve hunger, 
he commanded 
the Allobroges to 


attributive of the noun fines ; it refers here not to the subj. of the leading verb, but 

to the subject-accusatives of the inf. reverti. unde (derivation dubious) ; as to 

relations of place, it = whence; sometimes, apart from place-reference, it denotes 

the source of men or things. erant profecti ( profecti erant), 3d pers. plur. 

pluperf. ind. of the deponent verb proficiscor, - cisci , profectus. erant profecti agrees 
with a pron. implied in the ending as subject-nom., referring to Ilelvetios , Tulingos 

and Latovicds. reverti, pres. inf. of the deponent verb revertor, -i, - versus ; its 

subject-accusatives are Ilelvetios , Tulingos , Latovicds. Observe that the act. form 
revertd, -ere, -verti is generally used in the perf. tenses, and the deponent form in the 
imperfect. 

Line 10. iussit, 3d pers. sing. perf. ind. act. of the verb tubed, -ere, iussi, ius- 
sum, 2. iussit agrees with a pron. implied in the ending as subject-nom., referring 

to Caesar. et, cop. conj.; it connects the sentences. quod, conj. = because. 

omnibus, abl. plur. f. of the adj. omnis, - e , an f-stem ; abl. omni; gen. plur. 

omnium, omnibus is an attributive of the noun frugibus. frugibus, abl. plur. 

of the noun frux,frt 7 gis (f ruor, f ructus); abl. absolute with the perf, pass, participle 
dmissis. Observe that from the derivations fruges — the fruits of the earth that 
may be enjoyed, i.e. generally pod-fruit ; whereas f ructus = tree-fruit; and f rumen- 
turn — cereal-fruit or grain. 

Line ii. amissis, abl. plur. f. of the perf. pass, participle amissus, -a, -um of 
the verb dmiito, -ere, -misi, -missum, 3 (a -f- mittere, to send away), dmissis is in the 

abl. absolute construction with the noun frugibus. domi, gen. sing, of the noun 

domus, -i, f. — called by the recent grammars the locative case. Consult A. & G. 

258, d; B. 176; G. 41 1, rem. 2; H. 426, 2. nihil, an indeclinable neuter noun, 

used only in the nom. and acc. cases, here it is subject-nom. of the verb erat. 

erat, 3d pers. sing, imperf. ind. of the intrans. verb sum, esse, fui, futurus. erat is 

here a verb of complete predication, and agrees with its subject-nom. nihil. 

qu 5 , abl. n. of the rel. pron qui, quae , quod ; it refers to the noun nihil; really an 
abl. of means = by which; but as this is a result-clause with the subjunctive, the 
quo is taken as = uteo. 

Line 12. famem, acc. sing, of the noun famis, -is, f. famem is the direct obj. 

of the verb tolerarent. tolerarent, 3d pers. plur. imperf. subjunctive act. of the 

verb tolero , -are, -dvi, - atum , 1 (stem strengthened from the radical tol, as seen in 
tollo ; compare the gk. roX/xdw). tolerarent agrees with the pron. ei as subject-nom., 
referring to the Helvetii, Tulingi and Latovici; it is the subjunctive of result after 
quo, which her e = uteo. Consult A. & G. 319, 2- B. 201, (£); G. 631, 2; II. 500, I. 

Allobrogibus, dat. of the noun Allobroges, -um, m.; dat. after imperavit — a verb 

of commatiding. See A. & G. 227; B. 142; G. 346, 2; H. 385, I. The Allobroges 
were a powerful Gallic clan that occupied the territory between the Rhone and the 

Isere rivers. imperavit, 3d pers. sing. perf. ind. act. of the verb impero, -are, 

-dvi, -dtum, 1 j its subject-nom. is Caesar, to be supplied. 


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I 


212 


CAESAK’s GALLIC WAR [CHAP. XXVIII. 


supply them with 
a sufficiency of 
grain ; /and he 
ordered the Hel- 
vetians them- 
selves to rebuild 
the towns and 
villages which 
they had burned. 
This order he 
gave chiefly for 
these reasons : 


ut els frumenti copiam facerent ; 13 

that for them of grain an abundance they should make ; 

ipsos oppida . vicosque, quos incenderant, u 

themselves towns villages and , which they had burned , 

restituere iussit. Id ea maxime 15 

to rebuild he ordered . That for this , especially , 


LiNfe 13. ut, conj. = lit. that; it introduces the purpose-clause, which is often 

best translated into English by the English inf. eis, dat. plur. of the dem. pron. 

is, ea, id, used as a personal pron. of the 3d pers. ; dat. of advantage. See A. & G. 

235; B. 145; G. 346; H. 384, II, 4. frumenti, gen. sing, of the noun frumetttum , 

-t, n. (frugi + mentum); frumenti, as a gen., limits copiam. copiam, acc. sing. 

of the noun copia , -ae , f. (con + ops), copiam is the direct obj. of facerent . 

facerent, 3d pers. plur. imperf. subjunctive of the verb facid, -ere, feci, factum, 3; it 
agrees with the pron. ei understood as its subject-nom., referring to Allobrogibus ; 
it is subjunctive of purpose after ut. See A. & G. 317; B. 200; G. 546, note i; 
H. 497, II. 

Line 14. ipsos, acc. plur. m. of the intensive dem. pron. ipse, - sa , -sum, gen 
ipsius, dat. ipsi. ipsos , i.e. Helvetios, is subject-acc. of the inf. restituere , 1. 1 5, below. 

oppida, acc. plur. of the noun oppidum , -i, n. oppidum (ops, aid -J- dare, to 

give) ; hence oppidum = lit. that which gives aid or shelter , i.e. a town — the proper 
word to designate any other town than Rome ; Rome is designated urbs. oppida is 

the direct obj. of restituere, I. 1 5, below. vicdsque (vicos + que). vicos is the 

acc. plur. of the noun vicus, -i, m. (digammated from ok. oIko %) ; hence it =a row of 
houses in town or country, vicos is very closely connected by the enclitic -que with 

oppida, and is in the same grammatical construction, que, enclitic conj. 

qu5s, acc. plur. m. of the rel. pron. qui, quae, quod; it refers to vicos, but is the 

direct obj. of the verb incenderant. incenderant, 3d pers. plur. pluperf. ind. act. 

of the verb incendo, -ere, -cendi, - censurn , 3 (in, intensive + candere) ; hence incendere 
= lit. to set fire to. incenderant agrees with Helvetii understood as its subject-nom. 

Synonyms: incendere — strictly, to set on fire ; urere = to consume with fire ; and 
cremdre = to destroy completely by fire, to burn to ashes . 

Line 15. restituere, pres. inf. act. of restituo , -ere, -ui, -iitum, 3 (re -(- statuere); 
hence = lit. to set up again. The subject-acc. of restituere is the emphatic pron. 
ipsds, in the preceding line. The sharp student of Latin will observe that all that 
precedes iussit, from the semi-colon, is logically the direct obj. of iussit; that in a 
complete analysis, ipsds . . . restituere is the infinitive-clause, ipsos being the subject- 
acc. of restituere , which latter is modified by the direct obj. oppida vicdsque; and 

the latter nouns are modified by the relative adjective-clause quos incenderant. 

iussit, 3d pers. sing. perf. ind. act. of the verb tubed, -ere, iussi, iussum, 2. iussit 

agrees with the noun Caesar understood. Id, acc. sing. n. of the dem. pron. is, 

ea, id, used substantively, and is the direct obj. of the verb fecit. The pron. id 

refers to the order which Caesar gave to the Helvetii to return home. ea, abl. 

sing. f. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id; it is an attributive of ratione. maxime, 

adv., superl. degree of the comparative magis . mdxime modifies the verb fecit 


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BOOK I. 


213 


BINES 16-19.] 


ic ratione feet, quod noluit eum locum, 

reason he did , because he was unwilling that place , 

17 unde Hllvetil discesserant, vacare ; ne 

whence the Helvetii had set out, to be vacant; lest 


is propter 
on account 


/ 


bonitatem agr5rum German!, 

bf the goodness of the fields, the Germans, 


19 qui trains Rhenum incolunt, e suis 

who across the lihine dwell, from their own 


because he did 
not wish that 
such a country, as 
that from wnich 
the Helvetii had 
migrated, should 
be left unoccu- 
pied ; and be- 
cause he feared 
that, on account 
of the fertility 
of the fields, 
the Germans who 
dwelt across the 
Rhine might 
cross from their 


Line i61 ratione, abl. sing of the noun ratio, - dnis , f. (reri, to reckon); hence 
ratio = lit. J a reckoning ; transf., a mode of reckoning ; hence mode, manner , etc. 
ratione is an abl. of manner without the prep, cum, as it has a modifier, ed. Con- 
sult A. & G. 248; B. 168; G. 399; H. 419, III. fecit, 3d pers. sing. perf. ind. 

act. of the verb facid, -ere, feci, factum, 3. fecit agrees with the subject-nom. Caesar, 

to be supplied. quod, conj. = because. ndluit, 3d pers. sing. perf. ind. act. 

of the irr. verb nolo , nolle , noltii (ne + volo). ndluit agrees with Caesar understood, 

as its subject-nom. eum, acc. sing. m. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id; it is an 

attributive of the noun locum. locum, acc. sing, of the noun locus, -i, m.; the 

plur. m. or n., i.e. loci or loca; see note on loci, 1 . 10, Chap. II. locum is the subject- 
acc. of the inf. vaedre. 


Line 17 . unde, adv.; see note on this particle, 1. 9 , above. Helvetii, nom. 

plur. of the adj. Helvetius , -a, - um , used substantively ; subject-nom. of the verb dis- 
cesserant. discesserant, 3d pers. plur. pluperf. ind. act. of the verb discedo, -ere, 

-cessi, - cessum , 3 (dis-j-cadere) ; hence discedere = lit. to go apart, discesserant agrees 

with its subject-nom. Helvetii, expressed in the text. vacare, pres. inf. of the 

neuter or intrans. verb vaco, -dre, -dvi, - dtum , 1 ; its subject-acc. is locum, in the pre- 
ceding line. Note that the signification of this neuter verb is: to be vacant, to be 
unoccupied, to lie waste. ne, conj. — the particle to introduce negative purpose. 


Line 18. propter (prope), an adv. sometimes, and sometimes a prep.; here a 

prep, with the acc. bonitatem, acc. sing, of the noun bonitds, - tdtis , i. {bonus). 

bonitdtem is the obj. of the prep, propter. agrorum, gen. plur. of ager, agri, m. ; 

as a gen. it limits the noun bonitdtem. Observe the emphatic position of the phrase 
propter bonitdtem agrorum ; this phrase is an adverbial modifier of trdnsirent, 1 . 20, 
below. As to synonyms, agri = the fields, the open country , in opposition to the 

town; whereas fines = land enclosed within borders. German!, -drum, m. (rep- 

liavol), subject-nom. of the verbs trdnsirent and essent , lines 20 and 22, below. The 
Germans were the eastern neighbors of the Gauls, occupying the territory between 
the Rhine, the Danube and the Vistula. 

Line 19 . qui, nom. plur. of the rel. pron. qui, quae, quod, gen. cuius, dat. cui. 
qui refers to Germani, as its antecedent, but is the subject-nom. of the verb incolunt. 

trans, prep, with the acc. Rhenum, acc. sing, of the noun Rhetius, -i, m. 

Rhenum is the obj. of the prep, trdns. This river, in Caesar’s time, formed the 


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214 


caesar’s gallic war 


[CHAP. XXVIH. 


borders into those 
of the Helve- 
tii, and become 
neighbors to the 
province of Gaul 
and to the Allo- 
broges. He gran- 
ted the request 
of the Aedui to 
settle the Boii 


finibus in Helvetiorum fines transirent et 20 

borders into the Helvetian borders should cross , and 

finitimi Galliae pr 5 vinciae Allobrogibusque 21 

neighbors to the Gallic province to the Allobroges and , 

essent. Boios, petentibus Aeduis, quod 22 

should be. The Boii , asking the Aedui, because 


boundary between Gaul and Germany. incolunt, 3d pers. plur. of the verb 

incold , -ere, -col id, 3 (in + colere) ; hence = to live in a place, incolunt agrees with 

its subject-nom. qid. e, prep, with the abl. (e before consonants only, ex before 

vowels or consonants). sms, abl. plur. of the poss. and reflexive pron. suus ,- a , 

-um. sids refers to Germ did, the subj. of the subordinate clause tte . . . Germdnt 
. . . trdnsirent ; but sids is an attributive of the noun finibus. 

Link 20. finibus, abl. plur. of finis , -is, m. ; it is the obj. of the prep. e. 

in, prep, with the acc. or abl. ; here it takes the acc. after a verb of motion, and = 

into. As to the various significations of this prep., see note on in, 1 . 1, Chap. I. 

Helvetiorum, gen. plur. of the adj. Helvetius , -a, -um, used as a subst. ; as such, it 
limits fines . Note the emphasis that is put on Helvetiorum by its position — 

between the prep, and its obj. fines, acc. plur. of the noun finis, -is, m. ; it is 

the obj. of the prep. in. As to synonyms, see note on agrorum, 1 . 18, above. 

transirent, 3d pers. plur. imperf. subjunctive act. of the verb trdnseo, -ire, -ivi ( -ii ), 
-itum, 4 (trans -f- ire, to go across ). trdnsirent agrees with its subject-nom. Gemidni, 
1 . 18, above ; it is the subjunctive of negative purpose after the particle tie. Consult 

A. & G. 317; B. 200; G. 545, 3; II. 497, II. et, cop. conj.; it connects the 

clauses. 

Line 21. finitimi, nom. plur. of the adj. finitimus, -a, -um (finis), used as a 

subst. finitimi is predicate after essent. Galliae, gen. sing, of the noun Gallia, 

-ae, f.; Galliae, as a gen., limits the noun provinciae. provinciae, dat. sing, of 

the noun provincia, -ae, f.; it is, in fact, a dat. after finitimi — an adj. of nearness, 
though finitimi here has a substantive use. As to the syntax, see A. & G. 234, a ; 

B. 144; G. 359; H. 391, I. Allobrogibusque (Allobrogus que). Allobrogibus 

is the dat. plur. of the proper noun Allobroges, -um, m. Allobrogibus is connected 
very closely with the noun provinciae, and is in the same grammatical construction. 
que , enclitic conj. = and. 

Link 22. essent, 3d pers. plur. imperf. subjunctive of the neuter or intrans. 
verb sum, esse, fui, futurus ; essent is connected by the conj. et, 1. 20, above, with 
the verb trdnsirent, and is in the same grammatical construction, in every respect. 

Boios, acc. plur. of the proper noun Boii, -drum, m. Boios is the direct obj. of 

the verb col{n)locarent. Observe that the noun Boios is taken out of the clause 
where it naturally belongs, i.e. in the clause ut in finibus suis collocdrent, and is 
placed at the beginning of the sentence for emphasis. The Boii were a people of 
Celtic Gaul, their territory lying between the Loire and Allier rivers. A part of 
this clan emigrated to Germany, and a part to northern Italy. I take the construc- 
tion here to be indicated by the following drdo: Aeduis petentibus , ut in finibus suis 

Boios collocdrent, quod egregid virtute erant cognid, concessit. petentibus, dat. 

plur. of the pres, participle petens, - ntis of the verb peto, -ere, -ivi (-//), -itum, 3. 
petentibus, as a participle, agrees with the noun Aeduis, and is followed by the pur- 


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LINES 23-25.) 


BOOR I. 


215 


23 egregia 

of distinguished 

24 finibus suls 

borders their 

25 ill! agros 
they fields 


virtute erant cognitl, ut 

valor they had been known , that 

col(n)lociirent, concessit ; quibus 

they might locate , he granted; to whom 

dederunt quosque postea in 

gave whom and , afterwards , into 


ill | within their own 
borders, because 
they had been 
known to be men 
of eminent valor. 
And the Aedui 
gave them fields; 
and, subsequent- 


pose-clause ut . . . collocdrent. Aeduis, dat. plur. of the adj. Aeduus , -a, - um , 

used as a noun. Aeduis is the indirect obj. of the — here — intrans. verb concessit. 
quod, conj. = because. 

Line 23. egregia, abl. f. of the adj. egregius , -a, um (e + grex = out of the herd, 

i.e. choice, eminent), egregia is an attributive of the noun virtute. virtute, abl. 

sing, of the noun virtus , -utis, f. (vir, the male, man, hero), virtute is an abl. of 
quality with the adj. egregia. Consult A. & G. 251 ; 1$. 169; G. 400; II. 419, II. 

Observe that the abl. of description here is an essential part of the predicate. 

erant Cdgnitl (cogniti erant), 3d pers. plur. pluperf. ind. pass, of the verb cognoscd, 
-ere, -novi, cdgnitum, 3. erant cognitt (cognitt erant) agrees with ei understood as 

subject-nom., referring to Boids . ut, conj. in, prep, with the acc. or abl.; 

here it takes the abl. 

Link 24. finibus, abl. of the noun finis , -is, m. ; see note on fines , 1 . 9, above. 

finibus is in the abl. case after the prep. in. suis, abl. sing, of the poss. and 

reflexive pron. suits, -a, -inn ; it refers to the Aedui ; it is an attributive of finibus. 

collocarent, 3d pers. plur. imperf. subjunctive of the verb col(n)locd, -are, -dvi, 

-dtum, 1. conlocdrent agrees with the subject-nom. implied in the ending, referring 
to the Aedui ; it is the subjunctive of purpose after the conj. ut, expressing the 
purpose of petentibus. Consult A. & G. 331 ; B. 200, REM. 2 ; G. 546, 1 ; II. 498, I. 

concessit, 3d pers. sing. perf. ind. act. of the verb concedo, -ere, -cessi, -cessurn, 3; 

if agrees with a pron. implied in the ending as subject-nom., referring to Caesar. It 
will be noticed that concedere is both a neuter and an act. verb; or, in other words, 
it is sometimes transitive and sometimes intransitive. We regard it here as in- 
transitive; it is often thus used. Observe also that some critics take petentibus as 
an abl. absolute with the noun Aeduis ; that others regard the ///-clause as the direct 

obj. of the verb concessit. quibus, dat. plur. m. of the rel. pron. qui, quae, quod; 

it refers to the Boii, but is the indirect obj. of dederunt. Observe that quibus, at 
the beginning of a sentence = et eis. Consult A. & G. 180,/; B. 129, rem. 9; 
G. 610; II. 453. 

Line 25. illi, nom. plur. of the dem. pron. tile, -la, -lud, gen. illius, dat. tilt — 
same form as nom. plur. illi, in the text = the Aedui; and its use indicates that, 
as a clan, they were powerful and also well-known. See A. & G. 100, a, 101, 102, b,f\ 
B. 82, 1, 84, 3, and rkms. 1, 2, 5 ; G. 104, III, 307, 1,2; II. 186, III, 450, 4. illi is the 

subject-nom. of dederunt. agros, acc. plur. of the noun ager, agri, m. agros is 

the direct obj. of dederunt. For synonyms, see note on agrum, 1. 12, Chap. II. 

dederunt, 3d pers. plur. perf. ind. act. of the verb dedd, -ere, didi, ditum, 3 (de + 
dare, to give over), dederunt agrees with its subject-nom. illi in number and person. 

quosque (quos -{- que). quds is the acc. plur. m. of the rel. pron. qui, quae, 

quod; it refers to the Boii, but it is the direct obj. of receperunt, 1. 27, below. 

que, enclitic conj.; connects the clauses. postea (post 4* ea), adv. ; it modifies 

reciperunt. in, prep, with the acc. or abl. ; here it takes the acc. 


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216 


[CHAP. XXIX. 


Caesar’s gallic war 


ly, received them 
into the same con- 
dition of rights 
and privileges as 
they had them- 
selves. 


parem iuris libertatisque 

an equal , of right liberty and , 

atque ipsl erant, receperunt. 

as themselves were , they received . 


condicionem, 26 
condition 

27 


XXIX. In the 
camp of the Ilel- 
vetii, lists written 
in Greek charac- 
ters were found 


XXIX. In castris Helvetiorum tabulae i 

In the camp of the Helvetii tablets 

repertae sunt litteris Graecls confectae et 2 

were found in letters Greek made and 


Line 26. parem, acc. sing. f. of the 3 d), far, farts, farern is an attributive of 

the noun condic(t)io. iuris, gen. sing, of the noun ius, iuris , n. ; as a gen. iuris 

limits condicionem. Synonyms: ius = legal right; whereas fds = divine right. 

libertatisque (libertatis + que). libertdtis is the gen. sing, of the noun libertds , 

tdtis , f. ( liber , free). que, enclitic conj. ; observe how closely the nouns are joined 

by the use of -que. COndic(t)iSnem, acc. sing, of the noun condicid , -onis (derived 

from condere through condi care), hence = a statement of terms, condition, etc. con- 
dicionem is the obj. of the prep. in. 

Line 27. atque (ad + que), conj.; it usually = and or and also; but after words 
meaning comparison or likeness it = than or as. Consult A. & G. 156, a, end; 
B. 217; G. 643, and note 3 ; II. 459, 2. Here atque after the phrase in farern con- 
dicionem = as. ipsl, nom. plur. m. of the intensive dem. pron. ifse, -sa, -sum. 

if si refers to the Aedui, but it is subject-nom. of the verb erant. erant, 3d pers. 

plur. imperf. ind. of the neuter or intrans. verb sum, esse,fui,futurus. erant agrees 

with its subject-nom. if si expressed. receperunt, 3d pers. plur. pluperf. ind. act. 

of the verb red fid, -ere, - cefi,-ceflum , 3 (re -f- capere) ; hence red fere — lit. to take 
back; then transf. it = to take to one's self, i.e. to receive, receferunt is connected by 
the conj. -que very closely with dederunt, and has the same subject-nom., viz. illi, 
referring to the Aedui. 

Line i. In, prep, with the acc. or abl. ; here it takes the abl. For difference 

of signification after verbs of motion and rest, see note on in, 1 . 1, Chap. I. 

castris, abl. plur. of the noun castrum, -i, n. ; in the sing. = a fort; in the plur. = a 

fortified carnf. castris is the obj. of the prep. in. Helvetiorum, gen. plur. of the 

adj. Helvetius, -a, -urn, used substantively. Helvetiorum, as a gen., limits the noun 

castris. As to the Helvetian clan, see 1 . 16, Chap. I. tabulae, nom. plur. of the 

noun tabula, -ae, i. tabulae is subject-nom. of the pass, verb refertae sunt. With 
tabula compare the French and English word table, tabula, in the sing. = lit. a board ; 
in the plur. = writing-boards or tablets spread with wax, on which written letters were 
made with the stilus (sometimes written stylus, compare gk. <ttu\os), usually pointed 
and made of iron. 

Line 2. repertae sunt, 3d pers. plur. perf. ind. pass, of referid, -ire, ref[f]eri , 
refertum, 4 (re + parere = lit. to find again), refertae sunt agrees with its subject- 
nom. tabulae. The student will observe that this compound tense is made up of the 
perf. pass, participle and the verb sunt; that the participle part of it agrees in 

gender, number and case with its subject-nom. litteris, abl. plur. of the noun 

littera , -ae, i. (often litera). litteris here is in the abl. of manner. See A. & G. 248 ; 
B. i6b; G. 399; 11.419, III. Observe that littera, in the sing. = a letter of the 


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LINES 3-6.] 


BOOK I. 


217 


3 ad Caesarem 

relatae, 

quibus 

in 

tabulis 

to Caesar 

brought , 

which 

on 

tablets 

4 nominatim ratio 

confecta erat, 

qui 

numerus 

by name an estimate was made , 

what 

number 

6 domo exisset 

eorum, 

qui 

arma 

ferre 

from home had gone 

of those , 

who 

arms 

to bear 


and brought to 
Caesar; and in 
these, an estimate 
was made in de- 
tail as to the 
number of those 
that had left 
home who could 
bear arms; and 


alphabet ; in the plur. = either letters , or an epistle made up of the letters of the al- 
phabet. Graecis, abl. plur. f. of the adj. Graecus , -a, -um (gk. Tpaucbs ) ; Graects 

is an attributive of the noun litteris . Observe that the phrase litteris Graecis here 
= in Greek letters — not in the Greek language. The Gauls, even in Caesar’s time, 
had no alphabet of their own ; and hence they borrowed the Greek letters from the 

colonists of Marseilles. cQnfectae, nom. plur. f. of the perf. pass, participle con - 

fectus, -a, -um of the verb conficio, -ere, -feet , -fee turn, 3 (con + facere). cdnfectae , as 

a participle, agrees with the noun tabulae . et, cop. conj. ; connects repertae sunt 

with relatae (sunt). 

Line 3. ad, prep, with the acc.; used here with a noun after a verb of motion 

— after according to the English way of speaking. Caesarem, acc. sing, of the 

proper noun Caesar , -arisy m. Caesarem is the obj. of the prep. ad. relatae 

(sunt), 3d pers. plur. perf. ind. pass, of the verb referdy -ferrey retuliy re latum . relatae 
(sunt) is connected by the conj. et with repertae sunty and is in the same grammatical 

construction. quibus, abl. plur. f. of the rel. pron. qui , qttaey quod ; used both 

relatively and adjectively; as a rel. it refers to tabulae , 1. 1, above; as an adj. it 

agrees with tabulis. in, prep, with the acc. or abl. ; here it takes the abl. But 

note its position between the noun and its modifier, and consult A. & G. 345, a ; 
B. 58. 2; G. 413, REM. 1; H. 569, II, 1. Note also that the noun to which a relative 
refers is often repeated in a phrase in Latin; but that this noun need not be repeated 
in the English translation. Note, further, that in such construction as we have here, 
the rel. phrase would better be translated as a dem. phrase, i.e. instead of in which 
iettersy translate and in these letters. Consult A. & G. 180,/; B. 129, rem. 9; G. 610, 
REM. 1 ; H. 453. tabulis, abl. plur. of tabula , -ae, f. ; obj. of the prep. in. 

Line 4. nominatim, adv. (derived from nomindre [nomen for (g)nomen from 
(g)nosco, compare gk. 7 v6w]); hence nominatim — lit. by name. This adv. modifies 

the verb confecta erat. ratio, nom. sing, of the noun ratio, - onis , f. (from res 

through ret = to reckon), ratio is the subject-nom. of confecta erat. confecta 

erat, 3d pers. sing, pluperf. ind. pass, of the verb conficio, - ere , feet , f return, 3 ; it 

agrees with its subject-nom. ratio. qui, nom. sing. m. of the interrogative pron. 

quis or qui , quae , quid , here used adjectively, modifying the noun numerus. Observe 
that the interrogative form of the pron. in the nom. m. sing, is either quis or qui. 

numerus, nom. sing, of the noun numerus, -1, m. numerus is the subject-nom. 

of the verb exisset. 

Line 5. dom5, abl. sing, of the noun domus, -its, or -/, f.; the form domi is 
locative, domo is here the abl. of place from which without a prep. Consult A. & G. 
258, 2, a ; B. 175; G. 390, 2; H. 412, II, 1. exisset, 3d pers. sing, pluperf. sub- 

junctive act. — shortened form for exivisset — of exed, -ire, -ivi (-»), -Hum. exisset 
agrees with the subject-nom. numerus ; it is in the subjunctive, because it is an in- 
direct question. Consult A. & G. 334 ; B. 242 ; G. 467 ; II. 529, I. edrum, gen. 

plur. m. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id, used here as a personal pron. of the 3d pers. ; 


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218 


caesar’s gallic war 


[CRAP. XXIX. 


also separately, 
as to the num- 
ber of boys, 
old men, and 
women. The ag- 
gregate number 
according to all 
these lists was 


possent, et 

were able , and 

mulieresque. 

women and . 

summa erat 

the .s um watt , 


item separatim puerl, senes, 6 

also separately the boys , old men , 


Quarum 

Of which 

capitum 

of heads 


omnium rationum 7 

all numbers 

Helvetiorum mllia 8 

of the Ilelvetii thousands 


as a gen. it limits the noun ttumerus. qui, nom. plur. m. of the interrogative 

pron. quis, quae , quid, qui is the subject-nom. of the intrans. verb possent. 

arma, acc. plur. of the noun arma , - drum , n. plur. anna is the direct obj. of the 
verb ferre. Synonyms : arma (from GK. Apeiv, to fit) = lit. armor fitted to the body. 
Hence arma — arms both offensive and defensive, such as sword, ax and club; 

whereas tela — arms , missiles used at a distance. ferre, pres. inf. act. of the irr. 

verb fero , ferre , tuli, latum (compare gk. <f>£p(o). ferre is a complementary inf., 
depending on possent. Consult A. & G. 271 ; B. 181 ; G. 423; H. 533, I, 2. 

Line 6. possent, 3d pers. plur. imperf. subjunctive of the intrans. verb possum , 
posse, potui (potis, able sum) ; it agrees with its subject-nom. qui , and is in the sub- 
junctive, because it is an indirect question. See grammatical references to exisset , 

1. 5, above. et, cop. conj.; connects the clauses. item, adv. (radical 1, 

whence is + adverbial ending tern), hence = in that manner, so, also. separatim, 

adv. (acc. of an assumed nom. in -tis; or rather the adv. is from a stem as seen in 
separdtus from separdre). But see A. & G. 148, f. e ; B. 117, 7 ; G. 91, 1 ; H. 304, I. 
separatim, as an adv., modifies confecta erat , to be supplied from the preceding. 
Supply the lacuna here thus : et item separatim ratio cdnfecta erat qui ttumerus 

essent puerl, etc. pueri, nom. plur. of the noun puer , pueri , m. ; subject-nom. of 

essent understood, of which qui ttumerus is the predicate. This construction is 
awkward ; but about the best that we can suggest. One critic supplies here per- 
scripti erant = 7 oere enumerated , of which pueri, senes , mulieresque are subject-nom- 
inatives. The regular construction would be genitives limiting ttumerus understood. 

senes, nom. plur. of the adj. settex , seuis , used substantively ; or one may supply 

homines, senes is connected by et understood with pueri , and is in the same gram- 
matical construction. 

Line 7. mulieresque (mulieres-h que). mulieres, nom. plur. of the noun rnulier, 
mulieris , f. que, enclitic conj.; it connects mulieres with senes, and is in the same 
grammatical construction. Observe that a Latin sentence, ending in an enclitic -que, 

is not to be imitated. Quarum, gen. plur. of qui, quae , quod, used adjectively ; 

as such, it limits the noun rationum . Observe that at the beginning of the sentence 

quantm — et earutn. See A. & G. 180,/; B. 129, rem. 9; G. 610; H. 453. 

omnium, gen. plur. of the adj. otnttis , -e, an f-stem, as seen in this case, and also in 
the dat. and abl. sing, omnium is an attributive of the noun rationum. ratio- 

num, gen. plur. of the noun ratio, -onis, f. ; as a gen. it limits the noun summa. 

Line 8. summa, nom. of the noun summa, -ae, f. (derived from the adj. summus, 

1 a , -titn, i.e. supply res), summa is the subject-nom. of the verb erat. erat, 

3d pers. sing, imperf. ind. of the neuter or intrans. verb sum, esse,fui, fut. participle 

futurus ; it agrees with its subject-nom. summa. capitum, gen. plur. of the noun 

caput , - itis , n. capitum is partitive gen. after rnilia. Consult A. & G. 216, 2; 

B. 134 ; G. 370 ; H. 397, 2. capitum — lit. of heads, i.e. of souls. Helvetiorum, 

gen. plur. n. of the adj. Ilelvetius,-a,-um. llelvetiorum is an attributive of the noun 
capitum. As to this clan, see note on Helvetii, 1 . 16, Chap. I. milia, nom. plur. 


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LINES W 2 ,] 


BOOK I. 


219 


9 ducenta et sexiiginta tria, Tulingorum 

two hundred and sixty- three , of the Tulingi 

10 mllia trlginta sex, Latovlcorum 

thousands thirty- six , of the Latovici (thousands) 

11 quattuordecim, ltauricorum vlgintl 

fourteen , of the liaurici ( thousands ) twenty- 

12 tria, Boiorum trlginta duo ; ex 

three , of the Boii (thousands) thirty- two; of 


two hundred and 
sixty-three thou- 
sand souls of the 
Helvetii, thirty- 
six thousand of 
the Tulingi, four- 
teen thousand of 
the Latovici, 
twenty-three 
thousand of the 
Raurici, thirty- 
two thousand of 
the Boii ; of such 


n. of the adj. mille = a thousand, mille in the sing, is an indecl. num. adj.; in the 
plur. mllia or mi Ilia — thousands, and as a subst. it is declinable throughout; gen. 
plur. milium , dat. and abl. mllibus. mllia is predicate-nom. after erat. 

Line 9. ducenta, nom. plur. n. of the cardinal num. adj. ducenH t -ae, - a . ducenta 

is an attributive of mllia , used as a noun. et, cop. conj.; it connects ducenta 

and sexdgintd. sexaginta (sibilated from the gk. ^koktci); indecl. cardinal 

num. adj.; connected by the conj. et with ducenta , and in the same grammatical con- 
struction. tria, nom. plur. n. of the decl. num. adj. tres, tres , tria. tria is also 

an attributive of mllia. Observe that the entire phrase mllia ducenta et sexdgintd 
tria might be expressed thus: mllia CCLXIII , and is thus expressed in some 

editions. Tulingorum, gen. plur. of Tulingi , -brum, m. ; partitive gen. after mllia. 

See grammatical references to capitum in the preceding line. The Tulingi were a 
German clan, dwelling east of the Raurici, near the Rhine. 

Line 10. mllia is here in the same grammatical construction as mllia in 1 . 8 , 

above, i.e. predicate-nom. after erat. trlginta, indecl. cardinal num. adj.; an 

attributive of mllia. sex (gk. ££), an indecl. num. adj.; also an attributive of 

the noun mllia. ' Observe that the phrase mllia trlgintd sex is often expressed thus : 

mllia XXXVI. Latovlcorum, gen. plur. of the noun Latovici , -drum , m. ; gen. 

partitive after mllia, to be supplied, which mllia is to be disposed of, as to its 
syntax, like mllia in lines 8 and 10, above. The common text reads here Laiobrl- 
gorum instead of Latovlcorum. 

Line ii. quattuordecim (quattuor-}- decern); quattuordecim is an attributive of 
mllia, used as a substantive, to be supplied, quattuordecim is frequently indicated 

by the Roman letters XIV, or by XIIII. Rauricdrum, gen. plur. of Raurici, 

-drum, m.; it is sometimes spelled Rauracorum ; it, as a gen., limits mllia, to be 

supplied. The Raurici were a Celtic people on the upper Rhine. vlgintl, 

indecl. cardinal num. adj.; it is an attributive of mllia understood. 

Line 12. tria, nom. plur. n.; attributive of mllia understood. The phrase 

vlgintl tria is sometimes indicated by the Roman letters XXIII. Boiorum, 

gen. plur. of the proper noun Boil , -drum, m. ; as a gen. it limits mllia, to be 
supplied. These people dwelt in central Gaul. A part of the clan migrated 

to the Hyrcanian forest, Germany ; a part to northern Italy. trigintk, an 

indecl. cardinal num. adj.; it modifies mllia understood. duo, decl. cardinal 

num. adj. As to the declension of duo, see note on tria, 1 . 9, above, duo is also an 
attributive of the noun mllia. The phrase trlginta duo is indicated by the Roman 
letters XXXII. It will be observed that in the various parts of the sentence as 


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220 


caesab’s gallic war 


[CHAP. XXIX. 


as could bear I 
arms, there were 
about ninety-two , 
thousand. The 
sum total of 
these people was 
about three- 
hundred and six- 
ty-eight thou- 


his, qul • 
those , who 

nonaginta 
ninety - 


arma ferre possent, ad mllia 13 

arms to bear were able , about thousands 

duo. Summa omnium fuerunt 14 

two (were). The sum of all were 


ad mllia trecenta et sexaginta octo. 15 

about thousands three hundred and sixty - eight. 


analyzed, milia ^ used as a noun, is to be supplied ; and that in each position, as 
supplied, it is in the same grammatical construction as the tnilia in 1. 8, above, 

i.e. they are predicates after erat , of which verb the subject-nom. is summa. 

ex, prep, with the abl. (e before consonants only, ex before vowels or consonants). 

Line 13. Ms, abl. plur. of the dem. pron. hic y haec , hoc , used substantively; 
obj. of the prep, ex; but the construction is, in fact, partitive after the noun mllia 
in this line; ex his , as a phrase, is used instead of the gen. ho rum. Consult A. & G. 

216, 4, c; B. 134, REM. 2; G. 372, REM. 2; H. 397, 3, NOTE 3. qui, nom. plur. of 

the rel. pron. qul , quae t quod ; it refers to his as its antecedent, but is the subject- 

nom. of the verb possent. arma, acc. plur. of the noun arma , - drum , n. plur. 

arma is the direct obj. of the verb ferre. For derivation, see note on arma y 1 . 5, 

above. ferre, pres. inf. act. of the irr. verb fero, ferre , tuli y latum, ferre is 

complementary inf., depending on possent. Consult A. & G. 271 ; B. 181 ; G. 423; 

H. 533, I, 2. possent, 3d pers. plur. imperf. subjunctive of the intrans. verb 

possum y posse y potui (potis -+- sum); it agrees with its subject-nom. qui; subjunctive 
in a result or characteristic clause. Consult A. & G. 320; B. 201, rem. i, («); G. 631 ; 

H. 503, I. ad, generally a prep., but here with numerals it = circiter y about; 

as an adv. it modifies the adj. nondgintd. mllia, nom. plur.; subj. oi fuerunt , 

to be supplied. 

Line 14. nonaginta, indecl. cardinal num. adj.; it modifies milia, used as a 

noun. duo, decl. cardinal num. adj.; see note on duo y 1. 12, above, dud also 

modifies tnilia. The phrase nondgintd dud is sometimes indicated by the letters 

XCII. Summa, nom. sing, of the noun summa , -ae y f. summa is the subject- 

nom. of the verb fuerunt — the verb in number conforming to the predicate-nom. 

milia . As to summa y see note on this word, 1 . 8, above. omnium, gen. plur. of 

the adj. omnis y -e y gen. omnis y dat. and abl. ornni — an i-stem. omnium is here used 
substantively, and, as a gen., limits the noun summa; or numerdrum may be sup- 
plied, and then omnium would be its attributive, and numerdrum would limit summa. 

fuerunt, 3d pers. plur. perf. ind. of the irr. verb sum y esse y fui y fut. participle 

futurus; it agrees with the plur. predicate-nom. milia y instead of the sing, subject- 
nom. summa; the construction is somewhat anomalous; but see A. & G. 204, b ; 
B. 130, REM. 1 ; G. 21 1, REM. 1, EXC. (</) ; H. 462. 

Line 15. ad, usually a prep., but here an adv., and = circiter; see note on ad y 

I. 13, above. milia, nom. plur. n. of the adj. milia y milium y milibus ; see note on 

milia, 1. 13, above; here milia is predicate-nom. after fuerunt. trecenta, nom. 

plur. n. of the cardinal num. adj. trecenti y -ae y -a. trecenta is an attributive of the 
noun milia. Observe that the hundreds, from ducenti to nonagenti (200-900) inclu- 
sive, are declined like the plur. of bonus. et, cop. conj.; it here connects the 

numerals trecenta and sexdgintd. sexaginta (sibilated from ck. i^Kovra), an 

indecl. num. adj. ; it is connected by et with trecenta , and is in the same grammatical 
construction. octo (<;k. 6#crt£), an indecl. cardinal num. adj.; connected by et 


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LINES 16 - 19 .] 


BOOK I. 


221 


16 E5rum, qui 

Of those , who 

17 habito, 
having been had , 

is repertus est 
was ascertained 
19 et decem. 
and ten. 


domum redierunt, . censu 

home returned , an enumeration 

ut Caesar imperaverat, 

as Caesar * had ordered , 

numerus milium centum 

the number of thousands a hundred 


sand. When a 
census was taken 
by Caesar’s or- 
der, of those that 
had returned 
home, the num- 
ber was found to 
be one hundred 
and ten thou- 
sand. 


understood with sexaginta , and in the same construction. The phrase trecenta et 
sexdgintd odd is often indicated in the classics by the Roman letters CCCLXVIIf. 

Line i6. E 5 rum, gen. plur. m. of the dem. pron. is, ea , id, used substantively; 

as a gen. it limits censu , at the end of this line. qui, nom. plur. m. of the rel. 

pron. qui , quae , quod, qui is the subject-nom. of the verb redierunt. domum, 

acc. sing, of the noun dotnus , - its , f. ; domi , locative gen. domum is the locative acc. 
— end of motion without a prep, after the verb redierunt. Consult A. & G. 258, (£); 
B. 154, rem. 1 ; G. 337; H. 380, II, 2, 1). — — redierunt, 3d pers. plur. perf. ind. act. 
of the verb reded , -ire, -ivi (-//), - itum , 4 (re [red] + Ire, to go back), redierunt agrees 
with its subject-nom. qui. Observe that redierunt is formed by syncope from the 

full form rediverunt. censu, abl. sing, of the noun census , -us, m. {cense re, lit. 

to weigh), censu is in the abl. absolute with the perf. pass, participle habito. 

Line 17. habit 5 , abl. sing. m. of the perf. pass, participle habitus , -a, -urn of the 
verb habeo, -ere , -ui, -itum, 2. habito is in the abl. absolute construction with the 
noun censu, denoting time when. Consult A. & G. 255; B. 192; G. 409, 410; H. 431. 

ut, adv. here, and = a.r; and so generally when used with the indicative mode. 

— 1 — Caesar, -aris, m., proper noun ; subject-nom. of the verb imperaverat. 

imperaverat, 3d pers. sing, pluperf. ind. act. of the verb impero, -are, -dvi, -a turn, 1 ; 
it agrees with its subject-nom. Caesar in number and person. 

Line 18. repertus est, 3d pers. sing. perf. ind. pass, of the verb reperio, -ire, 
rep(p)eri, repertum , 4; pass, parts: reperior, reperiri, repertus (re + pario); hence = 

lit. to procure or find again, repertus est agrees with its subject-nom. numerus. 

numerus, -I, m. (radical the same as gk. v 6 /ios) ; hence = that which is distributed, 

a number, numerus is the subject-nom. of the verb repertus est. milium, gen. 

plur. of the adj. milia, -ium, used substantively, and as a gen. of specification, limit- 
ing the noun fiumerus. See A. & G. 214 ,/• B. 127, rem. 8; G. 361 ; H. 396, VI. 
centum, indecl. cardinal num. adj.; modifies milia. 

Line 19. et, cop. conj.; it connects centum and decem. decem (gk. Sixa). 

decem is connected by et with centum, and is in the same grammatical construction. 
The construction here is somewhat anomalous, centum and decem might be taken 
as predicate-adjectives after the pass, verb repertus est. Then milium might be taken 
as an adnominal gen. after numerus; or as the partitive after centum et decem. The 
phrase centum et decem is sometimes indicated by the Roman letters C et X . 
According to the account here, the Galli before the battle numbered 368,000; 
after the battle, 110,000. Hence 368,000 — 110,000 = 258,000 of all the clans per- 
ished. But the sum total of the Helvetii, according to the narrative, was 263,000. 
Hence 263,000 — 110,000= 153,000 Helvetians perished. Ancient authorities differ 
as to the number slain or lost. Strabo says 400,000 Gauls perished. Plutarch makes 
the number 300,000. But Polyaenus makes the number of the Helvetii 80,000. 


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222 


caesar’s gallic war 


[CHAP. xxx. 


XXX. At the 
close of the war 
with the Helve- 
tia envoys from 
almost all Gaul, 
the chiefs of the 
states came to 
Caesar to con- 
gratulate him. 
They said that 
they knew that, 
though for the 
Helvetians* an- 
cient wrongs to 


XXX. Bell5 HclvetiSrum confecto 1 


totlus 

of entire, 
civitatum, 
of the states. 


The war of the Helvetii being finished, 

fere Galliae legiitl, principes 2 

almost,, Gaul, the legates, chiefs 

ad Caesarem gratuliitum 3 

to Caesar to congratulate (him) 


convenerunt: Intellegere sEse, tametsl4 

came together: To know themselves (they knew), although 

pro veteribus Helvetiorum iniuriis popull 5 

for old Helvetian wrongs of (to) the people 


Line i. Bello, abl. sing, of btllum, -i, n. bello, abl. absolute with the perf. pass, 
participle confecid , denoting time when. See A. & G. 255; B. 192; G. 409; H. 431. 

Compare also 1 . 15, Chap. I. Helvetiorum, gen. plur. of Helvetius , -a, -um, used 

substantively ; it limits the noun bello. confecto, abl. sing. n. of the perf. pass. 

participle confectus, - a , -um of the verb confcio, -ere, -feci , fectutn, 3 ; abl. absolute 
with bello. 

Line 2. totius, gen. sing. f. of the adj. toffs, -a, -um, gen. totius, dat. toff, totlus 

limits Galliae. Compare 1 . 7, Chap. II. fere, adv. (fero, compare 1 . 17, Chap. I); 

it modifies the adj. totius. Galliae, gen. sing, of Gallia, -ae, i. ; it limits legdti. 

The Gallia here meant is Celtica. legati, nom. plur. of legdffs, -i, m. (legere, to 

despatch), legdti is subject-nom. of the verb couvcucnuit. legdffs = any one with 

delegated authority. principes, nom. plur. of the adj. princeps, -ipis (primus + 

capere), used here substantively; connected by et omitted with the noun legdti, and 
in the same grammatical construction. 

Line 3. civitatum, gen. plur. of civitds,-dtis (elves); it limits principes. ad, 

prep, with the acc. Caesarem, acc. sing, of Caesar, -aris ; obj. of ad, expressing 

the limit of motion after the verb convenerunt. gratulatum, supine of the 

deponent verb grdtulor, -dri, -dtus (graffs). This supine in -um denotes the purpose 
after convenerunt, a verb of motion. Consult A. & G. 302; B. 186; G. 435; II. 546. 
After grdtu latum supply eum as its direct object. 

Line 4. convenerunt, 3d pers. plur. perf. ind. act. of convenio, -ire, -vent, -ven- 

ffm, 3 ; it agrees with its subject-nominatives legdti and principes. Intellegere, 

pres. inf. act. of intellegd (compare 1 . 6, Chap. X). Intellegere here in indirect dis- 
course is for intellegimus of direct discourse. Consult A. & G. 336, 1, and espec. 2; 

B. 245, 1, (a); G. 650; II. 523, I. sese, acc. plur. reduplicated 3d personal pron., 

for se; acc. plur. of sui, sibi, se, se — same form in both numbers; subject-acc. of the 

inf. intellegere. sese is for nos in direct discourse. tametsi (tamen + etsl), conj. 

= lit .yet even if, i.e. although. 

Line 5. pro, prep, with the abl. veteribus, abl. plur. of the adj. vetus, 

-eris ; attributive of the noun iniuriis. Helvetiorum (Helvetius, -a, -um), used 

substantively; gen. subjective limiting the noun iniuriis. iniuriis, abl. plur. of 

iniuria, -ae, f. (in + ins) ; obj. of the prep. pro. popull, gen. sing, of the noun 

fopulus, -i, m.; objective gen. depending on the noun iniuriis. Here are two gen- 
itives depending on one substantive. For the syntax of Helvetiorum , see A. & G. 
214; B. 131, rem. 2; G. 363, 1 ; II. 396, I. For syntax of popull , see A. & G. 217, (b); 
B. 1 31 , rem. 2; G. 363, 2; II. 396, III. For synonyms, see note on popull , 
1 . 17, Chap. III. 


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LINES 6-10.] 


BOOK I, 


223 


6 Romani 

ab 

his 

poenas 

bello 

Roman 

from 

them 

penalties 

in tear 

7 repetisset, 


tamen earn 

rem non 

minus 


he had demanded back, yet that thing not less 

8 ex usu terrae Galliae quam popull 

for the use of the land Gaul than of the people' 

o Romani accidisse ; proptereti quod 

Roman to have happened; for the reason because 

io eo consilio fldrentissimls rebus 

with this plan, most flourishing (being) the affairs, 


the Roman peo- 
ple, he had taken 
satisfaction from 
them in war, yet 
that that event 
had happened no 
less to the ad- 
vantage of the 
Gauls than to the 
Roman people ; 
because the Ilel- 
vetii had left 
their homes when 
their affairs were 
very prosperous 


Line 6. Romani, gen. sing. m. of Romdnus , -a, -urn; attributive of the noun 

populi . Mark the order of the w'ords in this phrase. ab, prep, with the abl. 

his, abl. plur. of the dem. pron. hie, haec, hoc, used as a personal pron. of the 

3d pers.; obj. of ah; refers to l egad and principes, I. 2, above. poena s, acc. plur. 

of poena, - ae , f. ; direct obj. of repetisset. be lid, abl. sing, of helium, -i, n.; see 

1 . 15, Chap. I. hello is an abl. of means . Consult A. & G. 258,/, 1 ; B. 167; G. 401 ; 
H. 425, II, 1) and 2). 

Line 7. repetisset, 3d pers. sing, pluperf. subjunctive of repetd, -ere, -pefa't (-«), 
-pedtum, 3 (re + petere) ; hence = lit. to seek again ; agrees with Caesar understood; 
subjunctive after tametsi , concessive. See A. & G. 313, c ; B. 21 1, (/*); G. 604, 2; 

H. 515 , 2. repetisset is both a syncopated and contracted form for repedvisset ; see 

A. & G. 128, 2; B. 251 ; G. 1 31, 1 ; II. 235. tamen, adv. =yet; used in opposi- 
tion to the concessive tametsi. earn, acc. sing. f. (is, ea , id); attributive of the 

noun rent. rem, acc. sing, of res, rei, f. n5n, adv. ; modifies the adv. minus . 

minus, adv.; qualifies the phrase ex usu = the adj. useful. 

Line 8. ex, prep, with the abl. usu, abl. sing, of usus, -us, m.; obj. of the 

prep. ex. To see the force of ex in the phrase ex usu, supply and translate earn rem 
non minus ex usu . . . accidisse thus : that this thing happened to be not less of use. 

terrae, of terra, -ae, f.; objective gen. after iisii. Galliae, gen. sing, of 

Gallia, -ae, f. ; limits terrae as an appositive, and is = the adj. Gallicae. quam, 

conj. quam follows minus, a comparative; and in such construction = than. 

populi, gen. sing, of populus, m.; connected by the conj. quam with the noun 
terrae, and is in the same grammatical construction. 

Line 9. Romani, gen. sing, of the adj. Romdnus, -a, -um; attributive of populi. 
See note on populi Romdni, lines 5 and 6, above. accidisse, perf. inf. act. (see 

I. 2, Chap. XIX); .its subject-acc. is the noun rem, 1. 7 , above. propterea, adv.; 

herald of the following ^rW-clause, and is explained by it. quod, conj. = because . 

See note on these particles, 1 . 9, Chap. I. 

Line io. eo, abl. sing. n. (is, ea, id); adnominal or attributive of consilio. 

Cdnsilid (consilium, -i, n.); abl. of manner. See A. & G. 248; B. 168; G. 399; 

H. 419 , III. For synonyms, see 1 . 5 , Chap. XVIII. florentissimis, abl. plur. f. 

florentissimus, -a, -um, superl. degree; positive Jlore?is, participle of the verb flored, 
-ere, -ui, 2; abl. absolute with rebus, denoting time when. Consult A. & G. 255, a; 

B. 192, rem. 1 ; G. 409; II. 431, 4. rebus, plur. (res, rei, f.); abl. absolute with 

the adj. florentissimis. 


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224 


caesae’s gallic war 


[CHAP. XXX. 


with the purpose 
of bringing war 
upon all Gaul 
and of winning 
the sovereignty ; 
and then to select 
from the wide 
domain such a 
place for a dom- 
icile as they judg- 
ed to be the most 
convenient and 
fertile in all Gaul, 


domos suas Helvetii rellquissent, uti u 

homes their the Uelvetii had left , that 

totl Galliae bellum Inferrent is 

on entire Gaul war they might bring 

imperioque potirentur locumque domicilio 13 
sovereignty and, they might possess place and, for a home 
ex magna copia deligerent, quem u 

from the great plenty (of places) they might choose , which 

ex omni Gallia opportunissimum ao 15 

out of all Gaul the most opportune and 


Line ii. dom&s, acc. plur. of domus, -us t -i locative; direct obj. of rellquissent. 
For synonyms, see note on aedificia , 1 . 7, Chap. V. domus is partly of the 2d, and 

partly of the 4th declension. suas, acc. plur. f. (suns, -a, -um) ; attributive of 

domos. Observe that the possessives oftener than otherwise follow their nouns. 

Helvetii, nom. plur. m. of Hclvetius , -a, -um, used substantively; subject-nom. of 
rellquissent. Observe how emphatic both Helvetii and the phrase eo cdnsilid are 

made by a shift of positions. rellquissent, 3d pers. plur. pluperf. subjunctive 

(see 1 . 1, Chap. IX); agrees with its subject-nom. Helvetii ; subjunctive, because in a 
subordinate clause in ordtio obliqua. utl, conj. 

Line 12. totl, dat. sing. f. (see 1 . 7, Chap. II); attributive of Galliae. 

Galliae, sing. f. ; dat. after in in the compound verb Inferrent. Consult A. & G. 228; 

B. 143; G. 347; II. 386, 1. bellum, acc. sing, of bellum, -f, n. ; direct obj. of 

inferrent; it is, in fact, the direct obj. of the ferrent- part of the compound. 

Inferrent, 3d pers. plur. imperf. subjunctive of the irr. verb infero , ferre , - tuli \ 
il(n)ldtum. Inferrent agrees with a proi\. implied in the ending, referring to Helvetii 
as subject-nom.; it is the subjunctive of purpose after the particle utl. 

Line 13. imperioque (imperio-|- que). imperib is the abl. of imperium , -F, n. ; 
abl. after the verb potirentur. See A. & G. 249; B. 167, 1 ; G. 407; H. 421, 1. que , 
enclitic conj.; connects very closely the verbs Inferrent and potirentur. Synonyms: 

imperium — military power ; whereas regnum • (revere, to rule) = royal power. 

potirentur, 3d pers. plur. imperf. subjunctive of the verb potior, - iri, - titus , 4 ( potis , 
powerful), potirentur is connected by - que with inferrent , and is in the subjunctive 

of purpose for the same reason. locumque (locum 4- que). locum is the acc. 

sing, (see 1 . 10, Chap. II); direct obj. of deligerent. domicilio (domic ilium, - ii, , n.); 

dat. of purpose after the verb deligerent. Consult A. & G. 233, b\ B. 147, rem. i ; 
G. 356, note 1 ; II. 390, II. 

Line 14. ex, prep, with the abl. magna, abl. sing. f. of rndgnus, -a, -um; 

attributive of the noun cdpid. c 5 pia, abl. sing, (see 1 . 6, Chap. II); obj. of the 

prep. ex. The phrase here = ex mdgnd locorum cdpid. deligerent, 3d pers. plur. 

imperf. subjunctive (see 1 . 12, Chap. Ill); connected by -que with potirentur , and is, 

in every respect, in the same grammatical construction. quem, acc. sing. m. 

(qui, quae, quod); refers to locum as its antecedent, but is subject-acc. of esse t to 
be supplied. 

Line 15. ex, prep, with the abl. Omni, abl. sing. f. ( omnis t -e) t an F-stem ; 

and hence retains the -i in the abl. sing. ; attributive of the noun Gallid. Gallia, 

abl. sing.; obj. of ex. The phrase ex omni Gallid is an adverbial modifier of the 
predicate-adjectives opportunissimum and fructudsissimum. opportunissimum, 


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LINES 16-19.] 


BOOK I. 


225 


16 fructu5sissimum iudicassent, reliquasque 

the most productive they had judged, the remaining and, 

n civitates stipcndiarias haberent. Petierunt, 

states as stipendiaries they might hold . They asked , 

is ut sibi concilium t5tius Galliae in 
that to themselves a council of entire Gaul to 
19 diem certam indlcere idque Caesaris 

a day certain to proclaim, this and, with Caesar's 


and hold the rest 
of the states as 
tributaries. They 
requested to be 
allowed to ap- 
point a council of 
all Gaul for a 
certain day by 
Caesar’s special 


acc. sing. m. of the superl. degree ; positive opportunus (ob + portus) ; hence oppor- 
tiinus — at the port or harbor, i.e. seasonable, safe, advantageous; comparative -tor, 

superl. - issimus , -a, -um; predicate-ad j. after esse, to be supplied. ac, conj. (see 

atque, 1. io, Chap. I); connects the adjectives; its function is not, in such use, essen- 
tially different from et. 

Line i6. fructuosissimum, acc. sing. m. of the superl. degree; positive friic - 
tuosus; comparative fructuosior {fructus, fruit); connected by dc with opportunism 

simurn , and in the same grammatical construction. iudicassent, 3d pers. plur. 

pluperf. subjunctive act. of the verb iudico, -dre, -dvi, -dtum, I (ius -{- dico) ; hence 
iudicdre = lit. to examine judicially ; and then transf. from the judicial function, to 
think. For synonyms, see note on arbitrabalur, 1. 9, Chap. XIX. iudicdssent is a 
syncopated and contracted form for iudicdvissent. v is syncopated, and then d + / 
are contracted into d. Consult A. & G. 128, 2; B. 251 ; G. 131, 1 ; If. 235. iudicds * 
sent agrees with a pron. implied in its ending as its subject-nom., referring to the 
Helvetii; subjunctive, because it stands in a subordinate clause in the d 7 ‘dtio obllqua. 

reliquasque (reliquas -f que). reliquds, acc. plur. f. of reliquus, -a, - um (re 

linquo); hence reliquus = lit. that which is left behind. reliquds is an attributive 
of civitdtes. que, enclitic conj.; connects very closely the verbs deligerent and 
haberent . 

Line 17. civitates, acc. plur. of civitds, -dtis , f. {elves) ; direct obj. of haberent. 
stipendiaries, acc. plur. f. of siipendiarius, -a, -um ( stipendium ), used as a sub- 
stantive-predicate appositive of civitates. The sdpendidrii are the vanquished who 

pay stipendium or tribute-money. haberent, 3d pers. plur. imperf. subjunctive 

of habeo, -ere, -ut, -Hum, 2 ; connected by -que with deligerent , 1. 14, above, and is, 
therefore, the subjunctive of purpose after uti, 1. 11, above. The oratio recta of 
lines 4-17: Intellegimus nos, tametsi pro veteribus Helvetiorum iniuriis popul! 
Romani ab his poenas bello repetiisd {repetivisti), tamen hauc rem non minus ex usu 
terrae Galliae quam populi Romani accidisse; propterea, quod hoc consilio floren- 
tissimis rebus domos suas Helvetii rellquerunt, uti toti Galliae bellum inferrent 
imperioque potirentur locumque domicilio ex magna copia deligerent, quern ex omni 
Gallia opportunissimum ac fructuosissimum iudiedverunt, reliquasque civitates sti- 
pendiarias haberent. Petierunt, 3d pers. plur. perf. ind. act. of petd, -ere, -tvt, 

-itum, 3. Syncopated for the full form petiverunt; agrees with legdti understood as 
subject-nom. 

Line 18. ut, telic conj. sibi, dat. plur. (sui, sibi, se, se); dat. of the indirect 

obj. after liceret, 1. 20, below. concilium, acc. sing. ; direct obj. of indlcere, of 

which verb se is to be supplied as subject-acc. See 1. 5, Chap. XVIII. totlus, 

adj., gen. sing. f. ; attributive of Galliae. Galliae, noun, gen. sing.; limits con- 
cilium. in, prep. ; here it takes the acc. 

Line 19. diem, acc. f. of dies, died, m. or f. in the sing.; always m. in the plur. 
(compare 1. 5, Chap. IV). diem here is the obj. of in. certam, acc. sing. f. of 


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226 


CAESAR S GALLIC WAR 


[CHAP. XXX. 


consent. They 
said that they 
had some busi- 
ness as to which 
they wished to 
consult him by 
the common con- 
sent. Their re- 


voluntate facere liceret ; sese 20 

permission to do. it might be lawful ; themselves 


habere quasdam 

to have (they have) certain 

communi consensu ab 

the common consent of 


res, quas ex 21 

things , which from 

eo petere vellent. 22 

him to ask they wished. 


certus , -a, -um; attributive of diem. For an explanation of this phrase, see note on 
the phrase in tertiam annum , 1 . io, Chap. Ill, and also A. & G. 259, b\ B. 120, 3; 

G. 418, 1 ; H. 435, I, 2. indicere, pres. inf. act. of the verb indico, - ere , - dixi , 

-dictum , 3 (in + dlcere) ; hence indicere = lit. to speak into a place, i.e to speak publicly ; 
here it = to appoint. Observe that the subject-acc. of indicere is se understood, and 
that the subject-acc. is usually omitted when it precedes in the dat. case, as here in 

sibi, the indirect obj. of liceret. idque (id -+- que). id is the acc. sing. n. of the 

dem. pron. is, ea , id, used substantively; id is the direct obj. of the verb facere; it 

refers to the idea contained in indicere concilium. Caesaris, gen. sing. m. of the 

proper noun Caesar , -art's, m. Caesaris, as a gen., limits voluntdte. 

Line 20. voluntate, abl. sing, of voluntds, - dtis , f.; abl. of in accordance with 
Consult A. & G. 253, note; B. 162, rem. 3; G. 397; H. 416. For synonyms, see 
voluntdte, 1 . 19, Chap. VII. facere, pres. inf. of /add, -ere, feci, factum, 3; con- 
nected by -que with indicere , and in the same grammatical construction. liceret, 

3d pers. sing, imperf. subjunctive of the impersonal verb licet, licuit, licitum est ; 
subjunctive of purpose after ut telic. This purpose-clause as a noun-clause is the 
direct obj. of petierunt. Consult A. & G. 331 ; B. 200, rem. 2; G. 546, 1; II. 498, 1 , 1. 
The ordtid recta of lines 17-20: Petimus, ut nobis concilium totlus Galliae in diem 
certam indicere hocque voluntate tud liceat. It will be noted that the legdti make 
their requests now in the first person; that in the speech antecedent to petierunt, 
they have been treating of the Helvetii, and their punishment for former wrongs 

done to the Roman people ; and also of their design in migrating from home. 

sese, for se, reflexive pron., plur. ; subject-acc. of the verb habere, sese is for nos in 
direct discourse. 

Line 21. habere, pres. inf. act. of habeo, -ere, -ui, - itum , 2; its subject-acc. is the 

pron. sese. quasdam, acc. plur. f. of the indefinite pron. quidam t quaedam , quod- 

dam, adj., or quiddam , subst. qudsdam is an attributive of the noun res. res, 

acc. plur. of res, rei, f. ; direct obj. of habere. quas, acc. plur. of the rel. pron. 

qui, quae, quod ; refers to res, but is itself the direct obj. of petere. ex, prep. 

with the abl. 

Line 22. communi, abl. sing. m. of the adj. communis, -e (con + munlre, to serve 

together ) ; hence communis = common, communi is the attributive of consensu . 

consensu, abl. sing, of consensus, -its, m. ; obj. of ex. ab, prep, with the abl. 

eo, abl. sing. m. (is, ea, id) ; used as a personal pron. of the 3d pers., referring 

to Caesar, eo is the obj. of ab. petere, pres. inf. act. of peto, -ere, -ivi (-ii), 

-Hum, 3. petere is a complementary inf. See A. & G. 271 ; B. 181 ; G. 423; H. 533, 
I, 1. Observe that many verbs of asking take two accusatives — one of the person, 
another of the thing; but that peto usually takes the acc. of the thing, and the abl. 

of the person with a or ab. vellent, 3d pers. plur. of the irr. verb void, velle, 

volui; agrees with legdti understood; in the subjunctive, because in a dependent 
relative-clause in drdtio obliqua. The oratio recta of lines 20-22 : nos habemus quas- 
dam res, quas ex communi consensu abs te petere volumus . 


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LINES 23-26.] 


BOOK I. 


227 


23 Ea re permissa diem concilio 

This thing being permitted, a day for a council 

24 constituerunt et iureiurando, ne quis 

they appointed and by oath, that not any one 

26 enuntiaret, nisi quibus communi 

should report, unless (they) to whom in the common 

26 consilio mandatum esset, inter se sanxerunt. 

council it had been assigned, among themselves decreed . 


Line 23. Ea, abl. sing, (is, ea, id); attributive of re. re, abl. sing, (res, ret); 

abl. absolute with the perf. pass, participle denoting time when. Consult A. & G. 

2 55» <4 1 ; B. 192; G. 409; H. 431, 2. permissa, abl. sing. f. of the participle 

permissus , -a, -um of the verb permittd, -ere, -misi, mis sum , 3 ; permissa is abl. 

absolute with the noun re. diem (see 1. 19, above), direct obj. of cdnstituemnt. 

concilio, dat. sing, of concilium, -i, n. ; dat. of purpose after constituerunt. Con- 
sult A. & G. 233, b\ B. 147, rem. 1 ; G. 356, note i ; II. 390, II. 

Line 24. cdnstituerunt, 3d pers. plur. perf. ind. act. of constituo, -ere, -tit, 
•\ utum , 3; agrees with the pron. implied in the ending as subject-nom., referring to 

legdti and to principes civitatum mentioned in lines 2 and 3, above. et, cop. 

conj.; connects constituerunt and sanxerunt, 1. 26, below. iureiurando, abl. of 

the compound noun iusiurandum, iurisiiirandi, n. (ius -f- iurandum) ; dat. iiiri- 
iurandd; abl. of means. Observe that both parts of this compound noun are 
declined; but that the gen., dat. and abl. plur. are wanting. Consult A. & CL 77, 

6, a; B. 45; G. 47, 5; II. 125, 126. ne, neg. particle, conj., and — that not. 

quis, indef. pron. — quis, quae, quid ; usually found with si, ne and num. Some- 
times written thus: siquis , nequis, numquis. quis is the subject-nom. of the verb 
enuntiaret. 

Line 25. enuntiaret, 3d pers. sing, imperf. subjunctive of enuntio, -are, -azi, 
1 dtum , 1 ; agrees with quis ; supply rem as direct obj.; it is the subjunctive after the 

telic particle ne — negative purpose. nisi (ne -f si), conj. quibus, dat. plur. 

(qui, quae, quod); refers to the pron. ei understood, and is the indirect obj. of the 
pass, verb manddtum esset Consult A. & G. 225, e; B. 140 ; G. 345, Passive Form; 
H. 384, I. communi, abl. sing. n. ; attributive of consilio. 

Line 26. consilio, abl. sing, of cdnsiliutn, -i, n. ; locative abl. considered as 
means. See A. & G. 258,/, 1, 2; B. 170, rem. 4; G. 389; II. 425, II, 1, 1). Observe 
that consilid appears to have the same sense here as concilio, 1. 23, above. But see 

note on concilium, 1. 5, Chap. XVIII. mandatum esset, 3d pers. sing, pluperf. 

subjunctive pass, of mandd, -dre, -dvi, -dtum ; pass, parts: mandor, -ari, mandatus. 
Observe that this pluperf. subjunctive pass, is a compound tense made up of the 
perf. pass, participle and of the imperf. subjunctive — esset — of the verb esse; that 
manddtum esset is here used impersonally; and that it is in the subjunctive mode, 
because it is in a dependent relative-clause in virtual oratio obliqua. manddtum 
esset, however, might be taken personally by supplying the noun ius = legal right, 
as the subject-nom. esset, 3d pers. sing, imperf. subjunctive of the neuter or intrans. 
verb sum, esse,fui,fuiurus; used here in the formation of the pluperf. subjunctive 
— manddtum esset. inter, prep, with the acc. se, acc. plur. ; obj. of inter . 


quest was grant- 
ed, and they ap- 
pointed a day for 
a council ; and 
they mutually 
ratified by an 
oath that no one 
should report the 
proceedings ex- 
cept such as had 
an order given 
them by the gen- 
eral council. 


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228 


CAESAR’S GALLIC WAR 


[CHAP. XXXI. 


XXXI. After 
this assembly 
was dismissed, 
the same chiefs 
of the states, as 
had been to Cae- 
sar before, re- 
turned to him, 
and requested the 
favor of confer- 
ring with him 
apart, in a secret 
place, concerning 


XXXI. Eo concilio dimisso, eldem 1 

That council being adjourned , the name 


principes 

clvitatum, qui 

ante 

fuerant, 

ad 2 

chiefs 

of the states , who 

before 

had been , 

to 

Caesarem 

reverterunt 

petieruntque, 

Utl 3 

Caesar 

returned 

asked and , 

that 

sibi 

secreto in occulto 

de 

sua 4 

to themselves 

secretly in 

private 

concerning 

their , 


The phrase inter se denotes a reciprocal relation. See A. & G. 196 ,f; B. 78, rem. 4; 

G. 221 ; H. 448, note. sanxerunt, 3d pers. plur. perf. ind. act. of sancid , - ire , 

sdnxi, sdnctum , 4; agrees with a pron. implied in its ending as its subject-nom., 
referring to legdti and principes civitdtum , lines 2 and 3, above. From ne quis to 
manddtum esset inclusive the discourse is virtual dratid obliqua , depending on sanxe- 
runt. What was thought, put in the direct form, and filling ellipses was: Nemo 
enuntidbit rem , nisi ei, quibus commit ni consilid mandatum fuerit . 

Line i. E 5 , abl. sing. n. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id; attributive of the noun 

concilio . concilio, abl. sing, of concilium , -ii, n. (some critics form the gen. sing. 

of nouns in -ium or - ius with one 1, e.g. concilt; abl. absolute with ditnisso , denoting 
the time of the action. The council here referred to is that indicated in the preced- 
ing chapter. dimisso, abl. sing. n. of the perf. pass, participle dimissus , - a , -um 

of the verb dim it to, -ere, -misty -mis sum , 3; abl. absolute with concilio. Consult 

A. & G. 255 ; B. 192 ; G. 409; H. 431. eldem, nom. plur. m. of the iterative dem. 

pron. idem , eadem , idem ; attributive of principes. Observe that other forms of the 
nom. plur. are iidem and idem. 

Line 2. principes, nom. plur. of the adj. princeps , -ipis, used as a subst. prin- 
cipes, as a noun, is the subject-nom. of the verbs reverterunt and petierunt. 

civitatum, gen. plur. of civitas, - dtis y f. (ewes) ; limits principes. qui, nom. plur. 

of the rel. pron. qui t quae, quod; refers to principes as its antecedent, and is the 

subject-nom. of the verb fuerant. ante, adv. and prep. ; here an adverb, and = 

before. The sense requires the supplying of the phrase apud eum t i.e. Caesaretn , 

immediately after the adv. ante . fuerant, 3d pers. plur. pluperf. ind. of the 

neuter or intrans. verb sum, esse,fni,futtirus; agrees with its subject-nom. aui in 
number and person. ad, prep, with the acc. after a verb of motion. 

Line 3. Caesarem, acc. sing.; obj. of ad. reverterunt, 3d pers. plur. perf. 

ind. act. of the verb reverto , - ere , -i, neuter (active forms used in the perf., deponent 
revertor, -i, - versus in the imperf. tenses), reverterunt agrees with its subject-nom. 

principes . petieruntque (petierunt + que). petierunty 3d pers. plur. perf. ind. 

act. of the verb peto , -ere t -ivi (-/'/), - itus . que , enclitic conj.; it closely connects 

petierunt with reverterunt , and has the same subject-nom. — principes. utl, telic 

conj.; uti is the original form, though ut is, in use, more common. 

Line 4. sibi, dat. plur. of the reflexive pron. sui , sibi, se , se (the same form in 
both numbers), sibi is dat. of the indirect obj. after the verb licerety 1. 6, below. 

secreto, adv. = privately , apart, secreto is, in fact, abl. n. of secretus , -a, -um, 

participle of the verb secerno , -ere, -crevi, - cretum , 3. in, prep.; here it takes the 


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LINES 5-8.] 


BOOK L 


229 


5 omniumque 

salute 

cum 

eo 

agere 

of all and , 

safety 

with 

him 

to treat 

e liceret. 

Ea 

re 

impetrata 

it may be permitted. 

This 

thing 

having been obtained 

7 sese omnes 

flentes 

Caesari ad 

pedes 

themselves all 

weeping 

to Caesar at 

the feet 

8 proiecerunt : 

Non 

minus 

se 

id 

they threw ( saying ) , 

: Not 

less 

themselves 

for that 


their own safety 
and the safety of 
all. When their 
request was grant- 
ed, they all, in 
tears, cast them- 
selves at Caesar's 
feet, saying that 
they strove no 
less anxiously 


abl. occultd, abl. sing, of the participle occultus, - a , -um of occulo , - ere , - culm , 

-< culium , 3. occultd is strictly an attributive of loco understood, which loco is the obj. 
of the prep. in. The phrase in occultd \ however, may be treated as an adv. Some 
copies omit the phrase in occultd, the editors viewing it as a gloss explanatory of 
secreto; but the phrase is in the MSS. Observe that secreto indicates that the chiefs 
wished to confer with Caesar alone; whereas the phrase in occultd denotes that they 

wished to confer with him without the knowledge of any one. de, prep, with 

the abl. —from or concerning. Compare note on de, 1 . 27 , Chap. XIX. sua, 

abl. sing. f. of suus, -a, -um; attributive of salute, to be supplied from the following 
salute. 

Line 5. omniumque (omnium -j- que). omnium is the gen. plur. of the adj. 

omnis , -e, used substantively ; limits salute expressed. que , enclitic conj. 

salute, abl. sing, of the noun saliis, salutis , f. salute is connected by the enclitic 
-j que with salute understood, and is in the same grammatical construction, i.e. the 
obj. of the prep. de. Observe that, with ellipsis supplied, the text is : de sud salute 

omniumque salute. cum, prep, with the abl. eo, abl. sing. m. of the dem. 

pron. is, ea, id, used as a personal pron. of the 3d pers.; obj. of cum; refers to 
Caesar. agere, pres. inf. act. of ago, -ere, egi, actum , 3. 

Line 6. liceret, 3d pers. sing, imperf. subjunctive of the impersonal verb licet, 
licuit, licitum est, 2. Observe (1) that, though this verb is styled impersonal, yet, in 
fact, the phrase cum eo agere is its subject ; (2) that liceret is a subjunctive of pur- 
pose after uti; or rather (3) the clause uti . . . liceret expresses the purpose of rever - 

ierunt petieruntque. Consult A. & G. 331 ; B. 200, rem. 2; G. 546, 1 ; H. 498, I. 

Ea, abl. sing, f.; attributive of re. re, abl. sing, of the noun res, ret, f.; abl. 

absolute with impetratd . impetrata, abl. sing. f. of the perf. pass, participle 

impetrdtus , -a, -um of the verb impetro, -are, - dvi , -dtum, I (in, intensive + patrare, to 
procure, especially by request); abl. absolute with the noun re. See A. & G. 255; 
B. 192 ; G. 409, 410; H. 431. 

Line 7 . sese, see 1 . 4, Chap. XXX ; direct obj. of the verb proiecerunt. 

omnes, nom. plur. m. of the adj. omnis, -e, used substantively. flentes, nom. 

plur. of the pres, participle fens, -ntis of the \ex\> fled, fere, Jtevi,fletum, 2; attrib- 
utive of the subj. (el understood) of the verb proiecerunt. Caesari, sing.; dat. 

0/ reference, instead of the poss. gen. Consult A. & G. 235, a; B. 145; G. 350, 1; 

H. 384, 4, note 2. ad, prep, with the acc. pedes, acc. plur. of pes, pedis, m.; 

obj. of ad. Observe that the rigidly literal translation of Caesari ad pedes is : to 
Caesar at the feet. 

Line 8. proiecerunt, 3d pers. plur. perf. ind. act. (compare 1 . 4, Chap. XXVII); 
agrees with a pron. implied in its ending as its subject-nom., referring to principes, 

I . 2, above. The reader will observe that the following Non . . . viderent, lines 8-14, 


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230 


CAES Alt’s GALLIC WAR 


[CHAP. XXXI. 


that what they 
said might not 
be told than that 
they might attain 
their wishes ; in- 
asmuch as they 
saw that if their 
information were 
bruited abroad, 


contendere et 

to strive and 


labdrare, ne 

labor , that not , 


ea, 9 

those thing 8 


quae dlxissent, enuntiarentur, quam utl 10 

which they had spoken , should be disclosed , than that 


ea, quae 

those things , which 

proptereii quod, 

for this reason because , 


vellent, impetrarent ; n 

they wished , they might obtain ; 

si enuntiatum esset, 12 

if it should have been disclosed , 


is in the ordtid obllqua or indirect discourse ; and that these clauses depend on the 
verb proiecerunt. Perhaps it will clarify the construction to supply et dixerunt 
immediately after proiecerunt. N 5 n (ne + oe[u]num, apocopated), adv. ; it mod- 
ifies the adv. minus. minus, adv., comparative degree of parum or parve; 

superl. minim e. minus modifies contendere et labdrare. se, plur. ; subject-acc. 

of contendere et labdrare ; refers to principes , 1. 2, above. id, sing. n. (is, ea, id) ; 

cognate acc. after the verb contendere and labordre. See A. & G. 238, b; B. 150, 
kkm. 2; G. 333, 2; II. 371, I, 2, 2); id is the herald, so to speak, of the following 
purpose-clauses, which are, in fact, appositives to id. 

Line 9. contendere, pres. inf. act. (see 1 . 18, Chap. I). et, cop. conj. 

labdrare, pres. inf. act. of the finite verb labdrd, -dre , -avi, - dtum , I (labor). ne, 

telic con). = that not or lest. ea, nom. plur. n. (is, ea, id); used substantively 

(or supply the English word things) as the subject-nom. of enuntidrentur. 

Line 10. quae, acc. plur. n. of the rel. pron. qut, quae, quod; refers to ea as its 

antecedent, but is the direct obj. of dlxissent. dlxissent, 3d pers. plur. pluperf. 

subjunctive of the verb died, -ere, dixl, dictum, 3; in the subjunctive mode, because 
it is in a dependent clause in drdtio obltqua; or, better, because quae dlxissent is a 
clause of characteristic. The ordtid recta requires the subjunctive mode in such con- 
structions. enuntiarentur, 3d pers. plur. imperf. subjunctive pass, of the active 

enuntid, -dre, -dvi, -dtum, 1 ; agrees with a pron. implied in the ending as subject- 
nom., referring to principes, 1. 2, above; subjunctive of negative purpose after tie, 

quam, here = conj. with word of comparison, viz., the adv. minus , 1. 8, above. 

utl, see note on this word, 1. 3, above. 

Line ii. ea, acc. plur. n. (is, ea, id); used substantively as the direct obj. of 

impetrdrent. quae, acc. plur. n. (qul, quae, quod); refers to ea as its antecedent, 

but is the direct obj. of vellent. vellent, 3d pers. plur. of the imperf. subjunctive 

of the irr. verb void, velle, volul; agrees with a pron. implied in its ending as subject- 
nom., referring to principes, 1 . 2, above. As a subjunctive it comes under the general 
law of a dependent clause in the ordtio obllqua ; but, better, because quae vellent is a 

clause of characteristic. impetrarent, see 1 . 7, Chap. IX. Observe that the clause 

utl . . . impetrdrent , no less than the clause ne . . . enuntidrentur , depends on conten- 
dere and labordre. 

Line 12. propterea, adv. (see 1 . 9, Chap. I). quod, conj. Observe that 

quod, the conj., is really an adverbial acc. n. of the rel. pron. qul , quae, quod, mean- 
ing, usually, as to what, in that; and hence = because. si, conditional conj. 

enuntiatum esset, 3d pers. sing, pluperf. subjunctive pass, of the act. verb enuntid , 
-dre, -d 7 'I, -dtum, 1 ; enuntiatum esset is here used impersonally; or id, as subj., may 
be supplied, referring to the idea contained in quae dixissent, 1. 10, above. 


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LINES 13 - 17 .] 


BOOK I. 


231 


>3 summum 
extreme 
14 viderent. 
they saw. 

is Aeduus : 
the Aeduan : 


in cruciatum se ventures 

into , torture themselves about to come 

Locutus est pro Ills Divitiacus 

Spoke for them Divitiacus 

Galliae tStius factiones esse 

Of Gaul entire , parties to be (there are) 


16 duas ; harum alterius prlncipatum tenere 

two; of these, of one the leadership to hold (hold) 

17 Aeduos, alterius Arvernos. Hi cum 

the Aedui; of the other the Arverni. These when 


they would suffer 
the severest pun- 
ishment. Divi- 
tiacus the Ae- 
duan spoke for 
them. lie said 
that there were 
two factions 
throughout Gaul; 
that the Aedui 
were the leaders 
of one faction ; 
the Arverni, of 
the other. After 


Line 13. summum, acc. sing. m. (see 1 . 20, Chap. XVI); attributive of crucid- 

tum. in, prep, with the acc. Note its position between the adj. and noun. See 

A. & G. 345, a ; B. 58. 2; G. 413, REM. 2; H. 565, 3. cruciatum, acc. sing, of 

crucidtus , -us, m. (from crux through crucidre); obj. of in. se, acc. plur. ; sub- 

ject-acc. of venturos (esse). venturos (esse), fut. inf. act. of the finite verb vent'd, 

-ire, vent, ventum, 4. This infinitive-clause depends on the finite verb viderent. 

Line 14. viderent, 3d pers. plur. of the imperf. subjunctive act. of the verb 
video, -ere, vidi, visum, 2 ; subjunctive mode, because in a dependent quod-cXsMse in 
the drdtio obliqua. In this sentence, given in the indirect form, the main verbs are 
contendere and labordre; all the dependent clauses either directly or indirectly are 
depending on these verbs. The drdtio recta of lines 8-14 : Non minus hoc contendi- 
mus et labordmus, ne haec, quae dixerimus, enuntientur , quam utT haec, quae velimus, 
impetremus , propterea quod, si enuntiatum erit, summum in cruciatum nos venturos 

esse vidimus. Locutus est, 3d pers. sing. perf. ind. of the deponent verb loquor, 

-i, -cutus, 3; agrees with Divitiacus. pro, prep, with the abl. his, abl. plur. 

m. (hie, haec , hoc), used as a personal pron. of the 3d pers.; obj. of pro; pro his = 

for them. Divitiacus, -i, m., subject-nom. of locutus est. Divitiacus was an 

Aeduan chief, and a friend of the Romans. 

Line 15. Aeduus, -a, -um, attributive of Divitiacus. Galliae, gen. sing.. 

limiting factiones ; it is, however, in the predicate, connected with its noun by esse. 
Consult A. & G. 214, c; B. 133; G. 366; H. 401. From Galliae to the close of the 
chapter, the discourse is indirect; the words of Divitiacus — the declarative clauses 
— are made to take the inf. with subject-acc. construction ; the subordinate clauses 

take the subjunctive mode. totlus, gen. sing, f.; attributive of Galliae. 

factiOnes, acc. plur. of f actio, -onis, f. ; subject-acc. of esse. esse, pres, inf.; is 

here a complete predicate. See A. & G. 172, end; B. 125, 4; G. 205, note; II. 360. 

Line 16. duas, acc. plur. f. (duo, duae , duo); attributive of factiones. 

harum, gen. plur. f. (hie, haec , hoc), used substantively ; partitive gen. after alterius. 

alterius, gen. sing, (alter, -era, -erum) ; limits principdtum (compare 1. 13, 

Chap. II).' prlncipatum, acc. sing, of principdtus, -us, m.; direct obj. of tenere. 

tenere, pres. inf. act. of teneo, -ere, -ui, tentum, 2. 

Line 17. AeduOs, acc. plur., used substantively; subject-acc. of tenere. 

alterius, gen. sing., limits principdtum understood. Arvemos, acc. plur. of 

Arverni, -drum, m.; subject-acc. of tenere, to be supplied. The Arverni were a 

powerful people of Celtic Gaul. Hi, nom. plur. m. (hie, haec, hoc), used as a 

personal pron. of the 3d pers.; expressed for emphasis; subject-nom. of contenderent. 

It becomes still more emphatic by its position before the conj. cum. cum, conj., 

temporal. 


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232 


caesar’s gallic war 


[CHAP. XXXI. 


these factions 
had been vio- 
lently struggling 
with each other 
for the mastery 
many years, it 
came to pass that 
the Germans, as 
mercenaries, 
were called in by 
the Arverni and 
the Sequani. At 
first, about fifteen 
thousand of these 
people had cross- 
ed the Rhine ; 


tantopere de potentate inter se is 

greatly for the leadership among themselves 

multos ann 5 s contenderent, factum esse utl 19 

many years contended , it came to pass that 

ab Arvemls Sequanlsque German! mercede 20 

by the Arverni Sequani and , the Germans for pay 

arcesserentur. Horum prim 5 circiter 21 

were caused to come . Of these, at first, about 

mllia qmndecim Rhenum transisse ; 22 

thousands fifteen the Bhine to have crossed ; 


Line 18. tantopere (tantus + opus), adv. ; frequently written tanto opere , in the 

abl., and hence = lit. by so much work, i.e. adverbially, so greatly. de, prep, with 

the abl. See note on de, 1 . 27, Chap. XIX. potentate, abl. of potentdtus , -us, m. 

(potens, being able); obj. of de. inter, prep, with acc. se, acc. plur.; obj. 

of inter. 

Line 19. multds, acc. plur. m. of the adj. multus, plus, plurimus ; attributive of 
the noun annos. ann 5 s, acc. plur. of annus, -i, m.; acc. of extent of time. Con- 
sult A. & G. 256, 2; B. 153; G. 336; H. 379. contenderent, 3d pers. plur. imperf. 

subjunctive act.; agrees with its subject-nom. Hi; subjunctive mode after cum tem- 
poral or historic. See A. & G. 325; B. 222; G. 585; H. 521, II, 2. For different 

significations of contendere, see 1 . 18, Chap. I. factum esse, perf. inf. pass, of 

the verb fid, fieri, f actus, 3; this form of the verb is used as the pass, of facio, -ere, 
feci, factum , 3. factum esse is here used impersonally, and = it came to pass. The 
clause uti . . . arcesserentur is its subject. utl, conj. 

Line 20. ab, prep, with the abl. Arvemis, abl. plur.; obj. of ab, i.e. it is 

the abl. of the agent after the pass, verb arcesserentur. Consult A. & G. 246; 

B. 166; G. 401 ; H. 415, I. Sequanlsque (Sequanis + que). Sequanis is the abl. 

plur. of Sequanus, -a, - um , used as a subst. que, enclitic conj.; closely connects 
Sequanis with Arz'ernis . German!, -drum, m.; subject-nom. of the verb arces- 
serentur. mercede, abl. sing, of the noun merces, -cedis, f. (mercere, to merit) ; 

abl. of means. 

Line 21. arcesserentur, 3d pers. plur. imperf. subjunctive pass, of arcesso, -ere, 
ivi (-/'/), -itum, 3 (ad + cedere) ; agrees with Germdni; it is a subjunctive of result 
after uti e cbatic. Consult A. & G. 332; B. 201 ; G. 553, 3; H. 501, I, 1. The ordtio 
recta of lines 15-21: Galliae tot! us factiones sunt duo; harum alterius principatum 
tenent Aedui, alterius Arverni. Ii! cum tantopere de potentate inter se multos 
annds contenderent, factum est ut! ab Arvemis Sequanlsque German! mercede 

arcesserentur. Horum, gen. plur. m. (hie, haec, hoc), used substantively ; limits 

milia ; partitive construction. Consult A. & G. 216, 2; B. 134; G. 370; H. 397, 2. 

primO, adv. (primus); modifies trdnsisse. primo usually = first in antithesis; 

whereas primum == first in a series, primd is really an abl. m. of the adj. primus, 

-a, -um ; supply loco. circiter, adv. (compare 1 . 19, Chap. XV); modifies the 

num. adj. quindecim. 

Line 22. milia (compare 1 . 25, Chap. II), subject-acc. of trdnsisse. quin- 

decim (qulnque-f- decern), cardinal num. adj.; an attributive of milia. Rhenum, 


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LINES 23-27.] 


BOOK I. 


233 


23 posteaquam agros et 

after that the fields and 

24 cSpias Gallorum homines 

abundance of the Gauls , men 

25 adamassent, traductos 

had grown fond of were led across 


cultum et 

mode of living and 

feri ae barbari 

wild and barbarous 

plures ; nunc 

more ; now 


26 esse in 

to be (there were) in 


Gallia ad 

Gaul about 


27 vTginti milium numerum. 

twenty of thousands, number . 


centum et 

a hundred and 

Cum his 

With these 


and after these 
wild and barba- 
rous people had 
acquired a fond- 
ness for the land, 
civilization and 
resources of the 
Gauls, more peo- 
ple were induced 
to come over ; 
and now there 
were about one 
hundred and 
twenty thousand 
in Gaul. The 


acc. sing, of Rhenus , -i, m.; direct obj. of trdnsisse. But as trdnsisse is both a trans. 
and a neuter verb, Rhenum may be taken either as a direct object, or as an acc. de- 
pending on the prep, trdns in composition. transisse, perf. inf. act. (compare 

1 . 19, Chap. V); its subject-acc. is milia. 

Line 23. posteaquam, conjunctive adv. (postea-hquam); modifies adamdssetit ; 
as a conj. it connects its own clause with the infinitive-clause traductos (esse) flutes. 

agros, acc. plur. of ager , agri, m. ; direct obj. of adamdssetit. For synonyms, 

see note on agrum , 1 . 12, Chap. II. et, cop. conj.; connects the substantives. 

cultum, acc. sing. m. (compare 1 . 10, Chap. I); connected by et with agros , and 

is in the same grammatical construction. et, conj. ; observe its repetition in the 

series; the usage is repetition or exclusion. See A. & G. 208, 1 and 3, and 346, c; 
B. 123, rem. 6; G. 474, note; H. 554, 6. 

Line 24. copias, acc. plur. (compare 1 . 6, Chap. II). Gallorum, gen. plur., 

used substantively ; limits agros and cultum and copias. homines, nom. plur. 

(compare 1 . 20, Chap. II). feri, nom. plur. m. of ferns , -a, -urn; modifies 

homines. ac, conj. barbari, nom. plur. of barbarus , -a, -urn; connected by 

dc with feri. 

Line 25. adamassent (contracted, full form adamd vissent), 3d pers. plur. 
pluperf. subjunctive of the verb adamd, -are, -art, -atum, 1 (ad, intensive + amare 
= lit. to love exceedingly) ; agrees with its subject-nom. homines ; it is in the sub- 
junctive mode, because it is in a subordinate clause in the drdtid obliqua. Consult 

A. & G. 336, 2 ; B. 245, (b) ; G. 650 ; II. 524. traductos (esse), perf. pass. inf. 

of trddued, -ere, -duxi, -ductum, 3; its subject-acc. is the adj. pi it res, used substan- 
tively. plures, adj., acc. plur. m. of comparative degree plus, pluris ; positive 

multus ; superl . pliirimus. As to the declension of plus, see A. & G. 86; B. 72, 7; 

G. 89, rems. 2, 3, and 90, middle; H. 165, note i. nunc, adv.; modifies esse. 

Observe that nunc puts the emphasis on the present; while iam = now, of any 
event, either present, past or future. 

Line 26. esse, pres. inf. (sum, esse, f tit, futurus) ; its subject-acc. is the noun 

numerum. in, prep, with the abl. Gallia, abl. sing, f.; locative abl. with 

the prep. tn. Consult A. & G. 258, 4, c, 1; B. 170; G. 385; II. 425, I. ad, prep. 

with the acc., ordinarily ; but here, in use, it is an adv. = circiter, about. 

centum, cardinal num. adj. ; predicate-acc. after esse. et, cop. conj. ; connects 

the numerals. 

Line 27. yiginti, indecl. num. adj.; connected by et with centum, and in the 
same grammatical construction. milium, gen. plur. of mille, used as subst.; may 


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234 


CAESAR S GALLIC WAR 


[C HAP. XXXI. 


Aedui and their 
dependants had 
repeatedly con- 
tended in arms 
with these peo- 
ple ; and after 
the Aedui had 
been routed, they 
suffered a great 
calamity : they 

lost all their 
nobles, all their 
senate, all their 
cavalry. And 
crushed by these 
battles and ca- 


Aeduds 

the Aedui 


edrumque clients semel atque 28 

their and , clients once and 


iterum 

again 


armis contendisse ; niagnam 29 

in arms to have contended , ( themselves ) a great 


calamitiitem pulsos accepisse, 30 

calamity , having been driven out , to have received , 


omnem ndbilitatem, omnem senatum, 

all the nobility , all the senate , 


equitiltum amlsisse. Quibus 

the cavalry to have lost. By ichich 


omnem 31 
all 

proelils 32 
battles 


be taken as partitive gen. after centum etvigintT. See A. & G. 216, 2; R 134; G. 370; 

II. 397, 2. numerum, acc. sing, m.; subject-acc. of the neuter verb esse. The 

oratid recta of lines 21-27: Ildrum prlmo circiter mllia quindecim Rhcnum trans/e- 
runt; posteaquam agros et cultum et copias Gallorum homines ferl ac barbarl 
adamdrant ( adamdverant ), trdducti sunt plures; nunc est in Gallia ad centum et 

vTgintT milium numerus. Cum, prep, with the abl. his, abl. plur. m., used 

as a personal pron. of the 3d pers. his = Germdnis , and is the obj. of cum. Observe 
the position of the phrase, at the beginning of the sentence ; its normal I^atin posi- 
tion would be immediately before contendisse , 1 . 29, below. Compare cum Germdnis 
contcnderent , 1 . 19, Chap. I. 

Line 28. Aeduds, acc. plur. m.; subject-acc. of contendisse , 1 . 29, below. 

edrumque ; edrum , gen. plur. of the dem. pron. is, ea, id, used as a personal pron. of 
the 3d pers., poss. case; refers to Aeduds, but, as a gen., limits clientes. que, enclitic 

conj. .clientes, acc. plur. of cliens , - entis ; connected by que with Aeduds, and in 

the same grammatical construction. The clientes were the small states like the 
Ambarri, that were in close alliance with the Aedui. semel, num. adv. ; mod- 
ifies contendisse. atque, conj. 

Link 29. iterum, adv., connected by atque with semel , and also modifies conten- 
disse. Synonyms: iterum = again, a second time ; rursus = again, i.e. the reverse of 
something. armis, abl. plur. (compare 1 . 13, Chap. IV); abl. of means after con- 
tendisse. contendisse, perf. inf. act. of contendd, 3; its subject-accusatives are 

Aeduds and clientes. magnam, acc. sing. f. of magnus, comparative maior, superl. 

mdximus ; attributive of calamitdtem . 

Link 30. calamitatem, acc. sing, of calami Ids, - dtis , f. ; direct obj. of accepisse. 

pulsos, acc. plur. of the perf. pass, participle of pello, -ere, pepuli, pulsum, 3 ; 

agrees with eds, i.e. Aeduds, to be supplied ; which eds is subject-acc. of accepisse. 
accepisse, perf. inf. act. of the finite verb accipio , -ere, - cepi , - ceptum , 3. 

Line 31. omnem, acc. sing, f.; attributive of ndbilitatem. — — ndbilitatem, acc. 
sing, of ndbilitds, -dtis, f.; direct obj. of amlsisse. Omnem, acc. sing. m. ; attrib- 
utive of sendtum. senatum, acc. sing. m. ; connected by et omitted with nobili- 

tdtem , and is in the same grammatical construction, i.e. it is a direct obj. of dmlsisse. 
Omnem, acc. sing. m. ; attributive of equitdtum. 

Line 32. equitatum, acc. sing, of equitdtus , -its, m.; connected by et omitted 
with sendtum , and is in the same grammatical construction. amlsisse, perf. inf. 


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LINES 33 - 36 .] 


BOOK I. 


235 


33 calami tii tibusque fractos, qui et 

calamities and , ( themselves ) being crushed , who both 

34 sua virtute et popull Romani hospitio 

by their valor and the people's Roman hospitality 

35 atque amlcitia plurimum ante in Gallia 

and friendship very much previously in Gaul 

36 potuissent, eoactos esse SequanTs obsides 

had been able , to have been forced to the Sequani hostages 


lamities, al- 
though formerly 
they had been 
the most power- 
ful people in 
Gaul both on ac- 
count of their 
own valor and 
the hospitality 
and friendship 
of the Roman 
people, they were 
forced to give to 
the Sequani the 


act. (see 1 . io, Chap. XXVIII). The subject-acc. of dmisisse is eos, i.e. Aeduos , under- 
stood. The ordtio recta of lines 27-32 : Cum his Aedui horumque clientes semel 
atque iterum armls contenderuut ; magnam calamitatem pulst acceperunt, omnem 

nobilitatem, omnem senatum, omnem equitatem amissirunt. Quibus, abl. plur. 

n. (qui, quae , quod); refers to the idea contained in armis contendisse, 1. 29, above; 
but is here used adjectively, and is the attributive of the noun proeliis. Observe 
that quibus at the beginning of a sentence = et eis. See A. & G. 180,/; B. 129, 

rem. 9; G. 610; H. 453. proelils, abl. plur. (For etymology and synonyms, see 

note on proeliis , 1 . 18, Chap. I.) proeliis is an abl. of cause after the perf. pass, 
participle frdctds. Consult A. & G. 245, and 2; B. 165, and REM. 4; G. 408, and 
note 2; II. 416, and NOTE 1. 

Line 33. calamitatibusque ; calamitdtibus, abl. plur.; connected by que with 

proeliis , and is in the same grammatical construction. que , enclitic conj. 

fractds, acc. plur. m. of the perf. pass., participle frdctus , -a, -um of the finite verb 

franco , -ere, f reft, fraetum, 3; agrees with eos , i.e. Aedtios , understood. qui, 

nom. plur. m. (qui, quae , quod); refers to eos , and is the subject-nom. of potuissent, 
1. 36, below. But note that qui here appears to have a concessive force, and = cum 

ei , i.e. = although they. Consult A. & G. 320, e\ B. 212 ; G. 634; II. 515, III. 

et, cop. conj.; followed by another et, as in the text, the conjunctions are a species 
of correlatives = both . . . and. 

Line 34. sua, abl. sing, f.; attributive of virtute. virtute, abl. sing, f.; abl. 

of cause. et, cop. conj. popull, gen. sing. m. ; limits hospitio atque amicitid . 

For synonyms, see note on populum, 1 . 17, Chap. VI. R 5 mam, gen. sing. m. ; 

attributive of the noun populi. hospitio, abl. of the noun hospitium , n. 

(hospes, guest); connected by et with virtute , and is in the same gram, construction. 

Line 35. atque, conj. amlcitia, abl. sing. f. ; connected by atque with hos - 

pitio; abl. of cause. plurimum, adverbial acc. (plurimus, -a, -um). ante, 

adv. ; modifying the verb potuissent. in, prep, with the abl. Gallia, abl. 

sing. ; obj. of in. 

Line 36. potuissent, 3d pers. plur. pluperf. subjunctive of the intrans. verb 
possum, posse, potui; agrees with a pron. implied in the ending as its subject-nom., 
referring to the Aedui; it is in the subjunctive, because the clause is a subordinate 
one in the ordtio obliqua; but, more rigidly exact, because the relative clause expresses 

concession. Consult A. & G. 320, e; B. 210, end; G. 634; II. 515, III. coactos 

esse, perf. inf. pass, of the finite verb edgo, -ere, coegi, codctum , 3; its subject-acc. is. 
eos, i.e. Aeduos, to be supplied. Sequanis, plur. ; dat. of the indirect obj. See, 


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236 


CAESAR S GALLIC WAR 


[CHAP. XXXI. 


noblest of the 
state as hos- 
tages ; and com- 
pelled on oath 
not to demand 
hostages in re- 
turn, nor ask 
assistance from 
the Roman peo- 
ple, nor refuse to 


dare nobilissimos clvitatis 

to give the noblest of the state 


et iureiurando 37 
and by an oath 


clvitatem obstringere, sese neque obsides 38 

the state to bind , themselves neither hostages 


repetituros neque auxilium a populo 39 

about to demand back nor aid from the people 


Romand imploraturos neque recusaturos, 40 
Roman about to implore nor about to refuse , 


A. & G. 225; B. 141; G. 345; H. 384, II. As to this clan, see note on Sequanis , 

1 . 25, Chap. I. Obsides, acc. plur. of obses , -idis, m. and f. (ob-f-sedere, fo SJ /)- 

predicate-acc. after dare. Consult A. & G. 239; B. 151, (£); G. 340; H. 373, 1. The 
direct obj. of dare is elves understood. 

Link 37. dare, pres. inf. act. of the verb do, dare , dedl, datum , 1 ; but note that 
a is short by exception before re in the pres, inf.; also that dare is a complementary 

inf., depending on codctos esse. ndbilissimds, acc. plur. m., superl. ; attributive 

of elves understood. Clvitatis, gen. sing, of civitds , -dtis, i . ; limits elves under- 
stood. et, cop. conj. ; connects dare and obstringere. iureiurando, abl. sing. 

of ius-iurandum, a compound noun ; the two nominatives unite and both are declined. 
For the declension of ids, iuris, n., see A. & G. 67, b, end, 77, 6 , a ; B. 45; G. 60, b ; 
and for the gender and declension of iuratidum , -l, n., see G. 34; II. 125, 126. 
Observe that, if the two parts of this word be regarded not as forming a compound, 
but rather as two distinct words, then ius , iuris, n., is a noun of the third declension, 
and iuratidum, -l, n., is a noun of the second declension ; and that the direct cases 
of iuratidum , -l, n. (i.e. id ran da), only occur in the plur. iurc-iuratido is, in our text, 
an abl. of means. See A. & G. 248, c; B. 167; G. 401 ; II. 420. 

Line 38. clvitatem, acc. sing.; direct obj. of obstringere. obstringere, pres. 

inf. act. of the finite verb obstringo , -ere, - strinxi , - strictum , 3 (ob, intensive + strin- 
gere, to bind); connected by et with dare, and is in the same grammatical construc- 
tion. sese, personal pron., reduplicated, acc. plur. ; subject-acc. of repetituros 

(esse). neque, see 1 . 16, Chap. IV. obsides, acc. plur.; direct object of 

repetituros (esse). These hostages, so often referred to by Caesar, who were given 
as pledges for the fulfillment of obligations, and who were released on the fulfillment 
of the obligations, played an important part in the intercourse of ancient nations. 

Line 39. repetituros (esse), fut. inf. act. of the finite verb repeto, -ere, -tlvi (-tit), 
-tltum, 3 (re + petere = lit. to fall upon again) ; this verb with its subject-acc. sese 

depends on obstringere. neque, see I. 16, Chap. IV. auxilium, -il, n., acc. 

sing. ; direct obj. of implordturos (esse). a, prep, with the abl. populo, abl. 

sing.; abl. of the person with the prep, d, after a verb of asking. Consult A. & G. 
239, c, NOTE 1 ; B. 1 51, rkm. 2; G. 339, note 2 ; II. 374, notes 3 and 4. For syn- 
onyms, see note on populi, 1 . 17, Chap. III. 

Line 40. Romano, abl. sing. m. ; attributive of populo. imploraturos (esse), 

fut. inf. act. of the finite verb imploro, -dre, -dvi, -dtum, 1 (in [im], intensive + plorare 
= lit. to ask with tears); connected by the conj. neque with repetitutos (esse), and is 
in the same grammatical construction, i.e. sese for its subject-acc. neque, cor- 
relate of the neque in the preceding line. recusaturds (esse), fut. inf. act. of the 

finite verb recuso, -dre, -dvi, -dtum, 1 (re + causa) ; hence recusare = lit. to make a case 
back, i.e. object, refuse, recusdturos (esse) is connected by neque with imploraturos 
(esse), and has the same subject-acc. 


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LINES 41 - 44 .] 


BOOK X. 


237 


41 quominus perpetuo sub illorum dicione 

by which the less perpetually under their sway 

42 atque imperio essent. Unum se esse 

and command they would be. One himself to be 

43 ex omni civitate Aeduorum, qui adducl 

from every state oftheAedui , who to be induced 

44 ndn potuerit, ut iuraret aut liberos 

not was able, that he would swear or children 


remain under the 
dominion and 
power of the 
Sequani perpetu- 
ally. Divitiacus 
said that he was 
the only person 
from the entire 
Aeduanstatethat 
could not be pre- 
vailed on to take 
the oath, and give 
his children as 


Line 41. quominus (quo + minus) ; frequently written quo minus; rigidly lit. 

quominus = by which the less. perpetuo, adv. {perpetuus , - a , •um) ; strictly an 

abl. n. of the adj. used adverbially. Consult A. & G. 148, e; B. 1 1 7, 6, end; G. 91, 2; 

H. 304, II. 2. sub, prep, with the abl. illorum, gen. plur. ; refers to the 

Sequani, but, as a gen., limits dicione ; equivalent to their or of them, illorum is 

more emphatic than either eorum or even horum. dicione, abl. sing, of die id, 

-on is, f. (more commonly written ditio); derived from the verb dare; = lit. a giving 
up; hence transf. = dominion, sway, dicione is the obj. of sub. 

Line 42. atque, conj. imperio, abl. sing, n.; connected by atque with 

dicione , and is in the same grammatical construction. essent, 3d pers. plur. 

imperf. subjunctive; agrees with a pron. implied in its ending as subject-nom., 
referring to the Aedui; it is the subjunctive of result after qudminus = ut eo minus. 
Consult A. & G. 319, c; B. 200, rem . 5; G. 549; H. 499, 3, note 2. The ordtio 
recta of lines 32-42: Quibus proeliis calamitatibusque fracti , qui et sua virtute et 
popull Romani hospitio atque amlcitia plurimum ante in Gallia potuerant, codcti 
sunt Sequanis obsides dare nobilissimos civitatis et iureiurando civitatem obstrin- 
gere, sese neque obsides repetlturos neque auxilium a populo R 5 mano imploraturos 

neque recusaturos, quominus perpetuo sub horum dicione atque imperio sint. 

Unum, acc. sing, m.; predicate-acc. of esse. se, sing, m.; subject-acc. of esse; 

refers to Divitiacus. esse, pres. inf. 

Line 43. ex, prep, with the abl. here instead of the partitive gen. after unum . 

See A. & G. 216, c ; B. 134, rem . 2 ; G. 372, rem . 2, end; II. 397, 3, note 3. 

Omni, abl. sing.; attributive of civitdte. civitate, abl. sing, f.; obj. of ex. 

Aeduorum, gen. plur. of the adj., used substantively; limits civitdte. qui, nom. 

sing.; refers to Divitiacus; it is the subject-nom. of potuerit. adducl, pres. inf. 

pass.; complementary inf.; depends on potuerit. See A. & G. 271 ; B. 181 ; G. 423; 
H. 533 , I, 2. 

Line 44. n5n, adv.; modifies potuerit. potuerit, 3d pers. sing. perf. sub- 

junctive of the intrans. verb possum , posse, potut; it agrees with its subject-nom. qui; 
subjunctive, because in a relative clause of characteristic. See A. & G. 320, b; 

B. 234, 2 ; G. 631, 1 ; H. 503, II, 1. ut, telic conj. = in order that. iuraret, 

3d pers. sing, imperf. subjunctive of the verb iuro, -dre, -dvi, - dtum , 1 (ius) ; hence 
iuvdre = lit. to take an oath; agrees with a pron. as subj., implied in the ending, 
referring to Divitiacus; is the subjunctive of purpose after ut. See A. & G. 317, 1; 

B. 200; G. 545; H. 497, II. aut, alternative conj.; not exclusive, but emphatic. 

liberos, acc. plur. of the noun liberi, -< drum , m. See note on libert, 1 » 9, Chap. XI. 

liberos is the direct obj. of the verb daret. 


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238 


C A ESAU’S GALLIC WAlt 


[CHAl*. XXXt. 


suos obsides daret. Ob earn rem is 

hia aa lioatagea he would give. For thia reaaon 
se ex clvitate profugisse et Rdmam 46 
himself from the state to have fled and to Home 

ad senatum venisse auxilium postuliitum, 47 

at the senate to have come aid to sue for, 

quod solus neque iureiurando neque 48 

because (he) alone neither by an oath nor 

olxridibus teneretur. Sed peius 49 

by hostages could be held. But a worse (thing) 

Line 45. suos, acc. plur. ; refers to Divitiacus; agrees with liberos. Obsides, 

acc. plur., m. and f. ; predicate-acc. See A. & G. 239, 1 ; II. 151, (6); G. 340; II. 373, 1. 

daret, 3d pers. sing, imperf. subjunctive of the verb do, dare, dedi, datum, 1 ; 

connected with iurdret by aut; subjunctive of purpose. Observe that a is short in 
dare, the pres. inf. act*, by exception. The ordtid recta of lines 42-45 : Unus ego sum 
ex omnl clvitate Aeduorum, qul add u cl non potuit, ut iurdrem aut liberos meos 
obsides darern. Ob, prep, with the acc. earn, acc. sing. f. (is, ea, id) ; attrib- 
utive of rem. rem, acc. sing. f. ; obj. of ob, denoting the exciting cause of the 

emotion, instead of the abl. of cause. Consult A. & G. 245 ,b\ 11. 165, rem. 4; G. 408, 
note 3; II. 416, I, 2). Observe that the phrase quam ob rem =ob earn rem, which 
latter is the more common. 

Line 46. se, acc. sing.; refers to Divitiacus, and is the subject-acc. of profu- 
gisse. ex, prep, with the abl. Clvitate, abl. sing. f. ; obj. of ex. pro- 

fugisse, perf. inf. act. of the finite verb prof ugio, -ere, fugi, -fugitum, 3 (pro-f fugio). 

et, cop. conj.; connects profugisse with venisse. Romam, acc. sing, of 

Foma, -ae, f. ; locative acc. ; the name of a town as the end of motion is put in the 
acc. without a prep. See A. & G. 258, b; B. 154; G. 337; II. 380, II. 

Line 47. ad, prep, with the acc. senatum, acc. sing, m.; obj. of ad. 

venisse, perf. inf. act. of the finite verb venio, -ire, 7 ini, ventum , 4 ; connected by et 

with profugisse, and is in the same grammatical construction. auxilium, acc. 

sing, of auxilium, -ii, n.; the direct object of the supine postuldtum. Supines are 

followed by the same cases as their verbs. postuldtum, supine of the finite verb 

postuld, -dre, -dvi, -dtum, 1 (posco). postuldtum denotes purpose. Consult A. & G. 
302; B. 186, (A); G. 435; II. 546. 

Line 48. quod, conj. sdlus, adj., nom. sing. m. ; modifies is, to be supplied 

as the subject-nom. of the verb teneretur; the pron., of course, refers to Divitiacus. 

neque, conjunctive adv. iureiurando, abl. n.; abl. of means. See note on 

this word, 1. 37, above. neque, see above. 

Line 49. obsidibus, abl. plur., m. and f.; connected by neque with iureiurando , 

and in the abl. for the same reason, namely means. teneretur, 3d pers. sing. 

imperf. subjunctive pass, of the act. verb tenco, -ere, -ui, tentum , 2. teneretur agrees 
with a pron. implied in the ending as the subject-nom., referring to Divitiacus; it is 
in the subjunctive mode, because it is in a subordinate clause in ordtid obliqua. The 
ordtid recta of lines 45-49: Ob hanc rem ego ex clvitate proftigi et Romam ad 
senatum vent auxilium postulatum, quod ego solus neque iureiurandb neque obsi- 
dibus tenebar. Sed, conj. ; the strongest of all the adversative particles. Com- 

pare with sed, at and autem, and carefully discriminate the different shades of 


hostages. For 
this reason, he 
had fled from his 
state, and had 
come to the sen- 
ate at Rome to 
ask for help, be- 
cause he alone 
was bound nei- 
ther by an oath, 
nor by hostages. 
But a worse fate 


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LINES 60-54.] 


BOOK I. 


239 


bo vlctoribus Sequanis quam Aeduls vlctls 

to the victors the Sequani than to the Aedui vanquished 


51 accidisse, propterea 

to have happened, for this reason 

52 rex Germanorum, in 

king of the Germans, in 

53 consedisset tertiamque 

had settled, a third and, 


quod Ariovistus, 

because Ariovistus, 

eorum flnibus 

their borders 


partem agri 

part of the country 


54 Sequani, qui esset optimus totius Galliae, 

Sequanian, which was the best of all Gaul, 


had befallen the 
victorious Sequa- 
ni than the van- 
quished Aedui, 
inasmuch as Ari- 
ovistus, king of 
the Germans, had 
settled in their 
country, and had 
seized a third 
part of the land 
of the Sequani, 
which was the 
best in all Gaul; 


meaning. peius, acc. sing. n. of the comparative adj . pcior, m. and f. ; fetus , n. 

peius is an irr. comparative of the positive mains, superl. pessimus. peius may be 
taken substantively in the acc. n., and as such is the subject-acc. of the inf. accidisse; 
or the noun fdtum might be supplied; or peius might be taken as an adv. : positive 
male, comparative peius, superl. pcssime; and then accidisse must be taken in an 
impersonal sense. The first explanation is preferred. 

Line 50. vlctdribus, dat. plur. of the noun victor , -oris , m. ; predicative appos- 
itive to Sequanis. In use here victoribus = an adj. See A. & G. 188, d; B. 127; 

G. 325 ; H. 363, 3, 2 ). Sequanis, adj., dat. plur.; used as a subst.; indirect obj. 

of accidisse. quam, conj.; in comparisons —than. Aeduis, adj., dat. plur., 

used substantively; connected by quam with Sequanis, and is in the same gram- 
matical construction. victis, participle (see 1 . 32, Chap. XXV), agrees with 

Aeduis ; its force is predicative : Aeduis victis = to the Aedui as vanquished. 

Line 51. accidisse, perf. inf. act. of the neuter or intrans. verb accido, -ere, - cidi , 

no supine, 3; its subject-acc. is peius, used as a noun. propterea, adv. 

quod, conj. Ariovistus, -I, m., subject-nom. of the verb consedisset. Ariovistus 

was a king of the Germans, who, on being invited to come into Gaul by the Gallic 
chiefs to aid them in settling their disputes, vanquished the Gauls, and ruled them 
despotically, until he was himself vanquished by the Romans. 

Line 52. rex, nom. sing, of rex, regis, m. (regere = lit. to keep straight ). Observe 
that the stem of rex is reg — a palatal; and that the nom. is formed by adding s: 

thus regs = rex; in apposition with Ariovistus. Germanorum, gen. plur. m. (see 

1 . 14, Chap. I); limits rex. in, prep, with the abl. with a verb denoting rest. 

See note on in, 1 . 1, Chap. I. eorum, gen. plur. (is, ea, id), used as a personal 

pron. of the 3d pers. = their or of them ; as a gen. it limits finibus . flnibus, abl. 

plur. m.; obj. of the prep. in. For synonyms, see agrum, 1 . 12, Chap. II. 

Line 53. cOnsedisset, 3d pers. sing, pluperf. subjunctive act. of the verb con - 
stdo, -ere, -sedi, - sessum , 3; agrees with its subject-nom. Ariovistus ; it is in the sub- 
junctive, because it is in a subordinate clause in the ordtid obliqua. tertiamque 

(tertiam -h que). tertiam, acc. sing. f. (see 1 . 3, Chap. I); attributive of partem, que , 

enclitic conj. ; closely connects consedisset and occupdvisset. partem, acc. sing. f. ; 

direct obj. of occupdvisset. The part exacted was what is now upper Alsace. 

agri, gen. sing, of ager, agri, m. ; limits partem . 

Line 54. Sequani, gen. sing, m.; attributive of agri. qui, nom. sing, m.; 

refers to agri as its antecedent; but is the subject-nom. of esset. esset, 3 d pers. 


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240 


caesab’s gallic war 


[CHAP. XXXI. 


and now he was 
ordering them to 
withdraw from 
another third- 
part, because a 
few months be- 
fore, twenty-four 
thousand people, 
called Harudes, 


occupavisset et 
he had occupied , and 

tertia Sequanos 
third the Sequani 

propterea quod 
for thin reason because 

Harudum mllia 
of the Ilarudes y thousands 


nunc de altera parte 65 

now from another part 

decedere iuberet, 56 

to withdraw he was ordering , 

paucls mensibus ante 67 

within a few months before , 

hominum vlgintl quattuor 68 

of men twenty - four 


sing, imperf. subjunctive; agrees with its subject-nom. qut; it is in the subjunctive 
mode, because the clause in which it occurs is a dependent relative-clause in the 

ordtio obliqua . Consult A. & G. 336, 2 ; B. 245, (b) ; G. 650; H. 524. optimus, 

adj., superl. degree of bonus ; comparative degree melior. optimus is the predicate- 

adj. after esset. totius, adj., gen. sing, f.; attributive of Galliae. For synonyms, 

see totius y 1 . 8, Chap. II. Galliae, gen. sing, f.; partitive gen. after optimus. See 

A. & G. 216, 2; B, 134; G. 372; II. 397, 3. 

Link 55. occupavisset, 3d pers. sing, pluperf. subjunctive of occupd y -dre y -dvi y 
-dium ; connected by que with cdnsedisset y and is in the same grammatical construc- 
tion. et, cop. conj. ; connects occupavisset and inhered next line. nunc, adv. 

= noiUy emphatic; whereas iam = now , unemphatic, having reference to the present, 

past or future occurrences. de, prep, with the abl.; for difference between ab , 

de or ex y see note on de, 1 . 27, Chap. XIX. altera, abl. sing. f. (compare 1 . 13, 

Chap. II). parte, abl. sing, f.; obj. of the prep. de. 

Link 56. tertia, abl. sing. f. of tertius , -a, -; urn (ter); attrib. of parte. Sequands, 

adj., acc. plur., used substantively;; subject-acc. of decedere. decedere, pres. inf. act. 

of the finite verb decedo y - ere , - cessi , - cessum , 3 (de-)- cedere = lit. to go from). The 
phrase de alterd parte tertid follows, logically, the inf. decedere with the repetition of 

the prep, de; the usual construction with Caesar. iuberet, 3d pers. sing, imperf. 

subjunctive act. of the verb iubcd y -ere y iussi y iussum y 2 ; connected by et y preceding 
line, with occupd 7 'isset y and hence in the same grammatical construction ; but with a 
change of tense to denote the continuation rather than the completion of the action. 

Line 57. propterea, adv.; the herald of the following fzW-clause. quod, 

conj. paucis, abl. plur. m. of the adj. paucus y -a y -um ; attributive of mensibus. 

mensibus, abl. plur. of the noun mensis y mensis y m. ; abl. of degree of difference 

after the adv. ante. See A. & G. 250; B. 164, and rem. 3; G. 403, and note 4 ; 
II. 430. ante, adv. The strictly literal translation of the phrase paucis men- 

sibus ante is: before by a few months. But observe that Caesar might have written: 
ante paucos menses. 

Link 58. Harudum, gen. plur. of Harudes y - um y m.; appositive of hominum . 

The Harudes were a German clan, north of the Danube. mllia, adj., nom. plur.; 

used as a subst. Consult A. & G. 94, e ; B. 64, rkms. 8 and 9; G. 293, and note; 

H. 178, and note. mi/ia y as a subst., is the subject-nom. of venissent. hominum, 

gen. plur., m. and f. ; partitive gen. after mtlia. See A. & G. 216, 2; B. 134; G. 370; 

Ii. 397, 2. yiginti, indecl. num. adj., cardinal; modifies milia. quattuor, 

cardinal num. adj.; also modifies milia. Observe that, if the smaller number pre- 
cedes, et is generally used between them; but if the smaller number follows the 
larger, the et is omitted. 


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LINES 69-63.] 


BOOK I. 


241 


69 ad eum venissent, quibus locus ac sedes 

to him had come , for whom a place and seats 

eo pararentur. Futurum esse paucls annis, 

are to he procured. It will be about to be in a few years , 

ei uti omnes ex Galliae finibus pellerentur 

that all from GauVs boundaries would be driven out 

62atque omnes German! Rhenum transirent; 

and all the Germans the llhine would cross ; 

63neque enim conferendum esse Gallicum 

neither for to be about to be compared the Gallic (land) 


had come to him, 
for whom a place 
of settlement was 
to be provided. 
The outcome 
would be that, in 
a few years, they 
would all be 
driven from the 
land of Gaul, and 
all the Germans 
would cross the 
Rhine. For the 
Gallic soil is so 


Line 59. ad, prep, with the acc. = to or towards. eum, acc. sing. m. (is, ea , 

id), used as a personal pron. of the 3 d pers. ; obj. of ad. venissent, verb, 3 d pers. 

plur. pluperf. subjunctive; agrees with its subject-nom. milia ; subjunctive, because 

it is in a subordinate clause in the ordtid obliqua. quibus, dat. plur. (qui, quae, 

quod); refers to Hariidum as its antecedent; dat. com., or dat. of advantage. Con- 
sult A. & G. 235, and note ; B. 145; G. 352; H. 384, II, I, 2). quibus here = w/ eis. 

locus, nom. sing. m. (see 1 . 10, Chap. II). locus is one of the nominatives of 

pararentur. ac, conj. sedes, nom. sing, of the noun sedes, sedis, f. (compare 

sedere, to sit) ; the other of the nominatives of pararentur. locus dc sedes = a place 
of abode (hendiadys). 

Line 60. pararentur, 3d pers. plur. imperf. subjunctive pass, of the verb pard, 
1 dre , - dvi , - dtum , 1 ; in the plur., because it has two nouns in the sing, as subjects. 
Consult A. & G. 205; B. 126, rem . i ; G. 285; H. 463, II. pararentur is in the sub- 
junctive of purpose after the rel. pron. quibus = ut eis. Consult A. & G. 317, 2; 
B. 233, 1 ; G. 630; H. 497, I. Futurum esse, fut. inf. ; used impersonally, fol- 

lowed by uti and the imperf. subjunctive for the 3d pers. plur. of the fut. ind. in the 

ordtid recta. paucis, abl. plur. m. of paucus, -a, -um ; attributive of annis. 

annls, abl. plur. of annus , -t, m.; abl. of time in which. See A. & G. 256, 1 ; B. 171 ; 
G. 393; H. 429. 

Line 61 . ut!, conj. omnes, nom. plur., used substantively, and the subject- 

nom. of pellerentur. ex, prep, with the abl. Galliae, gen. sing. f. ; limits 

finibus. finibus, abl. plur. m.; obj. of ex. pellerentur, 3d pers. plur. imperf. 

subjunctive pass, of pello, -ere, pepjili, pulsum, 3 ; agrees with its subject-nom. omnes, 
and is in the subjunctive of result after uti. Consult A. & G. 332, 2; B. 201, 
rem . 1 , (c) ; G. 553, 3; H. 501, I, 1. Observe that the ecbatic clauses uti .. . pelle- 
rentur atque omnes . . . trdnsirent are, grammatically, the subject of the impersonal 
futurum esse. 

Line 62 . atque, conj.; usually adds a more important notion; here connects 

the verbs pellerentur and trdnsirent. omnes, nom. plur. m. ; attributive of Ger- 

mdni. German!, -drum, plur. m. ; subject-nom. of trdnsirent. Rhenum, acc. 

sing, m.; direct obi. of trdnsirent. translrent, 3d pers. plur. imperf. subjunctive; 

agrees with Germdni ; connected by atque with pellerentur, and is in the subjunctive 
mode for the same reason. 

Line 63. neque, conjunctive adv. enim, a conj. causal, postpositive, enim 

expresses a subjective, nam an objective reason. conferendum esse, pres. inf. 

2d pass, periphrastic conjugation of confero, ferre, - tuli , col(n)ldtum; this conjuga- 


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242 


CAESAR S GALLIC WAR 


[CHAP. XXXI. 


superior to that 
of the Germans, 
as not to admit 
of comparison ; 
and the German 
mode of life is 
so inferior to that 
of the Gauls, as 
not to admit of 
comparison. But, 
as to Ariovistus, 
as soon as he had 
defeated the for- 
ces of the Gauls 
in battle at Ad- 
magetobriga, he I 


cum Germanorum 

agro, 

neque 

hanc 64 

with the Germans' 

fields , 

nor 

this 

consuetudinem 

victus 

cum 

ilia 66 

custom < 

of living 

with 

that 

comparandam. 

Ariovistum 

autem, 

ut 66 

to be about to be compared. 

Ariovistus , 

moreover , 

when 


semel 


Gallorum 

the Gauls' 


copias 

troops 


proeli5 


vlcerit, 67 


in battle he has vanquished , 


quod proelium factum sit Admagetobrigae, 68 

which battle was made at Admagetobriga , 


tion denotes necessity or duty; the inf. construction is here used, because the dis- 
course is indirect; the subject-acc. of cdnferendum esse is agrum, to be supplied. 
Gallicum, acc. sing. m. of Gallicus, -a, -urn ; attributive of agrum understood. 

Link 64. cum, prep, with the abl. Observe that in the phrase cum Germdnorum 
agrd the same preposition — cum — is used as in the compound cdn(cuni)f erendum 

esse which the phrase logically follows. German drum, gen. plur. m. ; limits 

agrd. agrd, abl. sing. m. ; obj. of cum. neque, conj. hanc, acc. sing. f. 

(/lie, haec , hoc); attributive of consuetudinem. hanc consuetiidinem = the Gallic 
mode of living. Consult A. & G. 102, a, end; B. 84, I, and rem. i ; G. 305, 2; 
h. 45®» 2, (2). 

Line 65. consuetiidinem, acc. sing, of the noun consuetudd , -inis, f. (compare 

consuescere , to accustom) ; subject-acc. of comparandam (esse). victus, gen. sing. 

of the noun victus, -iis, m. (; vivere , to live) ; hence victus = lit. that on which one lives. 

victus , as a gen., limits consuetudinem. cum, prep, with the abl. ilia (Me, 

-la, -lud) ; attributive of consuetudine , to be supplied, ilia refers to the Germanic 
modus of living; the usual order in the reference of the pronouns hie and ille is here 
reversed. See the grammatical references to hanc , preceding line. 

Line 66. comparandam (esse), pres. inf. 2d pass, periphrastic conjugation of 
com paro, -are, - avi , -a turn, 1 (con [cum] + par) ; hence compardre — lit. to couple 
together in pairs , i.e. to compare, consuetiidinem is the subject-acc. As to the mean- 
ing of the 2d periphrastic conjugation, see A. & G. 109, a , and footnote 3 ; B. 106, 

ll, and 185; G. 251, 1 ; H. 234. Ariovistum, acc. sing, m.; subject-acc. of im- 

perdre , 1 . 69, below. autem, postpositive conj.; simply marks the transition 

and = moreover. ut, an adv. here = as or when; modifies the other adv. semel . 

Line 67. semel, adv. = once ; and the phrase ul semel — when once , or as soon 
as. Gallorum, adj., gen. plur., used substantively ; limits copias. copias, 

acc. plur. f.; direct obj. of vicerit. proelio, abl. sing. m. ; abl. of means. 

yicerit, 3d pers. sing. perf. subjunctive act. of vinco , -ere, vici , victum, 3; agrees with 
a pron. implied in the ending as subject-nom., referring to Ariovistum ; subjunctive 
mode, because in a subordinate clause in ordtio obliqua. 

Line 68. quod, nom. sing. n. (qui, quae, quod), used both relatively and ad- 
jectively; as a rel. pron. it refers to the noun proelio as its antecedent; as an adj. it 

is an attributive of proeliu?n. proelium, nom. sing, n.; subj. of factum sit. 

factum sit, 3d pers. sing. perf. subjunctive of fid, fieri, f actus, used as the pass, of 


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LINES 69-72.] 


BOOK I, 


243 


69 superbe 

haughtily 

70 obsides 

as hostages , 


et crudeliter imperare, 

and cruelly to command (begins), 

nobilissimi cuiusque liberos 

the noblest , of each one , the children 


71 poscere et 

to demand (he demands) and 


ill 

on 


eos omnia 

them all 


exempla 

examples 


72 cruciatusque edere, si qua res non 

tortures and , to inflict , if any thing not 


ad 

to 


began to govern 
haughtily and 
cruelly ; he de- 
manded as hos- 
tages the children 
of all the nob- 
lest families, and 
inflicted on them 
every species of 
cruelty if every- 
thing was not 


facio , - ere , feci , factum , 3 ; agrees with its subject-nom. proelium ; subjunctive, 

because it is in a subordinate clause in the oratio obliqua . Admagetobrigae, 

locative case of the proper noun Admagetobriga , - ae , f. Consult A. & G. 258, e , 2; 
B. 176; G. 41 1 ; II. 425, II. The locality referred to is in doubt; probably a village 
west of Vesontio, and not far from it. 

Line 69. superbe, adv. (superbus, adj.); in the formation of the adv., the final 
vowel of the stem of the adj. — superbo — is changed into e. Consult A. & G. 148, a ; 

B. 1 17, 5; G. 92, 2; H. 304, II, 2, end. et, conj.; couples the adverbs superbe 

and crudeliter. crudeliter, adv. (derived from the adj. cru delis, 3d declension). 

See grammatical references to superbe, immediately preceding. imperare, pres. 

inf. act. of impero , 1 (see 1 . 7, Chap. VII). The subject-acc. of imperdre is Ario- 
vistum , 1 . 66, above. 

Line 70. obsides, acc. plur., m. and f. ; predicate-acc. appositive of liberos , which 

latter is the direct obj. of poscere. nobilissimi, gen. sing. m. superl. degree ; 

attributive of viri, to be supplied; which noun viri, as a gen., limits the noun liberos. 

cuiusque, gen. sing, of the indef. pron. quisque, quaeque , quidque or quodque ; 

also an attributive of the noun viri, to be supplied ; or rather it is a modifier of the 
complex notion contained in viri nobilissimi. quisque with the superl. = omnes with 

the positive. Consult A. & G. 93, c; B. 89, 7; G. 318, 2; H. 458, 1. liberds, 

acc. plur. of the noun liberi, -drum, m. (liber); hence liberi — lit. the free members of 
the household, liberds is the direct obj. of poscere. 

Line 71. poscere, pres. inf. of posed, no supine, 3; its subject-acc. is the pron. 
cum, referring to Ariovistum, 1 . 66, above. Synonyms: petere and rogdre are the 
general words for asking; but the former denotes the object sought, the latter the 

person to whom application is made, poscere indicates an energetic request. 

et, conj. ; connects poscere and edere. in, prep, with acc. eos, acc. plur. (is, 

ea , id), used as a personal pron. of the 3d pers. eos is the obj. of in. omnia, 

acc. plur. n. ; attributive of exempla. exempla, acc. plur. of exemplum, w, n. 

(derived from exime, to take out) ; hence the noun = that which is selected as a 
sample; direct obj. of edere. 

Line 72. cruciatusque (cruciatus + que). crucidtus , acc. plur. of crucidtus , 
-us, m. que connects crucidtus with exempla. omnia exempla crucidtusque = lit. 
all examples and cruelties, i.e. every species of cruelty; here is an illustration of 
the figure hendiadys. Consult A. & G. 385, 1 ; B. 310, 2, (£); G. 698; H. 636, III, 2. 

edere, pres. inf. act. of the finite verb edo, -ere, -didi, - ditum , 3 (e + dare, lit. to 

give out) ; hence transf. edere = (a) to publish ; (b) to cause ; (c) to inflict. si, con- 
ditional conj. ; original form sei. qua, nom. sing. f. (quis, qua, quid or quod), 

adj. Observe that the indef. quis is declined like the interrogative quis , but has 
qua instead of quae except in the nom. plur. f. The indef. pron. is very frequent 


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244 


[CHAP. XXXI. 


caesae’s gallic wae 


done according 
to his nod or 
wish. Divitiacus 
said, moreover, 
that the man 
Ariovistus was 
savage, wrathful, 
rash ; that the 
Gauls could no 
longer endure his 
commands. Un- 
less there were 


nutum aut 

ad 

voluntatem 

eius 

facta sit. 73 

the nod or 

to 

the wish 

of him has been done. 

Hominem 

esse 

barbarum, iracundum, 74 

The man 

to he (is) barbarous, 

wrathful, 

temerarium ; 


non 

posse 

eius 75 

rank ; 

( ourselves ) not 

to be able 

his 

imperia diutius 

sustinere. 

Nisi 

si quid 76 

commands longer 

to endure. 

Unless 

something 


with the particles ne, num and si. As to the indefinites, see A. & G. 105, d\ B. 89, 3; 
G. 315; H. 455, 1. qua in the text has an adj. force, and is the attributive of the 

noun res, res, nom. sing. f. ; subj. of facta sit. non, negative adv. ; modifies 

facta sit. It is made emphatic by its position. ad, prep, with the acc. 

Line 73. nutum, acc. sing, of nutus , - us , m. (nuere, to nod); obj. of ad. 

aut, alternative conj. ad, prep, with the acc. Observe how the notions are 

kept distinct by the repetition of the prep. voluntatem, acc. sing. f. ; obj. of ad. 

eius, gen. sing. m. (ij, ea, id), used as a personal pron. of the 3d pers. ; limits 

voluntatem ; refers to Ariovistus. facta sit, 3d pers. sing. perf. subjunctive of 

fid, fieri, f actus ; used as the pass, of facid, -ere, feci, factum, 3; agrees with its sub- 
ject-nom. res; subjunctive in the protasis after the conditional conj. si; the apodosis 
is in the preceding infinitive-clause. The ordtio recta of lines 49-73: Sed peius 
vlctdribus Sequanis quam Aeduis victls accidit , propterea quod Ariovistus, rex 
Germanorum, in eorum finibus consedit tertiamque partem agri Sequani, qui est 
optimus totius Galliae, occupdvit , et nunc de altera parte tertia Sequanos decedere 
iubet, propterea quod paucls mensibus ante Ilarudum mllia hominum vigintl 
quattuor ad eum venerunt , quibus locus ac sedes parantur. Paucis annis omnes 
ex Galliae finibus pellentur attjue omnes German! Rhenum trdnsibunt ; neque enim 
cdnferendus est Gallicus cum Germanorum agro, neque haec consuetudo victus cum 
ilia comparanda . Ariovistus autem, ut semel Gallo rum copias proelio vie it, quod 
proelium factum est Admagetobrigae, superbe et crudeliter imperat, obsides nobilis- 
siml cuiusque liberos poscit et in kos omnia exempla cruciatusque edit, si qua res 
non ad nutum aut ad voluntatem huius facta sit. 

Line 74. Hominem, acc. sing., m. and f.; subject-acc. of esse. esse, pres. 

inf. ; its function here is simply that of a copula. barbarian, acc. sing. m. ; pre- 

dicate-adj. after esse. iracundum, acc. sing. m. of the adj. irScundus, -a, -um 

(Ira, wra th + cundus) ; predicate-ad j. after esse; in the same construction as barba- 
rum, et being omitted (asyndeton). As to the force of the ending -cundus, see 
A. £ G. 164,/; G. 182, 2; H. 333, 1. 

Line 75. temerarium, acc. sing. m. of the adj. temerdrius, -a, -um (temere 
through temerdre-{- the ending -arius) ; also predicate-adj. after esse, et being omitted. 
As to the omission of the conj., see A. & G. 208, b, 1, and 3, and 346, c; B. 123, 

rem. 6 ; G. 474, note; H. 554, 6. ndn, negative adv.; modifies posse. 

posse, pres. inf. ; supply as the subject-acc. of posse nos or Gallos. eius, gen. 

sing. m. (is, ea, id), used as a personal pron. of the 3d pers.; limits the noun im- 
peria; refers to Ariovistus. 

Line 76. imperia, acc. plur. n.; direct obj. of sustinere. diutius, compar- 
ative degree of the adv. did (dies); superl. diutissime ; modifies sustinere. 


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245 


LINES 77 - 80 .] 


BOOK I. 


77 in Caesare populoque R5man5 sit auxilil, 

in ‘ Caesar people and , Roman is , of aid, 

78 omnibus Gallls idem esse faciendum, quod 

by all the Gauls the same to be about to be done , which 

79 Helvetii fecerint, ut dom5 emigrent, 

the Ilelvetii have done, that from home they might go forth, 

so aliud domicilium, alias sedes, rem5tas a 

another domicile , other seats, remote from 


some help in Cae- 
sar and the Ro- 
man people, all 
the Gauls must 
do the same as 
the Helvetii had 
done : namely, 

emigrate, seek an- 
other dwelling- 
place, and other 
settlements re- 
mote from the 


sustinere, pres. inf. act. ; complementary inf., depending on posse. Consult A. & G. 

271 ; B. 181 ; G. 423; H. 533, I, 2. Nisi, conj. si, conj.; nisi si = except if, 

i.e. unless . quid, nom. sing. n. (< quis , qua , quid); subject-nom. of sit. 

Line 77. in, prep, with the abl. Consult A. & G. 152, c; B. 120, 3; G. 418, 

1, (b); H. 435, note i. Caesare, abl. m.; obj. of in. populOque (populo + 

que). populo , abl. sing. m. que , conj.; connects populo with Caesare , and hence 

populo is also the obj. of the prep. in. Romano, abl. sing, m.; attributive of 

populo. sit, 3d pers. sing. pres, subjunctive of sum; its subject-nom. is the pron. 

quid; subjunctive in the negative condition after nisi si. See A. & G. 315, a; 

B. 204, REM. 1 ; G. 591, 2, (b), 2, REM. 2 ; H. 507, 3, note 4. auxilil, gen. sing. m. ; 

partitive gen. after the indef. pron. quid. See A. & G. 216, 3; B. 134; G. 369; 
H- 397 , 3 - 

Line 78. omnibus, adj., dat. plur. ; an attributive of Gallis. Gallls, adj., 

dat. plur.; used substantively; and here the dat. of the apparent agent after esse 

faciendum (faciendum esse). See A. & G. 232; B. 148; G. 215, 2; II. 388. 

idem, acc. sing. n. of the dem. iterative pron. idem, eadem , idem; subject-acc. of 
esse faciendum. faciendum esse, pres. inf. of the 2d pass, periphrastic conjuga- 
tion of fid. Consult A. & G. 129; B. 106, II; G. 251 ; H. 234. quod, acc. 

sing, n.; refers to idem, but it is the direct obj. of the verb fecerint. 

Line 79. Helvetii, adj., nom. plur. m., used as a substantive; subject-nom. of 

fecerint. fecerint, 3d pers. plur. perf. subjunctive act. of facio; agrees with its 

subject-nom. Ilelvetii; subjunctive mode, because in a subordinate clause in the 

oratio obliqua. ut, ecbatic conj.; ordinarily it = the English that; but with the 

following subjunctive may be more elegantly rendered into English by the English 

inf. mode. dom 5 , locative abl. of the noun dotnus , - us or f., after the verb 

emigrent. Consult A. & G. 258, I. 2 ,a\ B. 175; G. 390, 2; II. 412, II, 1. Smigrent, 

3d pers. plur. pres, subjunctive of emigrd, 1 ; a neuter or intrans. verb. Observe 
that the e in the compound is simply intensive; that emigrdre, to rcmo 7 >e or depart 
from a place, does not differ essentially from migrdre. emigrent is a subjunctive of 
result after ut, but the clause tit dorno emigrent is a noun-clause, and as such is in 
apposition with idem in the preceding line. See A. & G. 332 ,/; B. 201, REM. 1, (b)\ 
G. 557; II. 501, III. 

Line 80. aliud, acc. sing. n. of the adj. alius; attributive of domicilium. For 
declension of alius , see A. & G. 83; B. 56, and rkm. i ; G. 76, and rkm. 4; H. 151. 

domicilium, acc. sing, of domicilium, -i, n. ( 1 . 13, Chap. XXX); direct obj. of 

petant. alias, acc. plur. f.; attributive of sedes. sedes, acc. plur. of sedes, 

-is, f.; direct obj. of petant. Observe the omission of the conj. between the phrases 
(asyndeton). Synonyms : sedes = ordinarily a place for sitting; sedile = a prepared 


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246 


CAESARS GALLIC WAR 


[CHAP. XXXI. 


Germans, and try 
whatever fortune 
might be allotted 
them. If these 
statements were 
reported to Ari- 
ovistus, Divitia- 
cus said that he 
did not doubt 
that he would 
inflict the direst 
punishment on 
all the hos- 
tages that were 
in his power ; 


Germains, petant fortunamque, quaecumque si 

the Germans , they might seek fortune and , whatever 

accidat, experiantur. Haec si enuntiata 82 

may happen , they might try . These things if reported 

Ariovisto sint, non dubitare, quin 83 

to Ariovistus are , (ourselves) not to doubt that 

de omnibus obsidibus, qul apud eum 84 

from all the hostages , who with him 

sint, gravissimum supplicium sumat. 85 

are , the severest penalty he may take. 


seat of any sort; sella — frequently, a magistrate’s seat, a chair or throne. 

remdtas, a participial adj., acc. plur. f. ; remdtus , -a, -um of the finite verb removed, 
-ere, - mdvi , - mdtum , 2 ; as a perf. pass, participle = having been removed; as a par- 
ticipial adj. = remote , distant; modifies the noun sedes. a, prep, with the abl. 

Line 8i. Germanis, abl. plur. m.; obj. of the prep. 5. petant, 3d pers. plur. 

pres, subjunctive act. of peto; connected with emigre nt by the omitted conj., and 

hence is in the same construction as emigrent, 1. 79, above. fortunamque ; for - 

tiinam , acc. sing. f. ; direct obj. of experiantur. que connects petant with experiantur. 

quaecumque, nom. sing. f. of the indef. relative pron. quicumque, quaecumque , 

quodcumque ; as a rel. it refers to fortunam; it is the subject-nom. of accidat. 

Line 82. accidat, 3d pers. sing. pres, subjunctive act. of accido , -ere, accidi, no 
supine, 3 (ad + cadere = lit. to fall toward) ; subjunctive, because it is in a dependent 

clause in the drdtio obliqua. experiantur, 3d pers. plur. pres, subjunctive of the 

deponent verb experior, -rlrt, - fertus , 4 ; connected by que with petant, and thence by 
an omitted conj. with emigrent, 1. 79, and is in the same grammatical construction. 

Haec, nom. plur. n. (hie, haec, hoc), used substantively; or supply the English 

word things after it. Observe its emphatic position at the beginning of the sentence. 

haec is the subject-nom. of enuntidta sint. si, conditional conj. enuntiata 

sint, 3d pers. plur. perf. subjunctive pass, of the verb ?nunt(c)id ; agrees with its 
subject-nom. haec in number and person, and is in the subjunctive after si in the 
protasis. 

Line 83. Ariovistd, dat. sing, m.; dat. of the indirect obj. after enuntiata sint. 
Observe its emphatic position between the parts of the verb. non, adv. ; mod- 
ifies dubitdre. dubitare, see 1 . 12, Chap. XVII. The subject-acc. of dubitdre is 

the reflexive pron. se , referring to Divitiacus. quin, conj.; often an adv. (see 

1 . 27, Chap. III). 

Line 84. de, prep, with the abl. omnibus, abl. plur.; attributive of ob- 
sidibus. obsidibus, abl. plur., m. and f.; obj. of de. qui, nom. plur. m. ; 

refers, as a relative, to obsidibus , and is the subject-nom. of the intrans. verb sint. 

apud, prep, with the acc. Consult A. & G. 153; B. 120; G. 416, note 4. 

eum, dem. pron., acc. sing. m. ; used as a personal pron. of the 3d pers. ; refers to 
Ariovistus ; obj. of apud. 

Line 85. sint, 3d pers. plur. pres, subjunctive of sum ; agrees with its subject- 
nom. qui; it is in the subjunctive, because in a subordinate clause in the ordtio 


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LINES 86-89.1 


BOOK I. 


247 


sc Caesarem 

Caesar 

87 exercitus 

of the army 

88 popull 

of the people 

89 maior 

a greater multitude 


atque 

and (that) 

vel nomine 

or by the name 

posse, ne 

to be able , that not 

Germanorum llhenum 

of Germans the Rhine 


vel auctoritate sua 
either by authority his own 

vel recent! victoria 

or by the recent victory 

Roman! deterrere 
Roman to deter 

multitudd 


but that Cae- 
sar either by 
his own influence 
and that of his 
army, or by his 
late victory, or 
by the name of 
the Roman peo- 
ple could pre- 
vent him from 
bringing a larger 
number of Ger- 
mans across the 
Rhine, and could 


obliqua. gravissimum, adj., acc. sing. n. of the superl. gravissimus , -a, -um; 

attributive of supplicium. supplicium, acc. sing, of supplicium , -it, n. ; direct 

obj. of sumat. sumat, 3d pers. sing. pres, subjunctive act. of the verb sumo; 

agrees with a pron. implied in the ending as subject-nom., referring to Ariovistus ; 
it is in the subjunctive of result after the conj. quin. Consult A. & G. 332,^, rkm.; 
B. 201, rem. 3; G. 555, 2; H. 504, 3,2). The reader will observe that the literal 
translation of quin tie omnibus obsidibus . . . supplicium sumat is : that he will take 
a penalty from all the hostages = that he 7 vill inflict punishment on, etc. 

Line 86. Caesarem, acc. sing, m.; subject-acc. of posse, 1 . 88, below. vel, 

disjunctive conj. vel . . . vel = either . . . or. For synonyms, see note on aut . . . 
aut, lines 19 and 20, Chap. I; and also on vel . . . vel , lines 14 and 16, Chap. VI. 

auctoritate, abl. sing, of the noun auctoritas, -atis, f. (auctor through the verb 

augere, to increase), auctoritate is an abl. of means. sua, abl. sing. f. of the 

poss. and reflexive pron. suus, -a, -um. sua is an attributive of auctoritate ; it refers 

to Caesar. atque (ad-f que), conj. See note on this particle, 1 . 12, Chap. I. 

atque connects auctoritate expressed with auctoritate understood ; or with the pron. 
ea that may represent auctoritate. 

Line 87. exercitus, gen. sing, m.; limits auctoritate understood. For synonyms, 

see note on exercitu, 1 . 28, Chap. III. vel, see vel, preceding line. recenti, 

abl. sing. f. of the adj. rccens, -ntis ; attributive of victoria. Synonyms: tiovus = 
new — that which has mot previously existed; while recens = new, i.e. that which 
has not long existed. victoria, abl. sing. f. ; abl. of means. vel, see vel, pre- 
ceding line. nomine, abl. sing. n. ; abl. of means. 

Line 88. popull, gen. sing, m.; limits the noun nomine. ROmani, adj., gen. 

sing.; attributive of populi. deterrere, pres. inf. of deterred, -ere, -ui, -itum, 2 (de 

-f- terrere = lit. to frighten aioay). deterrere is a complementary inf., depending on 
posse. See A. & G. 271 ; B. 181 ; G. 423; H. 533, I, 2. After deterrere supply eum t 

i.e. Ariovistum, as direct obj. posse, pres. inf. act. of the intrans. verb possum; 

its subject-acc. is the proper noun Caesarem. ne, conjunctive adv. =that not. 

Line 89. maior, adj., comparative degree; positive mdgnus ; attributive of 
multitudd. multitudo, nom. sing. f. ; subject-nom. of traduedtur. Germa- 
norum, gen. plur. m.; limits multitudo . Rhenum, acc. sing, m.; acc. after the 

trdns in the compound verb traduedtur. Consult A. & G. 237, d\ B. 1 52, REM. 2; 
G. 331 ; II. 372. It should be noted that the acc. after this verb in either voice 
depends on the prep, trdns, and not on the verb as such. 


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248 


CAESAR’S GALLIC WAR 


[CHAP. XXXII. 


defend all Gaul 
from the outrages 
of Ariovistus. 


traducatur, Galliainque omnem ab AriovistI 90 
may be led across , Gaul and , all from Ariovistus ’ 


iniuria posse defendere. 

wrong to be able to defend. 


XXXII. On 
the delivery of 
this speech by 
Divitiacus, all 
who were pres- 
ent began with 


XXXII. Hac oratione ab 

This speech by 

habita omnes, qui aderant, 

having been made all , who were near. 


Divitiaco 1 

Divitiacus 

miigno 2 
with great 


Line 90. traducatur, 3d pers. sing. pres, subjunctive pass, of the act. verb trd - 
duco; agrees with its subject-nom. multitudo; it is a subjective of negative purpose 

after the particle tie . See A. & G. 317; B. 200, (b)\ G. 548, note i ; H. 497, 1. 

Galliamque; G alii am , acc. sing. f. ; direct obj. of defendere . que, enclitic conj. 

Omnem, acc. sing. f. ; attributive of the noun Galliam . ab, prep, with the abl. 

AriovistI, gen. sing. m. ; limits the noun iniurid . 

Line 91. iniuria, abl. of iniuria , -ae, f. (in-f ius); obj. of the prep. ab. See 

A. & G. 152, b\ B. 120, 2 ; G. 417, 1 ; H. 434. posse, pres. inf. of the irr. intrans. 

verb possum; its subject-acc. is eum, i.e. Caesarem. defendere, pres. inf. act. of 

the finite verb defendo, 3 ; complementary inf., depending on posse. Consult A. & G. 
271 ; B. 181 ; G. 423; PI. 533, I, 2. The ordtio recta of lines 74-91 : flomd est bar- 
barus, irdcundus , temerdrius ; non possumus eius imperia diutius sustinere. Nisi si 
quid in te, Caesare, populoque Romano sit auxilii, omnibus Gallls idem est facien- 
dum, quod Helvetil fecerunt , ut domo emigrent, aliud domicilium, alias sedes, 
remotas a Germanls, petant fortunamque, quaecumque accidat, experiantur. Haec 
si enuntiata Ariovisto sint, nos non dubitdmus, quin de omnibus obsidibus, qui apud 
eum sint, gravissimum supplicium sumat. 7)7, Caesar t vel auctoritate tud atque 
exercitus vel recentl victoria vel nomine popull Romani deterrere potes y ne maior 
multitudo Germanorum Rhenum traducatur, Galliamque omnem ab AriovistI iniuria 
potes defendere. 

Line i. Hac, abl. sing. f. (Ate, haec y hoc); an attributive of the noun ordtione. 

oratione, abl. sing, of ordtio , -onis, i . ; abl. absolute with the perf. pass, participle 

habitd . Consult A. & G. 255, d\ B. 172 and 192; G. 409, 410; H. 431, 2. Synonyms: 
ordtio = the premeditated and rhetorically polished speech ; whereas sermo = con- 
tinued conversation — an unartistic and an extempore talk. ab, prep, with the 

abl. (1. 5, Chap. I). Divitiaco, abl. of Divitiacus , m.; the agent. See A. & G. 

246; B. 108, 2, and 166; G. 401 ; II. 388, 2, and 415, 1. For description of this man, 
see 1. 20, Chap. III. 

Line 2 . habita, abl. sing. f. of the perf. pass, participle habitus y -a, -um of the 

verb habeo , 2 ; pass, parts: habeor , -cri y -itus; abl. absolute with drdtione. Omnes, 

nom. plur. of the adj. omnis y -e y an i-stem, abl. omni; used substantively; subject- 

nom. of the verb coeperunt. qui, nom. plur. m. (qui, quae , quod), qui refers to 

omnes ; subject-nom. of the verb aderant. aderant, 3d pers. plur. imperf. ind. of 

adsum, adesse, affui; frequently written assum ; assimilation, aderant agrees with 
its subject-nom. qui. magn5, abl. sing. m. of the adj. tndgtius, -a, - um ; an attrib- 

utive of the noun Jletu . 


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LINES &-6.] 


BOOK I. 


249 


3 fletu auxilium a Caesare petere coeperunt. 

weeping aid from Caesar to ask began . 

4 Animadvertit Caesar unos ex omnibus 

Observes Caesar alone of all 

6 Sequanos nihil earum rerum facere, quas 

the Sequani nothing of those things to do, which 

6 ceteri facerent, sed tristes, capite 

the others were doing , but sad , the head 


loud lamentation 
to ask Caesar 
for help. Caesar 
noticed that the 
Sequani alone 
of all made no 
such outcries as 
the rest, but 
sadly with bow- 
ed heads kept 
looking on the 


Line 3. fletu, abl. sing, of fetus , - us , m. (fere , to weep); an abl. of manner . 

See A. & G. 248; B. 168; G. 399; H. 419, III. auxilium, acc. sing, of auxilium , 

-it, n. ( augere , to increase) ; direct obj. of the verb petere . a, prep, with the abl. 

( 1 . 6, Chap. I). Caesare, abl. of Caesar , -art's, m. ; obj. of the prep. S; the usual 

construction after petere, instead of a second acc. Consult A. & G. 239, c, note i ; 

B. 151, rem. 2; G. 339, rem. i and note 2; H. 374, 2, note 4. petere, pres. inf. 

act. of petd , -ere, -ivi (-ii), - itum , 3; complementary inf., depending on coeperunt . See 

A. & G. 271 ; B. 1 81 ; G. 423 ; H. 533, I, 1. coeperunt, 3d pers. plur. perf. ind. 

act. of the defective coepi, coepisse, fut. participle coepturus; a preteritive verb. Con- 
sult A. & G. 143, a; B. 1 1 3 ; G. 175, 5; H. 297. coeperunt agrees with its subject- 
nom. omnes , above. 

Line 4. Animadvertit, 3d pers. sing, of the perf. ind. act. of animadverto, -ere, 
-vertt, - versum , 3 (animus + ad + vertere = lit. to turn the mind to); agrees with the 
subject-nom. Caesar, expressed. The component parts are frequently written sep- 
arately. See 1 . i, Chap. XXIV. Caesar, subject-nom. of the verb preceding it. 

Observe its emphatic position. unos, acc. plur. m. of the cardinal num. adj. 

iiuus ( 1 . 1, Chap. I); agrees with Sequanos, and is essentially predicative; and = 

solos here. ex, prep, with the abl. omnibus, abl. plur. of omnis, -e, used 

substantively; obj. of the prep, ex . The construction is equivalent to the partitive 
gen. (find ex parte , lines 10, 11, Chap. II). Consult A. & G. 216, c; B. 134, rem. 2; 
G. 372, 2 ; II. 397, 3, note 3. 

Line 5. Sequanos, acc. plur. of Sequani, -drum, m. ; subject-acc. of the inf. 

facere ( 1 . 25, Chap. I). nihil, an indecl. neuter noun, used only in the nom. and 

acc. cases ; direct obj. of facere. earum, gen. plur. f. (is, ea, id); an attributive 

of rerum. rerum, gen. plur. (res, ret, f.) ; partitive gen. after nihil. See A. & G. 

216, a, 1 ; B. 134; G. 369; II. 39 7, 1. The allusion here is to their entreaties and 

tears. facere, pres. inf. act. of facid, 3; its subject-acc. is Sequanos. qua 8, 

acc. plur. f. (qui, quae, quod), quas refers to rerum; is the direct obj. of facerent. 

Line 6. ceteri, nom. plur. m. of the adj. ceterus, -a, -um; used in the text as a 
subst.; subject-nom. of facerent. Synonyms: ceteri, frequently written caeteri = 
others in opposition to those first mentioned, compare gk. oi &XX01 ; whereas alii 
= others as merely differential from those mentioned; and reliqui=.the rest, the 

remainder that completes the whole. facerent, 3d pers. plur. imp. subjunctive 

of facid, 3; its subj. is ceteri; in the subjunctive, because a clause of characteristic. 

See A. & G. 320; B. 234, 1 ; G. 631, 1 ; H. 503, 1. sed, adversative conj. — stronger 

than autem or at. tristes, acc. plur. of tristis, -e, an f-stem ; abl. tristi; agrees 

with eos, i.e. Sequanos, the omitted subject-acc. of intueri. Observe that in use here 
tristes =.triste , an adv. Consult A. & G. 191 ; B. 128, rem. 10; G. 325, 6; H. 443. 
capite, abl. sing, of caput, - itis , n.; abl. absolute with demisso , denoting manner. 


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250 


CAESAR 8 GALLIC WAR 


[CIIAP. XXXII. 


ground. He won- 
dered at this 
procedure and 
inquired of them 
personally as to 
the cause. The 
Sequani answer- 
ed not at all, 
but silently con- 
tinued in the 
same sad mood. 


demlsso, terrain 

being cant down , the earth 

rei quae causa 
thing what the cause 


intuerl. Eius 7 

to look on (began). Of this 

esset, nilratus ex 8 

was, wondering from 


ipsis quaesiit. Nihil Sequani respondere, 9 

themselves he sought. Nothing the Sequani responded , 


sed in eadem tristitia tacit! permanere. 10 

but in the same sadness silent they remained. 


Line 7. demlsso, abl. sing. n. of the perf. pass, participle demissus , -a, - urn of 
the verb demitto , -ere, - mist , -mis sum, 3 (de + mittere, lit. to send down); abl. absolute 

with capite. See A. & G. 255; B. 192; G. 409, 410; H. 431. terrain, acc. sing. 

of terra , - ae , f. ; direct obj. of the deponent inf. intueri. Synonyms : terra — the earth 
in opposition to the sky ; whereas solum = the earth as a solid, basilar foundation. 

intueri, pres. inf. of the deponent verb intueor , -eri, intuitus , 2 ; subject-acc. is 

eos , i.e. I/elvetids understood. Eius, gen. sing. f. (is, ea, id); an attributive of 

the noun rei. 

Line 8. ref, gen. sing, (res, rei, f.); limits, as a gen., the noun causa. quae, 

nom. sirig. f. of the interrogative pron. quis, quae, quid; predicate-nom. after esset. 

causa, nom. sing, of causa, -ae, f. ; subject-nom. of esset. esset, 3d pers. 

imperf. subjunctive of sum , esse,fui, fut. participle futurus; agrees with its subject- 
nom. causa, and is in the subjunctive, because the question is indirect. See A. & G. 

334; B. 242; G. 467; H. 529, I. mfratus, nom. sing, of the perf. participle 

mirdtus, -a, - um of the deponent verb miror, i ; as a participle it agrees with the 
subject Caesar, to be supplied. ex, prep, with the abl. ( 1 . 11, Chap. II). 

Line 9. ipsis, abl. plur. (ipse, ipsa, ipsum); obj. of the prep, ex; observe that 
it is here used as an emphatic pron. of the 3d pers.; consult A. & G. 195,^; B. 85, 
rem. 2; G. 31 1, 2; H. 448. Observe, too, that ipsis is reflexive; that the phrase ex 
ipsis is more emphatic than either ex eis or ex his; and that ex se here is inadmis- 
sible on account of ambiguity. quaesiit, 3d pers. sing. perf. ind. act. of quaero f 

-ere, -sivi (-//), - siturn , 3; agrees with the omitted subject-nom. Caesar. As to the 
omission of v in the perf. without contraction, see A. & G. 128, 2; B. 251 ; G. 131, 2; 
H. 235, 1. Observe that quaero, as a verb of asking, takes the abl. of the person 
with the prepositions ad, de or ex. See A. & CL 239, 2. c, note 1 ; B. 151, rem. 2 ; 
G. 339, rem. 1 ; H. 374, 2, note 4, end. Observe also that the indirect question 

quae causa esset is, as a noun-clause, the acc. of the thing after quaesiit. Nihil, 

indecl. noun, used only in the nom. and acc. cases ; direct obj. of the verb repondere. 

Sequani, nom. plur. of the adj. Sequanus, -a, -um, used as a subst.; subject- 

nom. of the historical inf. respondere. See note on Sequanis, 1 . 25, Chap. I. 

respondere, pres. inf. act. of responded, -ere, -spondi, - spdnsum , 2. Observe that the 
historical inf. in use = the imperf. ind., and has its subj. in the nom. case. Consult 
A. & G. 275; B. 182; G. 647; II. 536, 1. 

Line 10. sed, adversative conj.; see 1 . 6, above. in, prep, with acc. or abl.; 

here it takes the abl. eadem, abl. sing. f. of the iterative dem. pron. idem, 

eadem, idem (is + dem); an attributive of the noun tristitia. tristitia, abl. sing. 

of tristitia, -ae, f. (tristis, sad); obj. of the prep. in. taciti, nom. plur. m. of the 

perf. pass, participle tacitus, -a, -um of the verb faced, 2 ; used here as an adj. ; it 
agrees with el, i.e. Sequani, the omitted subject-nom. of the historical inf. permanere. 


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LINES 11-14.] 


BOOK I. 


251 


ii Cum 

When 


ab his saepius 

from them rather often 


quaere ret 

he sought 


neque 

not and, 


12 ullam 

any 

13 Idem 
the same 


omnlno vocem exprimere posset, 

at all voice to extort was able, 

Divitiacus Aeduus respondit: 

Divitiacus the Aeduan responded: 


14 Hoc esse miseriorem 

In this respect to be more miserable 


et gravidrem 

and more grievous 


When Caesar 
had repeatedly 
inquired the rea- 
son, and could 
elicit no answer 
at all from 
them, Divitia- 
cus the Aedu- 
an, the same 
speaker as be- 
fore, replied: The 
condition of the 


Observe that taciti, like tristes , 1. 6, above, is used adverbially. See grammatical 

references to tristes. permanere, pres, inf., historical, of permaneo , -ere, - mansi , 

m&nsum , 2 (per-f manere, lit. to remain through ); its subject-nom. is et, i.e. Se quant, 
understood. 

Line ii. Cum (collateral forms quom , quum , qum rare), conj. ab, prep. 

with the abl. his, abl. plur. m. {hie, haec, hoc); used as a personal pron. of the 

3d pers. ; obj. of the prep. ad. With ab his compare ex ipsts , lines 8 and 9, above. 

saepius, adv., comparative degree of positive saepe ; superl. degree saepissime. 

Observe that the comparative degree in the text, and often elsewhere, seems to be 

used in the sense of the positive. quaereret, 3d pers. sing, imperf. subjunctive 

of quaerd, -ere, -sivt (-it), situm , 3 ; agrees with its subject-nom. Caesar understood; 
in the subjunctive mode after cum temporal or historical. Consult A. & G. 325 ; 
B. 222 ; G. 585 ; H. 521, II, 2. But note that the cum - clause denotes both time and 

cause. neque (ne-f que), a conjunctive adv., and = attd not. The que connects 

the clauses; the tie , as an adv., modifies the adj. ullam. 

Line 12. ullarti, acc. sing. f. of iillus , -a , - um ;